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  • 1.
    Brändén, Carl-Ivar
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Eklund, H.
    Nordström, B.
    Boive, T.
    Söderberg, B. O.
    Zeppezauer, E.
    Olsson, I.
    Åkeson, Å.
    Structure of Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase at 2.98 Å Resolution1973In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 2439-2442Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ericsson, Malin
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fors, Stefan
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zavala, Catalina
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, United States.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Childhood social class and cognitive aging in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 27, p. 7001-7006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we analyzed genetically informative data to investigate within-person change and between-person differences in late-life cognitive abilities as a function of childhood social class. We used data from nine testing occasions spanning 28 y in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging and parental social class based on the Swedish socioeconomic index. Cognitive ability included a general factor and the four domains of verbal, fluid, memory, and perceptual speed. Latent growth curve models of the longitudinal data tested whether level and change in cognitive performance differed as a function of childhood social class. Between-within twin-pair analyses were performed on twins reared apart to assess familial confounding. Childhood social class was significantly associated with mean-level cognitive performance at age 65 y, but not with rate of cognitive change. The association decreased in magnitude but remained significant after adjustments for level of education and the degree to which the rearing family was supportive toward education. A between-pair effect of childhood social class was significant in all cognitive domains, whereas within-pair estimates were attenuated, indicating genetic confounding. Thus, childhood social class is important for cognitive performance in adulthood on a population level, but the association is largely attributable to genetic influences.

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  • 3.
    Komatsu, Kimberly J.
    et al.
    Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD, United States.
    Avolio, Meghan L.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States.
    Lemoine, Nathan P.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, United States.
    Isbell, Forest
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, United States.
    Grman, Emily
    Department of Biology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI 48197, United States.
    Houseman, Gregory R.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS, United States.
    Koerner, Sally E.
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC, United States.
    Johnson, David S.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA, United States.
    Wilcox, Kevin R.
    Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, United States.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Anderson, John P.
    Jornada Basin Long-Term Ecological Research Station, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, United States.
    Aerts, Rien
    Systems Ecology, Department of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Baer, Sara G.
    Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, United States.
    Baldwin, Andrew H.
    Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, MD, United States.
    Bates, Jonathan
    Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center-Burns, Agriculture Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Burns, OR, United States.
    Beierkuhnlein, Carl
    Department of Biogeography, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Belote, R. Travis
    Wilderness Society, Bozeman, MT, United States.
    Blair, John
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States.
    Bloor, Juliette M. G.
    Université Clermont Auvergne, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, VetAgro-Sup, Unité Mixte de Recherche sur l'Écosystème Prairial, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Bohlen, Patrick J.
    Bork, Edward W.
    Boughton, Elizabeth H.
    Bowman, William D.
    Britton, Andrea J.
    Cahill, James F.
    Chaneton, Enrique
    Chiariello, Nona R.
    Cheng, Jimin
    Collins, Scott L.
    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.
    Du, Guozhen
    Eskelinen, Anu
    Firn, Jennifer
    Foster, Bryan
    Gough, Laura
    Gross, Katherine
    Hallett, Lauren M.
    Han, Xingguo
    Harmens, Harry
    Hovenden, Mark J.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Jentsch, Anke
    Kern, Christel
    Klanderud, Kari
    Knapp, Alan K.
    Kreyling, Juergen
    Li, Wei
    Luo, Yiqi
    McCulley, Rebecca L.
    McLaren, Jennie R.
    Megonigal, J. Patrick
    Morgan, John W.
    Onipchenko, Vladimir
    Pennings, Steven C.
    Prevéy, Janet S.
    Price, Jodi N.
    Reich, Peter B.
    Robinson, Clare H.
    Russell, F. Leland
    Sala, Osvaldo E.
    Seabloom, Eric W.
    Smith, Melinda D.
    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.
    Souza, Lara
    Suding, Katherine
    Suttle, K. Blake
    Svejcar, Tony
    Tilman, David
    Tognetti, Pedro
    Turkington, Roy
    White, Shannon
    Xu, Zhuwen
    Yahdjian, Laura
    Yu, Qiang
    Zhang, Pengfei
    Zhang, Yunhai
    Global change effects on plant communities are magnified by time and the number of global change factors imposed2019In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 116, no 36, p. 17867-17873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate prediction of community responses to global change drivers (GCDs) is critical given the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem services. There is consensus that human activities are driving species extinctions at the global scale, but debate remains over whether GCDs are systematically altering local communities worldwide. Across 105 experiments that included over 400 experimental manipulations, we found evidence for a lagged response of herbaceous plant communities to GCDs caused by shifts in the identities and relative abundances of species, often without a corresponding difference in species richness. These results provide evidence that community responses are pervasive across a wide variety of GCDs on long-term temporal scales and that these responses increase in strength when multiple GCDs are simultaneously imposed.Global change drivers (GCDs) are expected to alter community structure and consequently, the services that ecosystems provide. Yet, few experimental investigations have examined effects of GCDs on plant community structure across multiple ecosystem types, and those that do exist present conflicting patterns. In an unprecedented global synthesis of over 100 experiments that manipulated factors linked to GCDs, we show that herbaceous plant community responses depend on experimental manipulation length and number of factors manipulated. We found that plant communities are fairly resistant to experimentally manipulated GCDs in the short term (<10 y). In contrast, long-term (≥10 y) experiments show increasing community divergence of treatments from control conditions. Surprisingly, these community responses occurred with similar frequency across the GCD types manipulated in our database. However, community responses were more common when 3 or more GCDs were simultaneously manipulated, suggesting the emergence of additive or synergistic effects of multiple drivers, particularly over long time periods. In half of the cases, GCD manipulations caused a difference in community composition without a corresponding species richness difference, indicating that species reordering or replacement is an important mechanism of community responses to GCDs and should be given greater consideration when examining consequences of GCDs for the biodiversity–ecosystem function relationship. Human activities are currently driving unparalleled global changes worldwide. Our analyses provide the most comprehensive evidence to date that these human activities may have widespread impacts on plant community composition globally, which will increase in frequency over time and be greater in areas where communities face multiple GCDs simultaneously.

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