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  • 1.
    Askerlund, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research. Department of Plant Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+-ATPases in the vacuolar and plasma membranes in cauliflower1997In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 999-1007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subcellular locations of Ca2+-ATPases in the membranes of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) inflorescences were investigated. After continuous sucrose gradient centrifugation a 111-kD calmodulin (CaM)-stimulated and CaM-binding Ca2+-ATPase (BCA1; P. Askerlund [1996] Plant Physiol 110: 913–922; S. Malmstrom, P. Askerlund, M.G. Palmgren [1997] FEBS Lett 400: 324–328) comigrated with vacuolar membrane markers, whereas a 116-kD CaM-binding Ca2+-ATPase co-migrated with a marker for the plasma membrane. The 116-kD Ca2+-ATPase was enriched in plasma membranes obtained by aqueous two-phase partitioning, which is in agreement with a plasma membrane location of this Ca2+-ATPase. Countercurrent distribution of a low-density intracellular membrane fraction in an aqueous two-phase system resulted in the separation of the endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolar membranes. The 111-kD Ca2+-ATPase co-migrated with a vacuolar membrane marker after countercurrent distribution but not with markers for the endoplasmic reticulum. A vacuolar membrane location of the 111-kD Ca2+-ATPase was further supported by experiments with isolated vacuoles from cauliflower: (a) Immunoblotting with an antibody against the 111-kD Ca2+-ATPase showed that it was associated with the vacuoles, and (b) ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake by the intact vacuoles was found to be CaM stimulated and partly protonophore insensitive.

  • 2.
    Askerlund, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research. Department of Plant Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Modulation of an Intracellular Calmodulin-Stimulated Ca2+-Pumping ATPase in Cauliflower by Trypsin (The Use of Calcium Green-5N to Measure Ca2+ Transport in Membrane Vesicles)1996In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 110, no 3, p. 913-922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of controlled trypsin digestion of a calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+-ATPase in low-density intracellular membranes from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) inflorescences was investigated. Ca2+ uptake into vesicles was measured either continuously with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Calcium Green-5N or with a radio-active filter technique. Trypsin treatment of vesicles resulted in a 3-fold activation of Ca2+ uptake and loss of calmodulin sensitivity. Immunoblotting experiments with an antiserum raised against the Ca2+-ATPase showed that the trypsin activation was accompanied by a decrease in the amount of intact Ca2+-ATPase (111 kD) and by successive appearances of polypeptides of 102 and 99 to 84 kD. 125I-Calmodulin overlays showed that only the intact Ca2+-ATPase bound calmodulin. Removal of the calmodulin-binding domain (about 9 kD) was not enough to obtain full activation. Trypsin proteolysis resulted in a Ca2+ concentration necessary for half-maximal activity of 0.5 [mu]M, whereas a value of about 2 [mu]M was obtained with untreated membranes in the presence of calmodulin. Without trypsin treatment or calmodulin the activity was not saturated even at 57 [mu]M free Ca2+. The data suggest that trypsin digestion and calmodulin activate the cauliflower Ca2+-ATPase by at least partly different mechanisms.

  • 3.
    Askerlund, Per
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research. Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Evans, David E.
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Reconstitution and Characterization of a Calmodulin-Stimulated Ca-Pumping ATPase Purified from Brassica oleracea L1992In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 1670-1681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purification and functional reconstitution of a calmodulin-stimulated Ca(2+)-ATPase from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) is described. Activity was purified about 120-fold from a microsomal fraction using calmodulin-affinity chromatography. The purified fraction showed a polypeptide at 115 kD, which formed a phosphorylated intermediate in the presence of Ca(2+), together with a few polypeptides with lower molecular masses that were not phosphorylated. The ATPase was reconstituted into liposomes by 3-([cholamidopropyl]-dimethylammonio-)1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) dialysis. The proteoliposomes showed ATP-dependent Ca(2+) uptake and ATPase activity, both of which were stimulated about 4-fold by calmodulin. Specific ATPase activity was about 5 mumol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1), and the Ca(2+)/ATP ratio was 0.1 to 0.5 when the ATPase was reconstituted with entrapped oxalate. The purified, reconstituted Ca(2+)-ATPase was inhibited by vanadate and erythrosin B, but not by cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin. Activity was supported by ATP (100%) and GTP (50%) and had a pH optimum of about 7.0. The effect of monovalent and divalent cations (including Ca(2+)) on activity is described. Assay of membranes purified by two-phase partitioning indicated that approximately 95% of the activity was associated with intracellular membranes, but only about 5% with plasma membranes. Sucrose gradient centrifugation suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum is the major cellular location of calmodulin-stimulated Ca(2+)-pumping ATPase in Brassica oleracea inflorescences.

  • 4.
    Askerlund, Per
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research. Department of Plant Biochemistry, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Larsson, Christer
    Department of Plant Biochemistry, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Transmembrane Electron Transport in Plasma Membrane Vesicles Loaded with an NADH-Generating System or Ascorbate1991In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 1178-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf plasma membrane vesicles were loaded with an NADH-generating system (or with ascorbate) and were tested spectrophotometrically for their ability to reduce external, membrane-impermeable electron acceptors. Either alcohol dehydrogenase plus NAD+ or 100 millimolar ascorbate was included in the homogenization medium, and right-side-out (apoplastic side-out) plasma membrane vesicles were subsequently prepared using two-phase partitioning. Addition of ethanol to plasma membrane vesicles loaded with the NADH-generating system led to a production of NADH inside the vesicles which could be recorded at 340 nanometers. This system was able to reduce 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol-3′-sulfonate (DCIP-sulfonate), a strongly hydrophilic electron acceptor. The reduction of DCIP-sulfonate was stimulated severalfold by the K+ ionophore valinomycin, included to abolish membrane potential (outside negative) generated by electrogenic transmembrane electron flow. Fe3+-chelates, such as ferricyanide and ferric citrate, as well as cytochrome c, were not reduced by vesicles loaded with the NADH-generating system. In contrast, right-side-out plasma membrane vesicles loaded with ascorbate supported the reduction of both ferric citrate and DCIP-sulfonate, suggesting that ascorbate also may serve as electron donor for transplasma membrane electron transport. Differences in substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity indicate that the electrons from ascorbate and NADH were channelled to external acceptors via different electron transport chains. Transplasma membrane electron transport constituted only about 10% of total plasma membrane electron transport activity, but should still be sufficient to be of physiological significance in, e.g. reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ for uptake.

  • 5.
    Askerlund, Per
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research. Department of Plant Biochemistry, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Laurent, Pascal
    Laboratoire de Biomembranes Vegetales, Unité de Recherche Associé 1180, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.
    Nakagawa, Hiroki
    Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba, Japan.
    Kader, Jean-Claude
    Laboratoire de Biomembranes Vegetales, Unité de Recherche Associé 1180, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.
    NADH-Ferricyanide Reductase of Leaf Plasma Membranes: Partial Purification and Immunological Relation to Potato Tuber Microsomal NADH-Ferricyanide Reductase and Spinach Leaf NADH-Nitrate Reductase1991In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 6-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma membranes obtained by two-phase partitioning of microsomal fractions from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv Medania) and sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) contained relatively high NADH-ferricyanide reductase and NADH-nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1) activities. Both of these activities were latent. To investigate whether these activities were due to the same enzyme, plasma membrane polypeptides were separated with SDS-PAGE and analyzed with immunoblotting methods. Antibodies raised against microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase (tentatively identified as NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, EC 1.6.2.2), purified from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Bintje) tuber microsomes, displayed one single band at 43 kilodaltons when reacted with spinach plasma membranes, whereas lgG produced against NR from spinach leaves gave a major band at 110 kilodaltons together with a few fainter bands of lower molecular mass. Immunoblotting analysis using inside-out and right-side-out plasma membrane vesicles strongly indicated that NR was not an integral protein but probably trapped inside the plasma membrane vesicles during homogenization. Proteins from spinach plasma membranes were solubilized with the zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio] 1-propane-sulfonate and separated on a Mono Q anion exchange column at pH 5.6 with fast protein liquid chromatography. One major peak of NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity was found after separation. The peak fraction was enriched about 70-fold in this activity compared to the plasma membrane. When the peak fractions were analyzed with SDS-PAGE the NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity strongly correlated with a 43 kilodalton polypeptide which reacted with the antibodies against potato microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase. Thus, our data indicate that most, if not all, of the truly membrane-bound NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity of leaf plasma membranes is due to an enzyme very similar to potato tuber microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase (NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase).

  • 6.
    Fredlund, Kenneth M.
    et al.
    Department of Plant Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Struglics, André
    Department of Plant Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widell, Susanne
    Department of Plant Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Askerlund, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research. Department of Plant Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kader, Jean-Claude
    Laboratorie de Physiologie Cellulaire, Paris, France.
    Møller, Ian M.
    Department of Plant Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Comparison of the Stereospecificity and Immunoreactivity of NADH-Ferricyanide Reductases in Plant Membranes1994In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 1103-1106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The substrate stereospecificity of NADH-ferricyanide reductase activities in the inner mitochondrial membrane and peroxisomal membrane of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaf plasma membrane, and red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) tonoplast were all specific for the [beta]-hydrogen of NADH, whereas the reductases in wheat root (Triticum aestivum L.) endoplasmic reticulum and potato tuber outer mitochondrial membrane were both [alpha]-hydrogen specific. In all isolated membrane fractions one or several polypeptides with an apparent size of 45 to 55 kD cross-reacted with antibodies raised against a microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase on western blots.

  • 7.
    Malmström, Susanna
    et al.
    Department of Plant Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Åkerlund, Hans Erik
    Department of Plant Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Askerlund, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research. Department of Plant Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Regulatory role of the N terminus of the vacuolar calcium-ATPase in cauliflower2000In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 517-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vacuolar calmodulin (CaM)-stimulated Ca2+-ATPase, BCA1p, in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) has an extended N terminus, which was suggested to contain a CaM-binding domain (S. Malmstrom, P. Askerlund, M.G. Palmgren [1997] FEBS Lett 400: 324328). The goal of the present study was to determine the role of the N terminus in regulating BCA1p. Western analysis using three different antisera showed that the N terminus of BCA1p is cleaved off by trypsin and that the N terminus contains the CaM-binding domain. Furthermore, the expressed N terminus binds CaM in a Ca2+dependent manner. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CaM-binding domain of BCA1p (Ala-19 to Leu-43) strongly inhibited ATP-dependent Ca2+ pumping by BCA1p in cauliflower low-density membranes, indicating that the CaM-binding region of BCA1p also has an autoinhibitory function. The expressed N terminus of BCA1p and a synthetic peptide (Ala-19 to Met-39) were good substrates for phosphorylation by protein kinase C. Sequencing of the phosphorylated fusion protein and peptide suggested serine-16 and/or serine-28 as likely targets for phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of serine-28 had no effect on CaM binding to the alanine-19 to methionine-39 peptide. Our results demonstrate the regulatory importance of the N terminus of BCA1p as a target for CaM binding, trypsin cleavage, and phosphorylation, as well as its importance as an autoinhibitory domain.

  • 8. Palmgren, Michael Gjedde
    et al.
    Askerlund, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research. University of Lund.
    Fredrikson, Karin
    Widell, Susanne
    Sommarin, Marianne
    Larsson, Christer
    Sealed Inside-Out and Right-Side-Out Plasma Membrane Vesicles: Optimal Conditions for Formation and Separation1990In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 871-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma membrane preparations of high purity (about 95%) are easily obtained by partitioning in aqueous polymer two-phase systems. These preparations, however, mainly contain sealed right-side-out (apoplastic side out) vesicles. Part of these vesicles have been turned inside-out by freezing and thawing, and sealed inside-out and right-side-out vesicles subsequently separated by repeating the phase partition step. Increasing the KCI concentration in the freeze/thaw medium as well as increasing the number of freeze/thaw cycles significantly increased the yield of inside-out vesicles. At optimal conditions, 15 to 25% of total plasma membrane protein was recovered as inside-out vesicles, corresponding to 5 to 10 milligrams of protein from 500 grams of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves. Based on enzyme latency, trypsin inhibition of NADH-cytochrome c reductase, and H+ pumping capacity, a cross-contamination of about 20% between the two fractions of oppositely oriented vesicles was estimated. Thus, preparations containing about 80% inside-out and 80% right-side-out vesicles, respectively, were obtained. ATPase activity and H+ pumping were both completely inhibited by vanadate (Ki ≈ 10 micromolar), indicating that the fractions were completely free from nonplasma membrane ATPases. Furthermore, the polypeptide patterns of the two fractions were close to identical, which shows that the vesicles differed in sidedness only. Thus, preparations of both inside-out and right-side-out plasma membrane vesicles are now available. This permits studies on transport, signal transduction mechanisms, enzyme topology, etc., using plasma membrane vesicles of either orientation.

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