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  • 1.
    Blane, Alison
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Human Factors, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cognitive ability as a predictor of task demand and self-rated driving performance in post-stroke drivers – Implications for self-regulation2018In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 9, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is a highly complex task requiring multiple cognitive processes that can be adversely affected post-stroke. It is unclear how much ability post-stroke adults have to self-evaluate their driving performance. Furthermore, the impact of cognitive decline on this evaluation has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived level of task demand involved in driving tasks, and to examine differences between perceived and observed driving performance in post-stroke drivers in comparison to a control group. A further aim of the research was to investigate the influence of cognition on self-rated driving performance. A total of 78 participants (35 post-stroke and 43 controls) were assessed using a series of cognitive tasks and were observed whilst driving. Participants were asked to rate their own driving performance and the task demand involved while driving using the NASA Task Load Index. Between group analyses were conducted to determine differences in the level of self-rated performance and task demand. Further analyses were conducted to investigate whether cognition accounted for differences in task demand or self-rated performance. Overall, the results suggested that the post-stroke drivers exhibited deficits in cognition, but they did not report increased levels of task demand when driving. Post-stroke adults also rated themselves more conservatively than the controls for on-road performance, which was associated with their reduced propensity for risk. The study suggests that cognitive deficits may influence post-stroke drivers to amend their driving behaviour, in order to bring the task demand within a manageable level. Understanding the mechanisms involved in self-rated performance and estimations of task demand can help promote accurate self-regulation practices in post-stroke drivers. Furthermore, measuring calibration may assist practitioners with assessing fitness-to-drive, as well as with tailoring driving rehabilitation.

  • 2.
    Cowan, Georgia
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Earl, Robyn
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Fixation patterns of individuals with and without Autism Spectrum disorder: Do they differ in shared zones and in zebra crossings?2018In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 8, p. 112-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared zones are a contemporary traffic zone that promotes equality between multiple road users and efficiently utilizes available space, while simultaneously maintaining safety and function. As this is a relatively new traffic zone, it is important to understand how pedestrians navigate a shared zone and any potential challenges this may pose to individuals with impairments. The aim of this study was to utilize eye-tracking technology to determine fixations and fixation duration on traffic relevant objects, non-traffic relevant objects, and eye contact, in 40 individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a shared zone and a zebra crossing. It was assumed that individuals with ASD would make less eye contact in the shared zone compared to the group of typically developing adults. A total of 3287 fixations across the shared zone and zebra crossing were analysed for areas of interest that were traffic relevant, non-traffic relevant, and eye contact, and for fixation duration. Individuals with ASD did not display any difference in terms of eye contact in the shared zone and the zebra crossing when compared to the controls. All pedestrians were more likely to look at traffic relevant objects at the zebra crossing compared to the shared zone. Individuals with ASD had an overall shorter fixation duration compared to the control group, indicating people with ASD either process information quickly, or they do not process it for long enough, although these findings require further investigation. While shared zones have many benefits for traffic movement and environmental quality, it appeared that pedestrians displayed safer road crossing behaviours at a zebra crossing than in a shared zone, indicating that more education and environmental adaptations are required to make shared zones safe for all pedestrians. 

  • 3.
    Ohlin, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berg, Hans-Yngve
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lie, Anders
    Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Algurén, Beatrix
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Long-term problems influencing health-related quality of life after road traffic injury – Differences between bicyclists and car occupants2017In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 4, p. 180-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare road traffic injuries leading to long-term problems in Health related quality of life (HRQoL), with regards to road user group, injury severity and injured body region, which is important when considering injury preventive strategies. From the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA), a randomized sample of people injured in a road traffic crash and seeking emergency hospital care in connection to the crash between 1st of January 2007 and 31st of December 2009 was drawn (n=4761). HRQoL was investigated using a self-report survey, namely the EQ-5D. Among the responding persons injured in a bicycle crash (n=402) or car crash (n=557) the injury outcome of reporting or not reporting any problem in HRQoL was compared between bicyclists and car occupants depending on injured body region and injury severity. The results showed that 59% of car occupants and 44% of bicyclists reported problems in HRQoL after a road traffic injury. Pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression were the health-related dimensions where people most frequently reported problems. Leg injuries were most often associated with reporting problems in HRQoL, for both bicyclists and car occupants. Another finding was that car occupants consistently reported more problems in HRQoL compared to bicyclists, even when controlled for injury severity and injured body region.

  • 4.
    Ting Chee, Derserri Y.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Yeung Lee, HoeChung
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Patomella, Ann-Helen
    Department of Neurobiology, Care science and Society, Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    The visual search patterns of drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorders in complex driving scenarios2019In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 14, article id 100597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Driving is a highly demanding task which presents itself with various unpredictable and potentially hazardous situations. The failure to visually scan the driving environment and strategically search for potential road hazards, can be considered as unsafe driving practices. Little is known about how licensed drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) visually scan the roads while driving. The present study assessed the visual scanning and fixation patterns of drivers with and without ASD during a simulated drive.

    Methods: Twenty-eight licensed drivers between the age of 18–40 years old, including 14 drivers with ASD (male = 13) driving at least 2 h per week participated in a simulated drive with 14 matched controls. Psychometric profiles and visual scanning patterns on various objects of interest were analysed between groups.

    Results: Drivers with ASD were found to fixate and spend significantly more time focusing on the central visual field and less time scanning where hazards potentially emerge. They also tended to allocate less visual attention on social stimuli (i.e., involving a person), and failed to stop in time at the red lights. Psychometric profiles confirmed poorer visual scanning and motor processing speed but less risk-taking behaviour in drivers with ASD.

    Conclusion: Licensed drivers with ASD were found to allocate visual attention differently compared to licensed drivers without ASD. Poor scanning patterns with an over-focus on the road ahead and less scanning of the road side and periphery may possibly result in unsafe driving. However, risk-taking behaviour was not prevalent in these drivers. Effective visual scanning strategies could be incorporated in the driver training of individuals with ASD. 

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