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  • 1. Andel, R
    et al.
    Gatz, Margret
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Reynolds, Chandra A
    Johansson, Boo
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Deficits in controlled processing may predict dementia: A twin study2001In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 347-358Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andel, Ross
    et al.
    School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.
    Silverstein, Merril
    Sociology Department and School of Social Work, Aging Studies Institute, Syracuse University, New York.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    The role of midlife occupational complexity and leisure activity in late-life cognition2015In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 314-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To examine whether occupational complexity of working with data or people, and cognitive or social leisure activity at midlife predicted cognition in advanced old age.

    METHODS:

    We used 810 eligible participants from Longitudinal Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old, a Swedish nationally representative study of individuals aged 77+ with cognitive assessments (an abridged version of the Mini-Mental State Exam) administered in 1992 and 2002 and linked to information about their midlife occupation and leisure activities collected in 1968 and 1981. A bootstrapping technique was applied to examine the direct and interactive associations of occupational complexity and leisure activity with late-life cognition.

    RESULTS:

    Controlling for demographic and health-related factors from childhood, midlife, and late life, we found that greater work complexity, both with people and with data, and greater participation in cognitive or social leisure activities independently related to better late-life cognitive scores. The complexity-cognition link was moderated by leisure activity such that the cognitive benefit related to the complexity of work-especially complexity of working with people-was rendered insignificant when participation in leisure activities-especially social activities-was above average.

    DISCUSSION:

    Results are discussed in terms of using work complexity to compensate for lack of leisure activity as well as in terms of promoting leisure engagement to compensate for long-term cognitive disadvantage imposed by working in less challenging occupations.

  • 3. Davey, Adam
    et al.
    Fermia, Elia E.
    Zarit, Steven H
    Shea, Dennis G.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Smayer, Michael A.
    Salva, Jyoti
    Life on the Edge: Patterns of Formal and Informal Help to Older Adults in the United States and Sweden2005In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 281-288Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Emery, Charles F.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.
    Finkel, Deborah
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, USA.
    Gatz, Margaret
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evidence of bi-directional associations between depressive symptoms and body mass among older adults2019In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Body fat, measured with body mass index (BMI), and obesity are associated with depressive symptoms. Among younger adults there is stronger evidence of obesity leading to depressive symptoms than of depressive symptoms leading to obesity, but the temporal relationship is unknown among older adults. This study utilized dual-change-score models (DCSMs) to determine the directional relationship between body mass and depressive symptoms among older adults.

    METHOD: Participants (n=1743) from the Swedish Twin Registry (baseline age range 50-96 years) completed at least one assessment of BMI (nurse measurement of height and weight) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CESD). More than half the sample completed three or more assessments, scheduled at intervals of 2-4 years. DCSMs modeled the relationship of BMI and CESD across age, both independently and as part of bivariate relationships.

    RESULTS: Depressive symptoms contributed to subsequent changes in BMI after age 70, while BMI contributed to subsequent changes in depressive symptoms after age 82. Thus, there is a reciprocal relationship that may change with age. The effect was more pronounced for women.

    DISCUSSION: The association of BMI and depressive symptoms is bi-directional among older adults, and it appears to be affected by both age and sex.

  • 5.
    Fauth, Elizabeth B.
    et al.
    Utah State Univ, Dept Family Consumer & Human Dev, Logan, UT 84322 USA.
    Gerstorf, Denis
    Penn State Univ, Dept Human Dev & Family Studies, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Ram, Nilam
    Penn State Univ, Dept Human Dev & Family Studies, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Changes in Depressive Symptoms in the Context of Disablement Processes: Role of Demographic Characteristics, Cognitive Function, Health, and Social Support2012In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 167-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gerontological research suggests that depressive symptoms show antecedent and consequent relations with late-life disability. Less is known, however, about how depressive symptoms change with the progression of disability-related processes and what factors moderate such changes. We applied multiphase growth models to longitudinal data pooled across 4 Swedish studies of very old age (N = 779, M age = 86 years at disability onset, 64% women) to describe change in depressive symptoms prior to disability onset, at or around disability onset (the measurement wave at which assistance in personal activities of daily living was first recorded), and postdisability onset. Results indicate that, on average, depressive symptoms slightly increase with approaching disability, increase at onset, and decline in the postdisability phase. Age, study membership, being a woman, and multimorbidity were related to depressive symptoms, but social support emerged as the most powerful predictor of level and change in depressive symptoms. Our findings are consistent with conceptual notions implicating disability-related factors as key contributors to late-life change and suggest that contextual and psychosocial factors play a pivotal role for how well people adapt to late-life challenges.

  • 6.
    Finkel, Deborah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, IN, United States.
    Andel, Ross
    School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, United States.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gender Differences in Longitudinal Trajectories of Change in Physical, Social, and Cognitive/Sedentary Leisure Activities2018In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 73, no 8, p. 1491-1500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We examined changes in participation in cognitive, social, and physical leisure activities across middle and older adulthood and tested moderation of trajectories of change in participation by gender.

    Method: In all, 1,398 participants in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) completed a 7-item leisure activity questionnaire up to 4 times over 17 years. Mean baseline age was 64.9 years (range = 36-91); 59% were women. Factor analysis identifed physical, social, and cognitive/sedentary leisure activity participation factors. Age-based latent growth curve models adjusted for marital status, gender, education, depressive symptoms, and physical health were used.

    Results: Overall, results indicated stability in social activities, increase in cognitive/sedentary activities, and decrease in physical activities, as well as accelerated decline in all three types of activities after about the age of 70 years. Social activity remained mostly stable for women and declined for men. Women reported higher levels of cognitive/sedentary leisure activity across the study. Both men and women declined in physical leisure activity. Variance in leisure activities increased with age; men demonstrated more variance in social activities and women in physical activities.

    Conclusions: Understanding change in leisure activities with age and by gender can have important implications for interventions and for use of leisure activity data in epidemiological research. 

  • 7.
    Finkel, Deborah
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany.
    Ernsth Bravell, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sex differences in genetic and environmental influences on longitudinal change in functional ability in late adulthood2015In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 70, no 5, p. 709-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To determine the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual and gender differences in aging of functional ability.

    Method. Twenty assessments of functional ability are collected as part of the longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging from 859 twins aged 50–88 at the first wave. Participants completed up to 6 assessments covering a 19-year period. Factor analysis was used to create 3 factors: flexibility, fine motor skills, and balance.

    Results. Latent growth curve analysis demonstrated increasing disability and variability after age 70. For flexibility, results indicated significant sex differences in mean change trajectories but no sex differences in components of variance. No sex differences were found for fine motor movement. For balance, there were no sex differences in mean change trajectories; however, there was significant genetic variance for changes in balance in women after age 70 but not for men.

    Discussion. Although idiosyncratic environmental influences account for a large part of increasing variance, correlated and shared rearing environmental effects were also evident. Thus, both microenvironmental (individual) and macroenvironmental (family and cultural) effects, as well as genetic factors, affect maintenance of functional ability in late adulthood.

  • 8.
    Finkel, Deborah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany.
    Franz, Carol E.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USA.
    Christensen, Kaare
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, USA.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Longitudinal twin study of subjective health: Differences in genetic and environmental components of variance across age and sex2020In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The current analysis examines sex differences in longitudinal changes in genetic and environmental influences on three measures of subjective health.

    Method: Sample includes 7372 twins (mean intake age = 73.22) with up to 8 waves of measurement (mean = 3.1). Three subjective health (SH) items were included: general self-rated health (SRH), health compared to age peers (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT) which previous research shows capture different frames of reference.

    Results: Latent growth curve modeling indicated significant differences across gender and frame of reference in trajectories of change with age and in genetic and environmental contributions to change. Men have higher mean scores on all three SH measures, indicating better SH, but there were no sex differences in pattern of change with age. Accelerating declines with age were found for SRH and ACT, whereas COMP improved with age. Results indicated more genetic variance for women than men, but declining genetic variance for both after age 70. Increasing shared environmental variance with increasing age was also found for both sexes.

    Discussion: As aging triggers a re-evaluation of the meaning of "good health," physical aspects of health may become less important and shared cultural conceptions of health may become more relevant. This change in conceptions of good health may reflect both aging and the change in composition of the elderly population as a result of selective survival.

  • 9. Gatz, Margret
    et al.
    Svedberg, P
    Pedersen, Nacy
    Mortimer, J A
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Johansson, Boo
    Education and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: Findings from the study of dementia in Swedish twins2001In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 56B, no 5, p. P292-P300Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Hancook Gold, Carol
    et al.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    MacClearn, Gerald E
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Gender and Health: A study of older unlike sex twins2002In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 168-176Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Hassing, Linda B
    et al.
    Johansson, Boo
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Nilsson, Sven
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Hofer, Scott M
    McClearn, Gerald
    Terminal decline and markers of cerebro- and cardiovascular disease: Findings from a longitudinal study of the oldest old2002In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 57, no 3, p. P268-P276Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Hong, Tantina B
    et al.
    Zarit, Steven H
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    The Role of Health Congruence in Functional Status and Depression2004In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 151-157Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Johansson, Boo
    et al.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    The robustness of the terminal decline phenomenon: Longitudinal data from the digit-span memory test1989In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 184-186Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Lichtenstein, Paul
    et al.
    Gatz, Margret
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    McClearn, Gerald
    A co-twin-control study of response to widowhood1996In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 51B, no 5, p. 279-289Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Lyyra, Tiina-Marie
    et al.
    Takkinen, Sanna
    Törmänkangas, T M
    Rantanen, Tania
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Satisfaction with present life predicts survival in octogenarians2006In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Palsson, S
    et al.
    Johansson, Boo
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Skoog, Ingmar
    Symptoms of depression in the oldest old: A longitudinal study2001In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 56B, p. P111-P118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Read, Sanna
    et al.
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Gatz, Margaret
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Vuoksimaa, Eero
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Johansson, Boo
    Sex differences after all those years?: Heritability of cognitive abilities in old age.2006In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Sindi, Shireen
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagman, Göran
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet Center for Alzheimer Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Krister
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kulmala, Jenni
    Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nilsen, Charlotta
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soininen, Hilkka
    NeuroCenter, Department of Neurology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Solomon, Alina
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Midlife work-related stress increases dementia risk in later life: The CAIDE 30-year study2017In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 1044-1053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and Alzheimer's disease later in life, in a large representative population.

    METHOD: Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study participants were randomly selected from independent population-based surveys (mean age 50 years). A random sample of 2,000 individuals was invited for two reexaminations including cognitive tests (at mean age 71 and mean age 78), and 1,511 subjects participated in at least one reexamination (mean follow-up 28.5 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands that were administered in midlife. Analyses adjusted for important confounders.

    RESULTS: Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with higher risk of MCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.76), dementia (OR, 1.53; CI, 1.13-2.07), and Alzheimer's disease (OR, 1.55; CI, 1.19-2.36) at the first follow-up among the CAIDE participants. Results remained significant after adjusting for several possible confounders. Work-related stress was not associated with MCI and dementia during the extended follow-up.

    DISCUSSION: Midlife work-related stress increases the risk for MCI, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease in later life. The association was not seen after the extended follow-up possibly reflecting selective survival/participation, heterogeneity in dementia among the oldest old, and a critical time window for the effects of midlife stress.

  • 19.
    Sternäng, Ola
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside.
    Finkel, Deborah
    4 Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany.
    Ernsth-Bravell, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Grip Strength and Cognitive Abilities: Associations in Old Age2016In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 71, no 5, p. 841-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Both physical functioning and cognitive abilities are important for well-being, not least in old age. Grip strength is often considered an indicator of general vitality and, as such, may predict cognitive functioning. Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between grip strength and cognition, especially where specific cognitive abilities have been targeted.

    METHOD: Participants (n = 708, age range: 40-86 years at baseline) came from the population-based longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. We used a longitudinal follow-up of 6 waves during 20 years. For the analyses, we used latent growth modeling, where latent growth trajectories were fitted to the cognitive traits (verbal ability, spatial ability, processing speed, and memory) or to the grip strength values and each, respectively, treated as time-varying covariates of the other trait.

    RESULTS: Results supported a longitudinal influence of grip strength on changes in cognitive function. Grip strength performance was associated with change in the 4 cognitive abilities after age 65 years.

    DISCUSSION: A rather stable connection was found between grip strength and cognitive abilities starting around 65 years of age. The starting period suggests that the association may be due to lifestyle changes, such as retirement, or to acceleration of the aging processes.

  • 20.
    Zammit, Andrea R
    et al.
    Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY..
    Piccinin, Andrea M
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC..
    Duggan, Emily C
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC..
    Koval, Andriy
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC..
    Clouston, Sean
    Department of Family, Population and Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY..
    Robitaille, Annie
    Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada..
    Brown, Cassandra L
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC..
    Handschuh, Philipp
    Ulm University, Department of Developmental Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University..
    Wu, Chenkai
    Global Health Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan, Jiangsu, China..
    Jarry, Valérie
    Research Center on Aging, Integrated Academic Health Center and Social Services in the Eastern Townships, Sherbrooke, Canada..
    Finkel, Deborah
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, IN..
    Graham, Raquel B
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC..
    Muniz-Terrera, Graciela
    Centre for Dementia Prevention, University of Edinburgh..
    Björk, Marcus Praetorius
    Department of Psychology and Centre for Ageing and Health, AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bennett, David
    Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center..
    Deeg, Dorly J
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, In Amsterdam, the Netherlands..
    Johansson, Boo
    Department of Psychology and Centre for Ageing and Health, AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Katz, Mindy J
    Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY..
    Kaye, Jeffrey
    Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR..
    Lipton, Richard B
    Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY..
    Martin, Mike
    Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Switzerland..
    Pederson, Nancy L
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Spiro, Avron
    Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA..
    Zimprich, Daniel
    Ulm University, Department of Developmental Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University..
    Hofer, Scott M
    Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC..
    A coordinated multi-study analysis of the longitudinal association between handgrip strength and cognitive function in older adults.2019In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, article id gbz072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Handgrip strength, an indicator of overall muscle strength, has been found to be associated with slower rate of cognitive decline and decreased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia. However, evaluating the replicability of associations between aging-related changes in physical and cognitive functioning is challenging due to differences in study designs and analytical models. A multiple-study coordinated analysis approach was used to generate new longitudinal results based on comparable construct-level measurements and identical statistical models and to facilitate replication and research synthesis.

    METHODS: We performed coordinated analysis on nine cohort studies affiliated with the Integrative Analysis of Longitudinal Studies of Aging and Dementia (IALSA) research network. Bivariate linear mixed models were used to examine associations among individual differences in baseline level, rate of change, and occasion-specific variation across grip strength and indicators of cognitive function, including mental status, processing speed, attention and working memory, perceptual reasoning, verbal ability, and learning and memory. Results were summarized using meta-analysis.

    RESULTS: After adjustment for covariates, we found an overall moderate association between change in grip strength and change in each cognitive domain for both males and females: Average correlation coefficient was 0.55 (95% CI = 0.44 - 0.56). We also found a high level of heterogeneity in this association across studies.

    DISCUSSION: Meta-analytic results from nine longitudinal studies showed consistently positive associations between linear rates of change in grip strength and changes in cognitive functioning. Future work will benefit from the examination of individual patterns of change to understand the heterogeneity in rates of aging and health-related changes across physical and cognitive biomarkers.

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