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  • 1.
    Brundin, Ethel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Gustafsson, Veronika
    Alpen-Adria-Universitat, Klagenfurt, Austria.
    Entrepreneurs' decision making under different levels of uncertainty: the role of emotions2013Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 568-591Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate entrepreneurs’ investment decisions under uncertainty in continued investments where the authors test the role of emotions to continue or discontinue the investment.

    Design/methodology/approach: A conjoint analysis is carried out on 101 entrepreneurs’ 3,232 investment decisions. The entrepreneurs were provided with a scenario of an investment where the dependent variable was the entrepreneur’s propensity to allocate further resources to the described investment. They assessed their willingness to allocate further resources to the investment on a seven point Likert-type scale. The independent variables in the experiment were the experienced emotions of the entrepreneur each of which was described by the two levels of high and low.

    Findings: It was found that self-confidence, challenge, and hope increase the propensity to continue investments as do increased level of uncertainty. Embarrassment and strain do not increase this propensity, however, high uncertainty decreases the propensity to continue investments. In contrast to the escalation of commitment theory, embarrassment does not make entrepreneurs more prone to invest under uncertainty. Frustration does not yield significant results, which runs contrary to the theory and the hypothesis finds no support.

    Research limitations/implications: The paper focused on a limited number of emotions, and also on one specific moderating factor that impacts the effect of these emotions on the investment decision.

    Practical implications: To understand the role of their emotions in investment decisions under different levels of uncertainty may help entrepreneurs to improve the quality of their decision making.

    Originality/value: This study is an experiment where practitioner entrepreneurs participate which increases the ecological validity of the study. Emotions can explain, partly, why entrepreneurs persist with some underperforming projects, but not others. Uncertainty is a powerful moderating variable in the decision-making process. The results enhance existing knowledge about the emotive side of entrepreneurs’ propensity to make investment decisions under uncertainty. The results also supplementand refine existing theories on self-justification.

  • 2.
    Brunninge, Olof
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entreprenörskap, Marknadsföring, Management). Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, EMM (Entreprenörskap, Marknadsföring, Management). Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ownership Structure, Board Composition and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Family Firms and Venture-Capital Backed Firms2004Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 10, nr 1/2, s. 85-105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate how ownership structure, especially family and/or venture-capital involvement, as well as entrepreneurial activities, defined as strategic change and renewal, help explain the involvement of independent members on boards of directors. The CEOs of 2,455 small and medium-sized, private enterprises from practically all industries were contacted in a telephone survey, resulting in an exceptionally high response rate. The findings reveal that family firms are more reluctant to involve independent directors on their boards than non-family firms that presence of venture capitalists increases the frequency of independent board members and that ownership has an impact on board roles. The results do not support the hypothesised relationship that independent directors enhance entrepreneurial activities. One implication of our study is that the often-argued-for strategic contribution of outsiders to the boards in family firms may be overemphasised. Another implication is that family firms that choose to acquire additional capital should be aware that this could result in a change in the board composition and the loss of control of the business. However, new and external owners’ inclusion on the board seems to be negotiable since there are also venture capitalists that do not insist on board representation.

  • 3.
    Davidsson, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi. Department of Management, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Baker, Ted
    Department of Management and Global Business, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA.
    Senyard, Julienne Marie
    Department of Marketing, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
    A measure of entrepreneurial bricolage behavior2017Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 114-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The majority of emerging and young firms work under resource constraints. This has made researchers highlight the importance of resourcefulness. Perhaps the most important theoretical development in this context is the emerging, behavioral theory of entrepreneurial bricolage. However, although academic interest is increasing, research on entrepreneurial bricolage has been hampered by the lack of robust instruments that allow large-scale theory testing. The purpose is to help fill this void. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and contents of a novel measure of entrepreneurial bricolage behavior and assesses its validity. The measure is intended to be applicable in broadly based, quantitative studies.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The instrument was developed as a unidimensional, reflective measure. Standard protocols for scale development were followed. The validation uses primary, longitudinal data from four samples of nascent and young firms as well as published, cross-sectional evidence from another four samples representing different contexts and variations to the data collection procedure.

    Findings

    Promising results are reported concerning the reliability as well as the discriminant and nomological validity of the measure. Based on the pre-testing and validation experiences guidelines are also provided for attempts at further improvements.

    Originality/value

    This paper presents a novel measure developed by the authors, which holds promise for being a useful tool for future research on the prevalence, antecedents, and consequences of entrepreneurial bricolage. Previously, no established measure of entrepreneurial bricolage behavior existed, and the few partial measures appearing in the literature have not been comprehensively evaluated. Thus, we offer a comprehensive and elaborate presentation of a measure only briefly introduced in Davidsson (2016) and Senyard et al., (2014).

  • 4.
    Evansluong, Quang
    et al.
    Sten K. Johnson Center for Entrepreneurship, Lund University, School of Economics and Management, Lund, Sweden.
    Ramirez-Pasillas, Marcela
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nguyen Bergström, Huong
    Immigrantinstitutet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    From breaking-ice to breaking-out: Integration as an opportunity creation process2019Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 880-899Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper conducts an inductive case study to understand how the opportunity creation process leads to integration. It examines four cases of immigrant entrepreneurs of Cameroonian, Lebanese, Mexican and Assyrian origins who founded their businesses in Sweden. The study relies on process-oriented theory building and develops an inductive model of integration as an opportunity creation process. The model identifies entrepreneurial ‘breaking’ actions occurring in the integration process. This entails that immigrants act when they are socially excluded and discriminated in the labour market by developing business ideas and becoming entrepreneurs. By practicing the new language and accommodating native customers’ preferences, immigrants then reorient their entrepreneurial ideas. Finally, the immigrants tailor their ideas to suit their new customers by strengthening their sense of belonging to the local community. The suggested model shows immigrants’ acculturation into the host society via three successive phases: breaking-ice, breaking-in, and breaking-out. In the breaking-ice phase, immigrants trigger entrepreneurial ideas to overcome the disadvantages that they face as immigrants in the host country. In the breaking-in phase, immigrants articulate their entrepreneurial ideas by bonding with the ethnic community. In the breaking-out phase, the immigrants reorient their entrepreneurial ideas by desegregating them locally. The paper concludes by elaborating theoretical and practical implications of the research.

  • 5. Henry, C.
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway.
    Case sensitive? A review of the literature on the use of case method in entrepreneurship research2015Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 389-409Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the use of case method inentrepreneurship research, and to identify trends in its current application. A key objective of the paper is to lay the foundation for a future research agenda by critically reviewing relevant literatures and offering insights into the use of case method in particular settings. The paper also helps identify areas where case method could add value to research findings in future scholarship.

    Design/methodology/approach – Using a Boolean search, a systematic literature review (SLR) was undertaken across the “big five” entrepreneurship journals in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 The search initially yielded a total of 269 “hits”. Following exclusion criteria, the list was refined to a total of 52 empirical papers, and these were reviewed using a comprehensive reading guide developed by the authors.

    Findings – The paper finds that relatively few articles published in the “big five” entrepreneurship journals use case method, despite repeated calls in the literature for more in-depth, qualitative approaches. This potentially suggests that case method is not fully accepted as a legitimate or sufficiently rigorous approach in the upper echelons of contemporary published entrepreneurship scholarship. Overall the paper argues for greater acceptance of the use of case method amongst the academic community, alongside greater confidence in its application. This can be achieved by learning from other disciplines where the case approach is more established.

    Research limitations/implications – While a comprehensive SLR was undertaken, the search was restricted to a limited time period and across a limited number of top tier journals.

    Practical implications – The paper highlights incidents where case method has been used successfully, identifies gaps in the literature and contributes towards setting a future research agenda that should be of particular value to qualitative researchers.

    Originality/value – The paper builds on extant literatures by furthering our understanding of the use of case method in entrepreneurship research. It should be of value to qualitative scholars applying case method in their empirical work, as well as those seeking to extend their methodological reach beyond a purely quantitative orientation. 

  • 6. Kautonen, Teemu
    et al.
    Down, Simon
    Welter, Friederike
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership).
    Vainio, P.
    Palmroos, Jenny
    Althoff, Kai
    Kolb, Susanne
    ‘Involuntary self-employment’ as a public policy issue: A cross-country European review2010Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 112-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – There is growing political interest in new forms of precarious self-employment located in a “grey area” between employment and self-employment. A wide range of concepts has been used to debate this issue, and this paper aims to clarify these debates through the concept of involuntary self-employment.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper reviews the empirical, conceptual and legal-policy approaches to involuntary self-employment via three country case studies in Finland, Germany and the UK. A range of relevant domestic academic literature, articles in the media, selected key expert interviews, and policy and legal documents are employed.

    Findings – Conceptual clarity regarding involuntary self-employment is achieved through a discussion of two aspects of the phenomenon: the characteristics of involuntariness from a motives-based perspective, and the legal/economic perspectives and policy issues. The motives-based analysis argues that involuntariness as such does not seem to have severe implications on the individuals' well being, given that the individual earns a satisfactory livelihood from her or his business activities. The discussion of the characteristics of and regulation related to working arrangements in the “grey area” between employment and self-employment, where the self-employed individual is strongly dependent on the principal, shows that it is very difficult to regulate quasi self-employment without harming “voluntary” forms of enterprise and inter-firm cooperation at the same time.

    Originality/value – The key contribution of the paper is to facilitate a foundation for subsequent empirical research and policy development.

  • 7.
    Steigenberger, Norbert
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Why Supporters Contribute to Reward-based Crowdfunding2017Inngår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 336-353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on the motivation of supporters to contribute resources to reward-based crowdfunding campaigns.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper reports results from a survey combining open and closed questions, addressing supporters of reward-based crowdfunding campaigns in the field of video game development. Publicly available data from a large crowdfunding website complements the approach.

    Findings

    Two groups of supporters emerge from the data: One group derives motivation almost exclusively from a purchasing motive, the other group displays the purchasing motive alongside an altruistic and involvement motive. There is little indication that social acknowledgement plays a role for supporter motivation. Supporters rely on the evaluation of previous activities of an entrepreneur to judge trustworthiness.

    Originality/value

    The manuscript offers empirical insights into the previously scarcely researched question why supporters contribute to reward-based crowdfunding. These insights inform research on reward-based crowdfunding and help entrepreneurs considering reward-based crowdfunding as a way to fund entrepreneurial activities.

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