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  • 1. Jansson, Mårten
    et al.
    Gatz, Margaret
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Johansson, Boo
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    McClearn, Gerald E
    Schalling, Martin
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Gender differences in heritability of Depressive Symptoms in the elderly.2004In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Lichtenstein, Paul
    et al.
    Gatz, Margret
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    A twin study of mortality after spousal bereavement1998In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 635-643Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nyberg, S. T.
    Magnusson Hanson, L. L.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Ahola, K.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Batty, G. D.
    Bjorner, J. B.
    Borritz, M.
    Burr, H.
    Chastang, J. -F
    de Graaf, R.
    Dragano, N.
    Hamer, M.
    Jokela, M.
    Knutsson, A.
    Koskenvuo, M.
    Koskinen, A.
    Leineweber, C.
    Niedhammer, I.
    Nielsen, M. L.
    Nordin, M.
    Oksanen, T.
    Pejtersen, J. H.
    Pentti, J.
    Plaisier, I.
    Salo, P.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Suominen, S.
    ten Have, M.
    Theorell, T.
    Toppinen-Tanner, S.
    Vahtera, J.
    Väänänen, A.
    Westerholm, P. J. M.
    Westerlund, H.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Heikkilä, K.
    Virtanen, M.
    Rugulies, R.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression: systematic review and meta-analysis with additional individual participant data2017In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 1342-1356Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.

    Method: We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.

    Results: We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).

    Conclusions: Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.

  • 4.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Modabbernia, A.
    Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.
    Lin, C. -Y
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health & Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Saffari, M.
    Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Ahmadzad Asl, M.
    Mental Health Research Center, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Webb, T. L.
    Department of Psychology, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK .
    Promoting medication adherence among patients with bipolar disorder: a multicenter randomized controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention2017In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 47, no 14, p. 2528-2539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The present research aimed to investigate the efficacy of a multifaceted intervention that included motivational interviewing (MI) and psychoeducation in improving medication adherence (MA) among patients with bipolar disorder (BD).

    Method: A multicenter, cluster randomized, observer-blind, controlled, parallel-group trial was conducted in ten academic centers in Iran. Patients with BD were randomly assigned to the experimental group (EXP; n = 136) or the usual care group (UC; n = 134). The EXP group received five sessions of MI and psychoeducation together with their family members. The primary outcome measure was changes in scores on the Medication Adherence Rating Scale from baseline to 6 months post-intervention. Other outcome measures included serum levels of mood stabilizers, clinical symptoms, quality of life, as well as measures of intention, beliefs about medicine, perceived behavioral control, automaticity, action and coping planning, and adverse reactions.

    Results: Medication adherence improved over time in both groups, but patients in the EXP group improved more (baseline score: 6.03; score at the sixth month: 9.55) than patients in the UC group (baseline score: 6.17; score at the sixth month: 6.67). In addition, patients in the EXP group showed greater improvement than patients in the UC group in almost all secondary outcomes 6 months following the intervention.

    Conclusions: Multifaceted interventions that include motivational-interviewing and psychoeducation can significantly improve MA and clinical and functional outcomes in patients with BD.

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