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  • 1.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet, Department of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Umeå, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wernberg, Joakim
    Lunds Universitet, Centre for Innovation, Lund, Sweden.
    Urban preferences, amenities and age: Exploring the spatial distribution of age in Stockholm from 1991 to 20112018In: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 367-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities exhibit a rich and complex heterogeneity in people and activities. This poses a sizable challenge for planners when planning new neighbourhoods or the reconstruction of old ones as well as when considering the allocation of supply of and demand for amenities, e.g. kindergartens or health facilities. However, individual preferences may also exhibit common denominators that may provide structure to this heterogeneity. One such denominator is age. In this paper we introduce the concept of neighbourhood age, defined as the mean age of people living in exogenously defined squares of 1km2 in a city. We use highly disaggregated geocoded data to map how the spatial distribution of neighbourhood age changes over a 20-year period from 1991 to 2011 in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. We then test the correlation between neighbourhood age and two categories of urban amenities: supply of local consumption amenities and distance to the city's central business district (CBD). The paper presents three main findings: First, neighbourhood age changes and polarizes significantly over the observed period, suggesting that different age groups are concentrating in different parts of the city. Second, there is a rejuvenation in the central parts of the city but also in more distant clusters of amenities. Third, over a long-term perspective, the results suggest that local clusters of consumption amenities outside the inner city may become increasingly attractive to younger people. Our conclusion is that neighbourhood age and age-related patterns over time provides a tool for planners to better understand the spatial distribution of age-related demand. 

  • 2.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Department of Urban Planning and Environment.
    Multidimensional Entrepreneurship: Theoretical Considerations and Swedish Empirics2011In: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 199-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship is often defined as merely the starting-up of new firms. There are obvious advantages in using this simplified definition, not least regarding measurement, but with such a definition there is also a great risk in missing important aspects of entrepreneurship and how it emerges and develops. Therefore, this paper takes its starting point in a broader definition according to which entrepreneurship is a chain of activities, including discovery of opportunities, evaluation of them and gathering resources in order to exploit these opportunities. Based on this definition, this paper examines entrepreneurship in six different spheres of society: economic; social; civil; political; academic; and innovative entrepreneurship. It can be assumed that the six forms of entrepreneurship mutually have impacts on each other, but that the directions of these impacts can vary. This paper makes a first investigation of the six dimensions of entrepreneurship in Sweden and the connections between them and measures of growth at the local government level and in various spatial areas. Economic entrepreneurship, measured in the form of start-ups, is having the strongest connections to growth of population and employment in all types of local government areas. Political entrepreneurship seems completely unimportant for growth of metropolitan and high-growth areas, but strongly correlated to growth in rural and low and medium growth areas.

  • 3.
    Westlund, Hans
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Pichler, Wolfgang
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    The Swedish countryside in the neo-urban knowledge economy2013In: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 225-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in other countries, urbanization and industrialization in Sweden was two sides of the same coin. To a large extent, the Swedish urbanization took place at a low level with the emergence of many small towns. In the last decades, a redistribution of the urban population to bigger cities has happened. This neo-urbanization is interpreted as a consequence of the breakthrough of the knowledge economy. This paper focuses on the ‘backside of the coin’ of this neo-urbanization, namely, how the rural areas have been affected. Westlund found that the countryside's population growth 1990–1997 primarily could be explained by income and the size of the local labour market. In this paper, we examine the current trends of population development in different age groups and extend the possible explanatory variables to among others, some variables measuring local social capital. Our main result is that it does not seem to be rural amenities per se that explain rural population growth in certain areas, but the rural areas' relative accessibility to urban amenities. This rural dependency on urban services and goods is a major challenge for rural policy in the neo-urban knowledge economy.

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