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  • 1.
    Belov, Ilja
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Edström, Curt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Finite element modeling of silver electrodeposition for evaluation of thickness distribution on complex geometries2016In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 90, p. 693-703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reveals benefits of multi-disciplinary computer simulation and parametric studies in the design of silver plating process for improved coating distribution. A finite element model of direct current silver plating is experimentally validated for an Assaf panel without agitation. The model combines tertiary current distribution with Butler–Volmer electrode kinetics and computational fluid dynamics at a very low flow-rate. The effect of charge transfer coefficients on the throwing power of the process is quantified for the studied geometry, and variation of cathodic current density and exchange current density is investigated. A simpler model based on secondary current distribution is employed to quantify the effect of electrolyte conductivity on the throwing power of the process. A model combining tertiary current distribution and computational fluid dynamics has been developed and experimentally validated for simulation of complex telecom component electroplating in agitated electrolyte. The effect of current density on the process throwing power is quantified. Recommendations regarding modeling methodology and the effect of electrochemical and process parameters on the thickness distribution have been developed.

  • 2.
    Borkar, Hemant
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    In-situ EBSD study of deformation behavior of Al-Si-Cu alloys during tensile testing2015In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 84, p. 36-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the microstructural aspects of the deformation behavior in Al-Si-Cu alloy A380. This has been carried out with in-situ tensile testing coupled with EBSD analysis. The alloy specimens having different microstructures with two different secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) of 9 µm and 27 µm were produced by the unique gradient solidification method. The study of misorientation distribution and texture evolution was performed with different tools in EBSD analysis. The texture was not significantly affected by deformation in both types of alloy specimens. With increase in the deformation, the microstructures are characterized by degradation of EBSD patterns and generation of substructures including low angle boundaries (LABs) and high angle boundaries (HABs). In both the microstructures with low and high SDAS, the boundaries were concentrated around eutectic phases; however this behavior was more pronounced at higher SDAS. The increase in the fraction of LABs with deformation was much higher in the microstructure with higher SDAS than with lower SDAS. This localized strain concentration was especially attributed to the large and elongated eutectic Si particles and Fe-rich intermetallics. The lower mechanical properties obtained at higher SDAS are the result of inhomogeneous strain distribution in the microstructure.

  • 3.
    Ceschini, Lorella
    et al.
    SMETEC Dept. University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Boromei, Iuri
    SMETEC Dept. University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Svensson, Ingvar
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Effect of Fe content and microstructural features on the tensile and fatigue properties of the Al-Si10-Cu2 alloy2012In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 36, p. 522-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the automotive industry has to meet the requirements of fuel efficiency and environmental concerns, the use of aluminium alloys is steadily increasing. A number of papers have been published about the correlation between microstructure and mechanical properties of the widely used A356/A357 aluminium alloys, while relatively few data are available on others hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys, such as Al-Si-Cu alloys with higher Si content. In this work the effect of different amounts of Fe and Mn on the tensile and fatigue behaviour of the AlSi10Cu2 casting alloy was studied. The reason of this study comes from the fact that cast components are mostly made by secondary Al alloys that inevitably contain Fe, which in turn forms intermetallic compounds, negatively affecting the mechanical behaviour of the alloy. Fatigue specimens were subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) before tests, in order to eliminate the internal pores (gas pores and interdendritic shrinkages) and therefore to solely investigate the effect of microstructural features, rather than solidification defects, on the fatigue propagation stage. The microstructural characterization of the alloy was carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Proof and ultimate tensile strength, as well as fatigue life of the investigated alloy were greatly enhanced by high Fe and Mn content, which reduced the micro-crack propagation rate; on the contrary Fe, without Mn, negatively affected the elongation to failure.

  • 4.
    Ceschini, Lorella
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Morri, Alessandro
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Toschi, Stefania
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University.
    Effect of microstructure and overaging on the tensile behaviour at room and elevated temperature of C355-T6 cast aluminum alloy2015In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 83, p. 626-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was focused on the microstructural and mechanical characterization of the Al–Si–Cu–Mg C355 alloy, at room and elevated temperature. In order to evaluate the influence of microstructural coarseness on mechanical behavior, samples with different Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) (20–25 μm for fine microstructure and 50–70 μm for coarse microstructure), were produced through controlled casting conditions. The tensile behavior of the alloy was evaluated at T6 condition and at T6 with subsequent high temperature exposure (41 h at 210 °C, i.e. overaging), both at room and elevated temperature (200 °C). Microstructural investigations were performed through optical and electron microscopy.

    The results confirmed the important role of microstructure on the tensile behavior of C355 alloy. Ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure strongly increased with the decrease of SDAS. Larger SDAS, related to lower solidification rates, modify microstructural features, such as eutectic Si morphology and size of the intermetallic phases, which in turn influence elongation to failure. Overaging before tensile testing induced coarsening of the strengthening precipitates, as observed by STEM analyses, with consequent reduction of the tensile strength of the alloy, regardless of SDAS. A more sensible decrease of tensile properties was registered at 200 °C testing temperature.

  • 5.
    Fjellstedt, J.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Metals Casting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jarfors, A. E. W.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Metals Casting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    El-Benawy, T.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Metals Casting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experimental investigation and thermodynamic assessment of the Al-rich side of the Al-B system2001In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Materials & Design, ISSN 0261-3069, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 443-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase relations in the Al-Ti-B system are of great importance for the manufacturing of Al/TiB2 composites. To describe the phase relations, the relations in the binaries Al-B, Ti-B and Al-Ti must be known. The description of the binary Al-B system has been found to be poor. The Al-rich side of the Al-B phase diagram was studied using DSC, on alloys ranging from 0.5 up to 6.4 at ·% B. The Al-rich part of the phase diagram was assessed using the experimental data and data found in the literature. The eutectic temperature was found to agree well with the literature. However, the peritectic temperature was found to be 914°C. Above the peritectic temperature a metastable primary precipitation of AlB2 below the AlB12 liquidus line was suggested. This type of degenerate peritectic reaction is similar to what has been found in Fe-based materials. This behaviour also explains the difficulty in the determination of the peritectic point by experimental means. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Olofsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Svensson, Ingvar L.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    The effects of local variations in mechanical behaviour – Numerical investigation of a ductile iron component2013In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 43, p. 264-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of incorporating local mechanical behaviour into a structural analysis of a cast ductile iron component are investigated. A recently presented simulation strategy, the closed chain of simulations for cast components, is applied to incorporate local behaviour predicted by a casting process simulation into a Finite Element Method (FEM) structural analysis, and the effects of the strategy on predicted component behaviour and simulation time are evaluated. The results are compared to using a homogeneous material description. A material reduction method is investigated, and the effects of material reduction and number of linearization points are evaluated.

    The results show that local mechanical behaviour may significantly affect the predicted behaviour of the component, and a homogeneous material description fails to express the stress-strain distribution caused by the local variations in mechanical behaviour in the component. The material reduction method is able to accurately describe this effect while only slightly increasing the simulation time. It is proposed that local variations in mechanical behaviour are important to consider in structural analyses of the mechanical behaviour of ductile iron components.

  • 7.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Svensson, Ingvar
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Prediction of mechanical properties of cast aluminium components at various iron contents2010In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 31, no Supplement 1, p. S6-S12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The simulation of microstructure and mechanical properties is of great importance as a lead in bringing the foundry process and cast materials closer to the casting designer. Prediction of the formation of the microstructure during solidification is a supporting factor for strength optimization of cast aluminium components that allows an improved performance and increased competitiveness of cast engineering components.

    The deformation behaviour and the integrity of cast components depends mostly on the chemical composition of the material, especially the iron content, solidification behaviour and the resulting microstructural characteristics. This paper aims to demonstrate the capabilities of microstructure and mechanical properties modelling of aluminium cast materials and components. The validation of the models includes investigation of cast cylinder head and measured microstructure and mechanical properties as well as their distributions. The effect of iron-rich compound’s morphology and fraction on the plastic deformation behaviour has been studied and modelled in terms of strain hardening exponent and strength coefficient. This approach enables the prediction of local microstructure and mechanical properties. The developed models have been implemented in a cast simulation software for simulation of the cast cylinder head.

    The model predictions of microstructural quantities and mechanical properties are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  • 8.
    Sjölander, Emma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and Manufacturing - Casting. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and Manufacturing - Casting. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Optimisation of solution treatment of cast Al–Si–Cu alloys2010In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 31, no suppl. 1, p. 44-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of solidification rate on the solution treatment response for an Al–8Si–3.1Cu alloy has been investigated. The alloy was cast using the gradient solidification technique to produce samples with three different solidification rates. The samples were solution treated at 495 C for various times between 10 min and 10 h. The concentration of copper in the matrix was measured using the wavelength dispersive spectroscopy technique, WDS.

    The results show that the coarseness of the microstructure clearly affects the solution treatment time needed to dissolve particles and obtain a homogenous distribution of copper in the matrix. A short solution treatment time of 10 min is enough to achieve a high and homogenous copper concentration for a material with a fine microstructure (secondary dendrite arm spacing, SDAS of 10 μm), while more than 10 h is needed for a coarse microstructure (SDAS of 50 μm). A model was developed to describe the dissolution and homogenisation process. The model shows good agreement with the experimental results.

  • 9.
    Zamani, Mohammadreza
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    High Temperature Tensile Deformation Behaviour and Failure Process of an Al-Si-Cu-Mg Cast Alloy: The Microstructural Scale Effect2015In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 86, p. 361-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the high temperature tensile deformation behavior of a commercial Al–Si–Cu–Mg cast alloy was investigated. The alloy was cast with two different cooling rates which resulted in average secondary dendrite arm spacing of 10 and 25 μm, which is typical of the microstructure scale obtained from high pressure die casting and gravity die casting. Tensile tests were performed at different strain rates (10− 4 s− 1 to 10− 1 s− 1) and over a wide temperature range from ambient temperature to 500 °C. The fine microstructure had superior tensile strength and ductility compared to the coarse microstructure at any given temperature. The coarse microstructure showed brittle fracture up to 300 °C; the fracture mode in the fine microstructure was fully ductile above 200 °C. The fraction of damaged particles was increased by raising the temperature and/or by microstructure coarsening. Cracks arising from damaged particles in the coarse microstructure were linked in a transgranular-dominated fashion even at 500 °C. However, in the fine microstructure alloy the inter-dendritic fracture path was more prevalent. When the temperature was raised to 300 °C, the concentration of alloying elements in the dendrites changed. The dissolution rates of Cu- and Mg-bearing phases were higher in the fine microstructure.

  • 10.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Persson, Per O.Å:
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    A study of formation and growth of the anodised surface layer on cast Al-Si alloys based on different analytical techniques2016In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 101, p. 254-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the mechanisms of formation and growth of the anodised surface layer on Al-Si castings by applying different analytical techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and X-ray computer tomography (X-ray CT) scanning. Three different Al alloys with various Si content (2.43%, 3.53% and 5.45%) were investigated. Si particle morphological modification by Sr addition, as well as directional solidification, was used to vary the microstructural coarseness in a controlled manner to study the influence of these parameters on the growth behaviour of the oxide layer. This study observed residual unanodised Al phases trapped beneath or between Si particles in the oxide layer. It was found, depending on the geometry and morphology of Si particles, that Al can be shielded by Si particles and prevented from oxidising.

  • 11.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Hardness and corrosion behaviour of anodised Al-Si produced by rheocasting2019In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 173, article id 107764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anodised layer of Al-Si alloys produced by rheocasting was studied and compared to anodised traditional liquid casting in this paper. The anodising was performed in 1.0 M H2SO4 solution at room temperature on the as-cast substrates, and anodising voltage and time were optimised as process parameters. This study focuses on understanding the effect of the surface liquid segregation (SLS) layer by rheocasting on the hardness and corrosion protection of the oxide layer. The hardness depends on the anodising parameters and varies along the oxide thickness. The corrosion protection given by the oxide layer was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3 wt-% NaCl solution, and the results revealed that the longitudinal macrosegregation influences the corrosion protection, with the near-to-vent region showing lower corrosion protection due to a higher eutectic fraction. A comparison between liquid and rheocast samples indicated that the presence of SLS layer by the transverse macrosegregation does not have a significant impact on the corrosion resistance of the oxide layer. Moreover, it was found that an increase of the oxide layer thickness by longer anodising time or higher applied voltage decreases both the hardness and corrosion resistance of the oxide layer.

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