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  • 1.
    Ahl, Helene
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Motivation in adult education: A problem solver or a euphemism for direction and control?2006Inngår i: International Journal of Lifelong Education, ISSN 0260-1370, E-ISSN 1464-519X, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 385-405Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adults' motivation to participate in continued education is of immediate interest, as lifelong learning is now considered as the solution to the pressing problems of increased levels of unemployment, not least among unskilled workers. Many theories concerning motivation and adult education maintain that individuals are innately motivated to learn, and conclude that motivation problems result from various dispositional, situational and structural impediments. If such barriers are removed, adults will be naturally motivated to educate themselves. This article argues against these theories and maintains that motivation should not be regarded as something residing within the individual. It is rather a construct of those who see it lacking in others. A critical reading of the literature shows how motivation theory stigmatizes people held ‘unmotivated’ in that the theories ascribe motivation problems to the individual, while assuming the basis upon which the problem is formulated for granted, and making those who formulate the problem invisible. Instead of a problem solver, motivation becomes a euphemism for direction and control. This article suggests that motivation should be seen as a relational concept, rather than as residing within the individual. Adults' motivation, or lack of this, is best understood in relation to those who formulate the problem. Instead of asking what motivates adults to study, research should focus on who states that this is a problem, and why, and the reasons for this conclusion. This approach makes the operations of power visible, and demonstrates how the discourse of lifelong learning, as a necessary political response to economic and technological determinism, constructs adults as inadequate.

  • 2.
    Bergmo-Prvulovic, Ingela
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Is career guidance for the individual or for the market? Implications of EU policy for career guidance2014Inngår i: International Journal of Lifelong Education, ISSN 0260-1370, E-ISSN 1464-519X, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 376-392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the essential understanding and underlying perspectives of career implicit in EU career guidance policy in the twenty-first century, as well as the possible implications of these for the future mission of guidance. Career theories, models and concepts that serve career guidance are shaped on the twentieth-century industrial division of labour and now face a crisis due to the influence of globalization on working life. The transition to a knowledge-based society also challenges the traditional view of career: vocational and educational paths are no longer linear, predictable or stable. The analyses of EU policy documents and ethical declarations discussed here indicate that meanings of career are under reconstruction and that these documents fail to clarify the underlying meanings or perspectives on career contained therein. The essential meaning of career, as communicated through characterizations and dominating underlying perspectives in EU policy, puts greater emphasis on career guidance as being conducted on behalf of society, rather than the individual. Ethical tensions within the career guidance profession appear to have increased, and the profession is also challenged in its professionalization by contradictions and broadened areas, activities and functions.

  • 3.
    Boström, Ann-Kristin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Informal learning in a formal context: Problematizing the concept of social capital in a contemporary Swedish context2002Inngår i: International Journal of Lifelong Education, ISSN 0260-1370, E-ISSN 1464-519X, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 510-524Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Definitions of social capital, advanced by Coleman and Fukuyama, and definitions of lifelong learning and intergenerational learning are discussed and compared, and a synthetic model is presented. This model relies heavily on the practical implementation of strategies for augmenting social capital, such as those applied within the granddad project, an intergenerational learning initiative conducted in schools in the Stockholm County area. It is concluded that intergenerational learning in this theoretical framework provides a foundation for lifelong learning practice in a social capital perspective, even though the definition of social capital used is broad and bears strong resemblance to the Japanese concept of kokoru, advanced by Okamoto (1992).

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