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  • 1. Adiels, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Helkimo, Martti
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Tactile stimulation as a complementary treatment of temporomandibular disorders in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: A pilot study.2005In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Alm, Anita
    et al.
    Isaksson, Helen
    Fåhraeus, Christina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, Göran
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Birkhed, Dowen
    Wendt, Lill-Kari
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    BMI status in Swedish children and young adults in relation to caries prevalence: BMI and caries prevalence2011In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight and obesity are increasing as health problems at global level. Dental caries and obesity are both multifactorial diseases and are associated with dietary habits. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body weight status and caries prevalence in an unselected population followed from pre-school years to young adulthood. The present investigation was designed as a longitudinal analysis of the association between overweight/obesity and dental caries in one population at 3, 6, 15 and 20 years of age. The result shows that adolescents (15 years) and young adults (20 years) who are overweight/obese had a statistically significantly higher caries prevalence than normal-weight young people. At 6 years of age, the odds (OR) of having caries among obese children are 2.5 times higher than the odds for caries among six-year-old children of normal weight (p = 0.04). At 3 years of age, no association between overweight/obesity and caries was found. To conclude, overweight and obese adolescents and young adults had more caries than normal-weight individuals. The present study emphasises the need for multidisciplinary approaches to change the lifestyle factors causing both overweight/obesity and dental caries.

  • 3. Alm, Anita
    et al.
    Wendt, Lill-Kari
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, Göran
    Dental treatment in the primary dentition of 7-12 year-old Swedish schoolchildren.2003In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Alm, Anita
    et al.
    Wendt, Lill-Kari
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, Göran
    Dental treatment of the primary dentition in 7-12 year-old Swedish children in relation to caries experience at 6 years of age.2004In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 61-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Anastassaki Köhler, Alkisti
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Clinical signs indicative of temporomandibular disorders in adults: time trends and associated factors2013In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to examine possible time trends in the prevalence of clinical signs indicative of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in an adult population, to analyse possible associations between TMD signs and associated factors and to estimate the need for TMD treatment. Three independent, stratified and randomly selected samples of around 100 individuals in the age groups of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 years participated in the Jönköping studies in 1983,1993 and 2003. The study material consisted of 1,693 subjects who, after answering a questionnaire and being interviewed about the presence of TMD symptoms, were clinically examined in terms of the presence of TMD signs according to the Clinical Dysfunction Index (Di) by Helkimo. Associations between clinical signs and the Di as dependent variables and each of the independent variables of age group, gender, reported bruxism, trauma, self-perceived healthiness and the year of investigation were analysed in binary logistic regression models. Estimates of the need for TMD treatment were based on the presence of a combination of severe symptoms and clinical signs. The prevalence of severely impaired jaw movement capacity, relating to horizontal movements, had increased in 2003. The prevalence of muscle pain and temporomandibular joint pain upon posterior palpation was found to vary statistically significantly between 1993 and 2003. Gender differences were noted in these changes overtime. Female gender, advancing age, awareness of bruxism, self-perceived health impairment and the wearing of complete dentures were associated with TMD signs and a higher degree of clinical dysfunction. The estimated need for TMD treatment increased from 5% in 1983 to 8% in 2003 and was higher in women than in men. In conclusion, the results indicate that the prevalence of some TMD signs and of estimated treatment need increased during the period 1983-2003.

  • 6. Bergendal, T
    et al.
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Kvint, S
    Lundgren, D
    A radiological inventory of possible sites for cylinder implants in edentulous regions of the jaws: An epidemiological study1994In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 75-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implant treatment is nowadays requested as an alternative mode of treatment for both total and partial edentulousness. The purpose of the study was to assess the maximum number of possible implant sites in a group of adults. The study material comprised 579 persons divided into the age-groups 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 years. Based on radiological examination, the subjects were grouped according to Eichner's index. They comprised both dentate and edentulous individuals. Templates, marked with cylinder implants of different dimensions, were placed over edentulous regions. The possible number of cylinder-shaped endosseous implants that could be placed anterior to the second molar was assessed in relation to bone availability and anatomical structures. Gaps treated with fixed bridges were not registered. Altogether 1,048 presumptive fixture sites were marked, of which 78% in the age-groups 60 and 70 years. Eichner groups C 1-3, which comprised the edentulous persons, constituted 12% of the subjects and accounted for 57% of the possible number of implants. All edentulous mandibles and 70% of the edentulous maxillae were judged suitable for placement of implants. On average 5.5 and 5.8 sites were marked per edentulous maxilla and mandible, respectively. Groups B1-4 comprised 21% of the subjects and accounted for 37% of the implants. It is discussed that implant treatment in totally edentulous jaws will increase in relative terms in Sweden as in other Scandinavian countries, i.e. the percentage of edentulous jaws treated with implants will increase. In absolute terms, however, the treatment will probably decrease owing to a marked decrease in the number of edentulous individuals. The future need for implant treatment in the residual dentition will probably increase but it is difficult to predict by how much.

  • 7. Bjerklin, Krister
    et al.
    Lindsten, Rune
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Tunge, Jannicke Sagevik
    Sjövall, Christine
    Orthodontic treatment need, outcome and residual treatment need in 15- and 20-year-olds2012In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate orthodontic treatment need and the outcome of orthodontic treatment in 15-, and 20-year-olds in Jönköping, Sweden, with special reference to residual treatment need. An offer to participate in a clinical investigation was extended to random samples of 130 15-year-olds and 130 20-year-olds. Ninety-six of the 15-year-olds (73.3%; 45 boys and 51 girls) and 82 of the 20-year-olds (62.6%; 47 males and 35 females) accepted and presented for examination The participants filled in a questionnaire and impressions were taken for study models, which were graded according to the ICON index. In all, 39 (40.6%) of the 15-year-olds and 38 (46.3%) of the 20-year-olds had undergone or were currently undergoing orthodontic treatment. Ninety-one per cent of the 15-year-olds and 84% of the 20-year-olds considered that the orthodontic treatment goals had been fully or almost fully attained. Two of the 15-year-olds and two of the 20-year-olds currently wanted orthodontic treatment. This indicates a residual treatment demand of about 2%.

  • 8. Carlsson, G E
    et al.
    Egermark-Eriksson, I
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Intra- and inter-observer variation in functional examination of the masticatory system1980In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 187-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Einarson, Susanne
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Wärnbring Gerdin, Elisabeth
    Landstinget i Östergötland.
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Oral health-related quality of life and its relationship to self-reported oral discomfort and clinical status2014In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 169-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of oral health on quality of life is one aspect when it comes to understanding the significance of oral health. The aim of this sudy was to analyse the self-reported oral discomfort and clincial status of individuals reporting oral problems never/very seldom affexting quality of life during the last year and compar ehem with individuals who reported oral problems hardly ever/occasiaonally or often/very often during the same period. The study comprised a stratified random sample of 515 individuals who lived in four parishes in the City of Jönköping, Sweden, and tyrned 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 years of age in 2003. The impact of oral health on quality of life was examined using the OHIP-14 questionnaire. The individuals were also examined clinically and radiographically. Of the participants, 21 % reorted no experience of impaired quality of life and 20 % of the indivudals reported that they had expperienced impaires quality of life often or very often during the last year. The highest frequency of oral problems was found among individuals aged 20 and 80 years. Subjective symptoms, such as grinding/clenching and headache, were found among 20- and 30-year-olds. Edentulous individuals with many missing teeth, individuals with severe periodontal disease or subjective dry mouth answered that they experienced problems accordning to the OHIP-14 often or very often. A number of individuals, young and old, had thus experienced subjective or clinically verified oral conditions associated with a negative experience of quality of life. This complementary information will provide a deeper understanding of the importance of oral health in the population.

  • 10. Elfving, Lars
    et al.
    Helkimo, Martti
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Prevalence of different temporomandibular joint sounds, with emphasis on disc-displacement, in patients with temporomandibular disorders and controls.2002In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 9-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Enbom, L
    et al.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Wall, G
    Occlusal wear in miners.1986In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 165-170Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Forsling, J O
    et al.
    Halling, A
    Lundin, S A
    Paulander, J
    Svenson, B
    Unell, L
    Wendt, Lill-Kari
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Proximal caries prevalence in 19-year-olds living in Sweden: A radiographic study in four counties.1999In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 23, no 2-3, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Gnauck, M
    et al.
    Helkimo, M
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Routines for interocclusal appliances therapy among general dental practitioners in a Swedish county.2012In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Göthe-Mundt, AK
    et al.
    Helkimo, M
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Sleeping position and reported quality of sleep: A comparison between subjects demanding treatment for temporomandibular disorders and controls2011In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 187-193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Hellqvist, Lena
    Boström, Anita
    Lingström, Peter
    Rolandsson, Margot
    Birkhed, Dowen
    Effect of nicotine-free and nicotine-containing snus on plaque pH in vivo2012In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 187-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, G
    Bergendal, T
    Hallonsten, A L
    Slotte, C
    Thorstensson, B
    Thorstensson, H
    Oral health of individuals aged 3-80 years in Jönköping, Sweden in 1973, 1983, and 1993: I. Review of findings on dental care habits and knowledge of oral health1995In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 225-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to compare data on dental care habits and knowledge of oral health in three cross-sectional studies carried out in 1973, 1983, and 1993. The 1973 study constituted a random sample of 1000 individuals evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years. The same age groups with addition of a group of 80-year-olds were included in the 1983 and 1993 studies which comprised 1104 and 1078 individuals, respectively. A questionnaire (23-101 questions) about dental care habits and knowledge of oral health was used in connection with a clinical and radiographic examination. The same questions were used in all the three studies. An addition to the 1993 investigation was questions concerning ethnographic background. In 1993 approximately 95% of all individuals were visiting the dentist on a regular basis every or every second year. The 30-year-olds, however, did not visit a dentist as regularly in 1993 as in 1983. The 70- and 80-year-olds visited a dentist more regularly in 1993 than in 1983. An increased number of adults in all age groups, except for the 70-year-olds, received their dental care in the Public Dental Service in 1993 compared to 1983 and 1973. Most 40-year-olds and older, however, received their dental care by private practitioners. About 80% of all adults in 1993 were enrolled in a recall system on the dentist's initiative while in 1973 most appointments were based on the patient's own initiative. The number of individuals who felt discomfort at the prospect of an appointment with the dentist was more or less the same in 1973, 1983, and 1993. The knowledge of the etiology of dental diseases has not changed much between 1973 and 1993. The frequency of toothbrushing has increased since 1973 and in 1993 more than 95% of all individuals brushed their teeth daily. The use of dental floss and toothpicks as well as disclosing tablets decreased in 1993 compared to 1983. Almost all individuals in 1993 used fluoride toothpaste. The use of topical fluorides and fluoride tablets in children had decreased considerably in 1993 compared to 1983.

  • 17.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, G
    Bergendal, T
    Hallonsten, A L
    Slotte, C
    Thorstensson, B
    Thorstensson, H
    Oral health of individuals aged 3-80 years in Jönköping, Sweden in 1973, 1983, and 1993: II. Review of clinical and radiographic findings1995In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 243-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to analyse various clinical and radiographic data on oral health and compare the results to those of two cross-sectional studies carried out in 1973 and 1983. In 1973, 1983, and 1993 a random sample of 1000, 1104, and 1078 individuals, respectively were studied. The individuals were evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years. In 1983 and 1993 80-year-olds were also included. All subjects were inhabitants of the community of Jönköping, Sweden. The clinical and radiographic examination assessed edentulousness, removable dentures, implants, number of teeth, caries, restorations and overhangs, oral hygiene, calculus, periodontal status, endodontic treatment, and periapical status. The number of edentulous individuals was reduced by half from 1973 to 1993 and is now 8% in the age groups 40-70 years. The mean number of teeth has increased and up to the age of 50 years the individuals had more or less complete dentitions. During the 20-year period there was generally decreasing number of carious lesions and restorations. In the 15- and 20-year-olds, however, there was an increasing number of decayed/filled tooth surfaces in 1993 compared to 1983. Furthermore, after the age of 50 there was an increase in number of restored tooth surfaces. As regards secondary caries there was an increase for the 10- and 15-year-olds between 1983 and 1993. For all other age groups there were only minor differences. Generally restorations exhibited a high quality and 85-90% had no proximal overhangs. In 1973 this figure was about 60%. Concerning the frequency of tooth surfaces exhibiting plaque and gingival inflammation there was a considerable decrease from 1973 to 1983, but during the period from 1983 to 1993 there seems to be no improvement. In some age groups there was even a significant increase in plaque (15-year-olds) and gingivitis (3-, 5-, 15-, 20-, and 60-year-olds). The frequency of individuals with one or more periodontal pockets (> 4 mm) increased with age. In 1993 the bone level at the age of 40 years corresponded to the bone level at the age of 20 years in 1973. The percentage of endodontically treated teeth was lower in 1993 in all age groups than in 1973 and 1983. The percentage of endodontically treated teeth with periapical or juxtaradicular destructions was unchanged in all three studies. The comparison of the three studies from 1973, 1983, and 1993 shows that there has been a great improvement in oral health over this 20-year period. In 1993, however, the increasing number of decayed/filled tooth surfaces in the 15- and 20-year-olds and an increase in plaque and gingivitis in some younger age groups calls for special attention.

  • 18.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, Göran
    Thirty year trends in the prevalence and distribution of dental caries in Swedish adults (1973-2003)2008In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 57-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present investigation is to report on the trends in the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental status in an adult Swedish population over a 30-year period (1973-2003). Four cross-sectional epidemiological studies in 1973, 1983, 1993, and 2003 were performed in Jönköping, Sweden.A random sample of individuals aged 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 years were examined clinically and radiographically, a total of 2521 individals. Diagnostic variables were edentulousness, number of teeth, initial and manifest caries lesions, restorations, fissure sealants, and quality of restorations (secondary caries and overhangs). The percentage of edentulous 40- to 70-year-old individuals decreased during the 30-year period from 16% to 1%. The distribution of individuals by DFS in the age groups 20-50 years showed a gradual shift towards a positively skewed distribution between the years 1973 to 2003. There was a steady decrease in mean number of DFS in the age groups 20-50 years. In the 20-year-olds the mean number of DFS decreased by 72% and for 50-year-olds, by 37%. In conclusion there has been a marked decrease in DFS in adults up to middle age and a marked reduction in edentulousness over a thirty year period. This shows that the decrease in caries levels in children and adolescents is also occurring among adults.

  • 19.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, Göran
    Göthberg, Catharina
    Helkimo, Anna Nydell
    Lundin, Sven-Ake
    Norderyd, Ola
    Sjödin, Bengt
    Sjödin, Katarina
    Oral health of individuals aged 3-80 years in Jönköping, Sweden during 30 years (1973-2003): II. Review of clinical and radiographic findings.2005In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 139-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to analyze various clinical and radiographic data on oral health and compare the results to those of three cross-sectional studies carried out in 1973 and 1983, and 1993. In 1973, 1983, 1993, and 2003 a random sample of 1,000; 1,104; 1,078; and 987 individuals, respectively, were studied. The individuals were evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 years. In 1973 80-year-olds were not included. All subjects were inhabitants of the City of Jönköping, Sweden. The clinical and radiographic examination assessed edentulousness, removable dentures, implants, number of teeth, caries, restorations and overhangs, oral hygiene, calculus, periodontal status, endodontic treatment, and periapical status. The number of edentulous individuals in the age groups 40-70 years was reduced from 16 per cent in 1973 to 8 per cent in 1993, and to 1 per cent in 2003. The mean number of teeth increased, and up to the age of 60 years, individuals had more or less complete dentitions. During the 30-year period,the number of carious lesions and restorations decreased in general. In the 15-year-olds the decrease in number of restored tooth surfaces was 900 per cent and the corresponding figure for 30-year-olds was 79 per cent. The age groups 60-800 years showed an increase in number of restored tooth surfaces and had as a mean 50 filled tooth surfaces. The oral health among 3-5-year-olds improved markedly between 1973 and 1993. In 2003, however, there was no further improvement in 3- and 5-year-olds compared to 1993. Generally, restorations in 2003 exhibited a high quality and 90-95 per cent had no proximal overhangs. In 1973 this figure was about 60 per cent. In the age groups 20-50 years there were continuously fewer teeth fitted with crowns or bridges during the 30-year period. In 1973 the 50-year-olds had a mean of 24.5 per cent of the teeth crowned and in 2003 6.8 percent. Compared to data from 1973 there was a reduction by half concerning occurrence of plaque and gingivitis in 2003. The frequency of individuals with one or more periodontal pockets (> or = 4 mm) increased with age. In 2003 the bone level at the age of 60 years corresponded to the bone level at the age of 40 years in 1973. The percentage of endodontically treated teeth was lower in 2003 in all age groups compared to 1973, 1983, and 1993. The percentage of endodontically treated teeth with periapical orjuxtaradicular destructions was generally lower in 2003 than in the earlier surveys, about 20 per cent in 2003 compared to 25-30 per cent in 1973,1983, and 1993. The comparison of the four studies shows that there has been a great overall improvement in oral health over this 30-year period.

  • 20.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, Göran
    Göthberg, Catharina
    Helkimo, Anna Nydell
    Lundin, Sven-Ake
    Norderyd, Ola
    Sjödin, Bengt
    Sondell, Katarina
    Oral health of individuals aged 3-80 years in Jönköping, Sweden during 30 years (1973-2003): I. Review of findings on dental care habits and knowledge of oral health2005In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 125-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to compare data on dental care habits and knowledge of oral health in four cross-sectional epidemiological studies carried out in 1973,1983,1993, and 2003. The 1973 study constituted a random sample of 1,000 individuals evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years. The same age groups with addition of a group of 80-year-olds were included in the 1983, 1993 and 2003 studies, which comprised 1,104, 1,078, and 987 individuals, respectively. A questionnaire about dental care habits and knowledge of oral health was used in connection with a clinical and radiographic examination. The same questions were used in all the four studies. An addition to the 1993 and 2003 investigations were questions concerning ethnic background. In 2003 approximately 90-95 per cent of all individuals were visiting the dentist on a regular basis every or every second year. The 30- and 40-yea r-olds, however, did not visit a dentist as regularly in 2003 as in 1993. In these age groups 21-24 per cent of the individuals, respectively, reported that they had not visited a dentist in the last 2 years. Almost all children 3-15 years old received their dental care within the Public Dental Service (PDS). During the period 1973-2003 an increase in percentage of individuals aged 20-50 years treated by the PDS was seen compared to private practice, while among 60-80 year-olds there were only minor changes. Most so-year-olds and older received their dental care by private practitioners. About 70-80 per cent of all adults in 2003 were enrolled in a recall system on the dentist's initiative while in 1973 most appointments were based on the patient's own initiative. The number of individuals who were frightened, 5-17 per cent, or felt discomfort at the prospect of an appointment with the dentist was more or less the same during the whole period. The knowledge of the etiology of dental diseases did not changed much between 1973 and 2003. The frequency of toothbrushing increased since 1973 and in 2003 more than 90 per cent of all individuals brushed their teeth twice or once a day. The use of dental floss and toothpicks decreased in 2003 compared to 1983 and 1993. Almost all individuals in 2003 used fluoride toothpaste. It was obvious that the dental team constituted the main source of dental health information. For the age groups 20 and 30 years information from friends and relatives was also important. In the age groups 3-20 years up to 45 per cent of the individuals were consuming soft drinks every day or several times a week.

  • 21.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Lundgren, Dan
    Asklöw, Barbro
    Borgklint, Gun
    The effect of different dental health programmes on young adult individuals: A longitudinal evaluation of knowledge and behaviour including cost aspects2003In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 115-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to report the long-term effect of different dental health programmes on young adult individuals' knowledge and behaviour relative to oral health. Over a 3 years period, the effect of three different dental health programmes on caries, gingivitis/periodontitis, and knowledge and behaviour concerning oral health in 400 Swedish young adults was evaluated. During the following 2 years, additional prophylactic measures--now based on the individual's symptoms and the prophylaxis previously received--were conducted and evaluated. Five years later still one follow-up was made. The evaluations were based on clinical and radiographic examinations and on a questionnaire survey whose purpose was to study the short- and long-term effects of the different preventive measures, including cost aspects. At the end of the 3 years period, the three test groups exhibited better knowledge and significantly improved behaviour compared with the control group concerning approximal cleaning, from approximately 50% of the individuals at the baseline examination to approximately 90% at the end of the period. Improvement was observed as early as the first year. There were no differences between the test groups. The intensified, individual-related prophylaxis carried out in the following 2 years did not significantly increase knowledge in the test groups; a significant increase in approximal cleaning, however, was found in the control group during this time. At the 10-year follow-up, the individuals' knowledge was undiminished while behaviour concerning approximal cleaning had sunk from 90% to approximately 70% of the individuals. A slight behavioural change concerning number of snacks was found in the course of the study with a shift towards fewer snacks per day. In conclusion, it can be said that simple prophylactic models have an effect on and maintain young adult individuals' knowledge and behaviour concerning oral health and that new knowledge is remembered for long periods of time while changes in behaviour are maintained less well. Moreover, it was found that the scope of the prophylactic programme measured in time and cost had little effect on the long-term result.

  • 22. Hägglin, Catharina
    et al.
    Berggren, Ulf
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Edvardsson, Anna
    Eriksson, Marina
    Evaluation of a Swedish version of the OHIP-14 among patients in general and specialist dental care.2007In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 91-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Swedish version of an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL) instrument, the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), and to assess OHRQL among patients in general dental care and specialist clinics (periodontics, TMD and implant dentistry) in Göteborg, Sweden. Consecutively selected patients were asked to answer the OHIP-14, the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and a questionnaire including socio-demographic, general health and oral health questions. 153 patients (50-89 years old) out of 237 (65%) returned the questionnaires. Cronbach's Alpha among the OHIP items was high (0.93) and the corrected item-scale correlation varied between 0.51 and 0.79. The correlation between the OHIP-14 score and the GOHAI was high (-0.83) indicating good criterion validity. The mean additive OHIP-14 score was 22.6 (SD = 10.5). Implant patients scored significantly higher than other patient groups with respect to missing teeth, dentures and mobile teeth. High scores were also associated with perceived poor general health and dissatisfaction with life-situation. The test-retest reliability was assessed in a separate sample (n = 47) and the correlation coefficient was 0.85. The Swedish version of OHIP-14 demonstrated good reliability and validity. The poorer OHRQL reported by the implant patients reflects the strong association found between OHIP score and dentures and missing teeth, while OHIP-14 did not show similar sensitivity to other impacts of oral disorders.

  • 23.
    Jacobsson, Brittmarie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Wendt, Lill-Kari
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Dental caries and caries associated factors in Swedish 15-year-olds in relation to immigrant background.2005In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries and caries associated variables in 15-year-olds in relation to foreign background and to examine differences in the prevalence of caries in immigrant adolescents according to their length of residence in Sweden. All 15-year-old adolescents (n=143) at one public school in the city of Jönköping, Sweden were asked to participate in the study. The adolescents were divided into two groups according to their background: immigrants and non-immigrants. Data on caries prevalence were extracted from the dental records of the examination made when the participants were 15 years old. The proportions of immigrants and non-immigrants free from carious lesions were equal. Immigrant adolescents, however, had on average more enamel carious lesions. Adolescents born in Sweden of immigrant parents or who had arrived before 1 year of age had a caries prevalence similar to those of non-immigrant adolescents, whereas children who had immigrated to Sweden after 7 years of age had a caries prevalence that was 2-3 times higher. As the caries carious lesions in immigrant adolescents is mainly restricted to the enamel, and possibly reversible, early introduction of preventive programmes seems essential.

  • 24.
    Josefsson, Eva
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Bjerklin, Krister
    Lindsten, Rune
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and prevalence of malocclusion in 18- and 19-year-olds in Sweden with different geographic origin2010In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 95-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthodontic treatment need and demand in 19-year-olds in Sweden has not previously been analysed in relation to geographic origin. The aim of this follow-up study was to examine the prevalence of self-perceived treatment need, malocclusion, earlier orthodontic treatment, self-perceived dental aesthetics and prevalence of symptoms indicative oftemporomandibular disorders in 18-19 year-olds and to analyze any differences between native born and immigrants. Body esteem and psychological wellbeing were also evaluated. The subjects, n=316, were grouped according to family origin: Group A: both parents born in Sweden (98 girls, 80 boys); Group B:the subject or at least one parent born in Eastern /South Eastern Europe (24 girls, 26 boys) and Group C: Asia (44 girls, 44 boys). Two hundered and sixty-eight participants presented for clinical examination and answered the full questionnaire, and 48 who rejected clinical examination,were interviewed by telephone using selected questions from a questionnaire. The results show that adolescents of Asian origin had a higher self-perceived treatment need than adolescents of Swedish origin. There were negligible inter-group differences with respect to frequency of malocclusion. Forty-four per cent of all participants had previously undergone orthodontic treatment, significantly more Swedish than Asian subjects. Dissatisfaction with dental aesthetics was attributed primarily to tooth colour (38 per cent) and irregular anterior teeth (34 per cent). Adolescents of Asian origin had a higher frequency of headache than those of Eastern/South Eastern European origin. Compared to boys, girls had a higher self-perceived treatment need, a higher frequency of headache and TMD and were more concerned about body appearance. Psychological wellbeing was reduced in nearly one quarter of the participants, predominantly girls: girls of Asian origin had the highest frequency. No association was found between self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and psychological wellbeing.

  • 25. Koch, G
    et al.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Petersson, L G
    Fluoride uptake on dry versus water-saliva wetted human enamel surfaces in vitro after topical application of a varnish (Duraphat) containing fluoride.1988In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 221-225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Lindfors, E
    et al.
    Helkimo, M
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Patients' adherence to hard acrylic interocclusal appliance treatment in general dental practice in Sweden2011In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to investigate patient adherence to treatment with hard acrylic interocclusal appliance in general dentistry in Sweden and to see if some general factors could predict patient adherence or non-adherence. During the period January - May 2009 a postal questionnaire was sent to all adult patients (≥20 years of age) that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance from the public dental health service in the County of Uppsala during 2007 (n=388). The same questionnaire was also sent to all adult patients that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance at a specialist clinic during the same year (n=69). The response rate in general dental practice was 71 % and at the specialist clinic the response rate was 91 %. In general dental practice, 97 % of the hard acrylic interocclusal appliances were stabilisation appliances. At the specialist clinic other types of interocclusal appliances was used to a greater extent. A vast majority of patients in both general dental practice and at the specialist clinic experienced that the interocclusal appliance had a positive treatment effect. In general dental practice, 73% of the patients still used their interocclusal appliances 1 1/2-2 years after they had received them. The corresponding figure at the specialist clinic was 54%. The main reasons for not using the interocclusal appliance, besides disappearance/reduction of TMD symptoms, were different kinds of comfort problems. From the results of this study it is concluded that the patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances made in general dental practice in Sweden is good. It can also be concluded that a perceived good treatment effect, as well as treatment of more long-term conditions, predicted a better patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances. More studies concerning factors affecting patient adherence in TMD therapy are warranted.

  • 27. Lindfors, Erik
    et al.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Tegelberg, Ake
    Interocclusal appliances: indications and clinical routines in general dental practice in Sweden.2006In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 123-134Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Lindfors, Erik
    et al.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Helkimo, Martti
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Treatment of temporomandibular disorders with a combination of hard acrylic stabilisation appliance and a soft appliance in the opposing jaw: A retro- and prospective study2008In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment effect of a combined treatment with a stabilisation appliance and a soft appliance in the opposing jaw in patients refractory to previous TMD treatment. During a 5-year-period, 2001-2005, a total of 98 patients received the combined treatment at the Department of Stomatognathic Physiology, the Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden. Before the patients received the combined treatment, they had already been given several different TMD treatments during a long period of time, either before referral or at the specialist clinic, with only minor or no effect on their TMD symptoms. The patients were followed prospectively (n=10), or analysed retrospectively (n=88). The data registered were gender, age, main indication for TMD treatment, number of visits to the clinic before and after the introduction of the combined treatment, as well as according to a clinical (Di) and anamnestic (Ai) dysfunction index. The most common causes for treatment in the retrospective material were problems of muscular origin and problems of both muscular and TMJ origin. In the prospective material, most of the patients had mainly muscular symptoms. Both the clinical and anamnestic dysfunction index decreased statistically significantly in the retrospective material after the introduction of the combined treatment. There was a numerical improvement of both indices also in the prospective material. In conclusion, the present investigation showed that a combined treatment with a hard acrylic stabilisation appliance and a soft appliance in the opposing jaw seems to give a remarkable improvement of TMD signs and symptoms in apparently therapy resistant TMD patients. General conclusions should, however, be made with caution due to the fact that the study did not include any control group. There is an obvious need for randomized controlled studies concerning the efficacy and effectiveness of the combined treatment presented in this study.

  • 29.
    Lindsten, Rune
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Secular changes in tooth size and dental arch dimensions in the mixed dentition2003In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, no 157, p. 1-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secular changes in the mixed dentition were studied. Permanent tooth size and dental arch dimensions were examined in Norwegian children born in the 1960s and 1980s, Swedish children born in the 1960s and 1980s, Norwegian Sami children born in the 1980s, and a sample of Norwegian skulls dating from the 14th to the 19th century. The Norwegian Sami children were nomadic in the summertime. A sample of pigs was studied before and after a maceration process to determine what dimensional changes might occur in such a process. A shrinkage of 0.3%-1.7% was found. This information was used when the skulls were compared with the modern groups. Lateral dental arch lengths were shorter in the children born in the 1960s compared with the children born in the 1980s. This was a result of the higher prevalence of caries in the second deciduous molars in the 1960s groups. Children who had lost a deciduous canine prematurely were found to have smaller dental arch perimeters. When compared with other data, this was blamed on a pre-existing crowding. Permanent tooth size was smaller in the skulls compared with the modern groups. Improved nutrition is considered to be the main reason for the difference. Relative dental arch space differed in the group born in the 1960s from that in the other groups, indicating a greater prevalence of crowding in the former. Relative dental arch space in the skulls and in the group born in the 1980s was similar. A more traditional way of living, as practised by the Sami group in this thesis, was not favorable for relative dental arch space. The transverse intermaxillary relation in boys changed from the 1960s to the 1980s, which indicated that the 1980s group ran a greater risk of developing a posterior cross-bite. Before the same conclusion could be made in the girls, the mesial drift of the first permanent molars had to be corrected for, because of a higher prevalence of caries in the 1960s group. The sex-pooled analysis of the skulls and the contemporary groups revealed that the risk for developing a posterior cross-bite in the 1980s group was greater than in the skulls. The skulls had smaller arch depths than the modern groups.

  • 30. Löfquist, L
    et al.
    Bergendal, B
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Fixed prosthodontics in adults in Jönköping, Sweden in 1983 and 1993: An epidemiological study of prevalence and choice of material.2000In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of fixed prostheses, i.e. single crowns and fixed partial dentures, in adults 20-80 years old in two cross-sectional studies carried out in 1983 and 1993 and to analyse whether the choice of material for fixed prostheses had changed during this time period. The material comprised 586 and 593 individuals. A descriptive analysis of number of individuals with fixed prostheses was made concerning the number of crowns and pontics, the distribution in the jaws, and the materials used. The prevalence of individuals with fixed prostheses was shown to increase with age both in 1983 and 1993. In 1993 the number of individuals with fixed prostheses was slightly lower than in 1983 (44 and 48 percent respectively). There was no difference according to gender. The proportion of individuals with fixed prostheses was lower or almost unchanged in the 20-, 30-, 40-, 50-, 60-, and 80-year-olds in 1993 compared to 1983. In the 70-year-olds, however, the proportion of individuals with fixed prostheses was considerably higher in 1993 compared to 1983. Most individuals with fixed prostheses had a small number of crowned teeth, and about half of the individuals had not more than four crowned teeth. Likewise most individuals with pontics had a small number of pontics. The distributions of crowned teeth and pontics in the jaws were similar in 1983 and 1993. Pontics and crowns were more frequent in the upper than in the lower jaw. Crowns made of porcelain or metal ceramic had increased by 1993 in the 30-80 year age groups, and the study thus confirms general clinical experience that porcelain and metal ceramic are more often the materials of choice in fixed prosthodontics in adults today.

  • 31. Magnusson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Ernberg, Malin
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    A description of a contemporary human skull material in respect of age, gender, temporomandibular joint changes, and some dental variables2008In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 69-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controversy exists concerning the etiological factors behind degenerative changes in the temporomandibularjoints (TMJs). Occlusal factors, ageing, gender and genetics are some factors that have been discussed.The aim of the present study was to examine a contemporary human skull material in respect of gender, age, occlusal variables and form and surface changes in the temporomandibular joints.The material consisted of 259 human skulls, 170 males and 89 females, with an age range of 18-100 years.The over all dental status was poor, and 22% were edentulous. Both medio-lateral and antero-posterior dimensions as well as anterior and superior shape of the condyles were in good agreement with previous results. Form and surface changes of both the condyles and the temporal components were, however, more common in the present material compared to most previous studies. Men had on average more degenerative changes in the TMJs compared to women. In agreement with many previous studies, there was an increase of such changes with increasing age. Severe tooth attrition was a common finding, especially in men, but no correlation was found between this variable and the severity of degenerative changes in the TMJs. Abfractions were found in only 3 cases. Considering the common finding of severe tooth attrition,the rare occurrence of abfractions does not lend support to the hypothesis that abfractions are mainly caused by occlusal loading. In conclusion: Condylar dimensions and shape of the condyles were in good agreement with previously presented results. Severe tooth attrition and pronounced degenerative changes in the TMJs were common findings but no statistically significant association was found between these two variables.

  • 32.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Clinical judgement and patients' evaluation of complete dentures five years after treatment: A follow-up study.1986In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 10, no 1-2, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Is snuff a potential risk factor in occlusal wear?1991In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Patients referred for stomatognathic treatment: a survey of 282 patients.1984In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 193-201Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Adiels, Anne-Marie
    Nilsson, Håkan L
    Helkimo, Martti
    Treatment effect on signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders: comparison between stabilisation splint and a new type of splint (NTI). A pilot study.2004In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Carlsson, G E
    Comparison between two groups of patients in respect of headache and mandibular dysfunction.1978In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Carlsson, G E
    Treatment of patients with functional disturbances in the masticatory system: A survey of 80 consecutive patients.1980In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 145-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Karlsson, Christina
    Clinical impact of radiological examinations of patients with suspected temporomandibular disorders2002In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the proportion and diagnostic value of different imaging techniques when investigating patients with suspected temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Out of 396 patients referred to a specialist clinic of stomatognathic physiology, information from radiological examinations was available in 285 patients (72%) at first examination or obtained during the course of treatment. The most common radiographic examination was panoramic radiography. Radiological findings with some clinical importance were made in one-fourth of the 285 patients. In another 11% of these patients, additional radiological findings not judged to be associated with the TMD but in need of therapeutic measures, were made. In 72 patients information from more extensive examinations such as transcranial projections of the TMJs, conventional tomography of the TMJs, CT images and MRT images were performed during the course of treatment. In 63% of these patients, the extended examinations revealed findings of clinical significance for the TMD diagnosis and/or treatment. It is concluded that panoramic radiography has a diagnostic value when investigating patients with suspected TMD. Because of this, and since the effective radiation dose is small for this exposure, and since also no findings on the panoramic radiographs can be an important information, extended use of this examination can be recommended in patients referred to a specialist clinic because of suspected TMD. The need for more extended radiological examinations in TMD patients is limited and should always be based on individual information from the patient's history and/or clinical findings.

  • 39.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Syrén, M
    Therapeutic jaw exercises and interocclusal appliance therapy: A comparison between two common treatments of temporomandibular disorders.1999In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 27-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Nederfors, T
    et al.
    Paulsson, G
    Isaksson, R
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Ability to estimate oral health status and treatment need in elderly receiving home nursing: a comparison between a dental hygienist and a dentist2000In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 105-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41. Norderyd, O
    et al.
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Tooth loss and periodontal bone level in individuals of Jönköping County: A comparison between two adult populations living in the city and in the surrounding area1998In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 165-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were performed in the community (in this paper changed to city) of Jönköping, Sweden, over a period of 20 years to follow changes in oral health and oral health behaviour. To widen our knowledge about dental health and dental care among the adult population, we expanded the study in 1993 to cover the whole county. The specific aim of the present study was to describe tooth loss (excluding third molars) and periodontal bone level in adult residents of Jönköping County and to compare these two parameters in adults living in the city of Jönköping with the same in adults living in the rest of the county. Random samples of individuals 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years old were selected. A total of 484 persons from the city and 1219 subjects from the rest of the county were examined. A total of 32 (7%) and 27 (2%) persons were completely edentulous in the examined populations from the city and from the rest of the county, respectively. A majority belonged to the older age groups, 60 and 70 years, with 17% of the subjects in the city being edentulous compared with 13% in the rest of the county. The mean number of missing teeth in subjects in the city versus subjects in the rest of the county was 0.75/0.95, 1.37/1.60, 3.34/2.43, 6.34/7.40, and 9.95/10.26 in 30-, 40-, 50-, 60-, and 70-year-olds, respectively. Of all the different tooth types, the average number of molars per person decreased the most with increasing age from an average of 7.79/7.83 (city/county) to 3.06/3.09 (city/county) for 30- and 70-year-olds, respectively. The proportion of subjects without molars was higher in the older age groups in both the city and the rest of the county with 4.8/10.7% and 15.6/22.0% of the 60- and 70-year-olds, respectively, lacking molars. In both populations, the mean periodontal bone level decreased with age. It was concluded that no important differences in tooth loss and periodontal health could be seen between the two populations. When organising dental care, dental health administrators could apply the findings from the population in the city to the entire county.

  • 42.
    Norderyd, Ola
    et al.
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden;Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö, Sweden.
    Koch, Göran
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Papias, Apostolos
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Anastassaki Köhler, Alkisti
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nydell Helkimo, Anna
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Brahm, Carl-Otto
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Lindfors, Ninita
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anna
    Public Dental Health Service, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Rolander, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Futurum, Academy for Health and Care, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ullbro, Christer
    UiT. The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Wärnberg Gerdin, Elisabeth
    Dental Research Department, Public Dental Service, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Frisk, Fredrik
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Oral health of individuals aged 3-80 years in Jönköping, Sweden, during 40 years (1973-2013): I. Review of findings on oral care habits and knowledge of oral health2015In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 57-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this study was to present data on oral care habits and knowledge of oral health in 2013, and to compare these data with results from a series of four previous cross-sectional epidemiological studies. All these studies were carried out in the city of Jönköping, Sweden, in 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013. The 1973 study constituted a random sample of 1,000 individuals evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years. The same age groups with addition of a group of 80-year-olds were included in the 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013 studies, which comprised 1,104; 1,078; 987; and 1,010 individuals, respectively.

    A questionnaire about dental care habits and knowledge of oral health was used. The questionnaire contained the same questions in all the five studies, although some had to be slightly modernised during the 40-year period.

    During the period 1973–2013, a continous increase of individuals in the age group 20–60 years were treated by the Public Dental Service amounting to about 50%. Almost 70% of the 70- and 80-year-olds were treated by private practitioners. In 2013, 10–20% of the individuals in the age groups 30–40 years did not regularly visit neither Public Dental Service nor a private practitioner. The corresponding figures for the individuals 50–80 years old were 4–7%. Similar number of avoidance was reported in the previous studies.

    In the survey 2013, about 20–30% of the individuals in the age groups 20–50 felt frightened, sick, or ill at ease at the prospect of an appointment with the dentist. These findings were in agreement with the results from the surveys 1973–2003. Among the younger age groups, 10–15 years, a reduction in self-reported "ill at ease" was found in the surveys 2003 and 2013 compared to the previous surveys in this series.

    In 2013, the knowledge of the etiology of caries was known by about 60% of the individuals which was similar to that reported 1973–2003. Twenty per cent of the individuals stated that they did not know which etiological factors that causes caries. This percentage was equivalent during the period 1973–2013. About 85% of the individuals in all age groups brushed their teeth with fluoride tooth paste at least two times a day. These frequencies have gradually increased during the 40-year period.

    Around 40% in the age groups 50–80 years used toothpicks regularly in 2013. This is a about 1/3–1/2 less compared to 2003. In the age groups 20–40 years 3–14% used toothpicks for proximal cleaning in 2013.

    In 2013, about 35% of the individuals never consumed soft drinks, in comparison with 20% in 2003. In the age groups 3–20 years about 20% were consuming soft drinks every day or several times a week, which is a reduction by half compared to 2013

  • 43.
    Norderyd, Ola
    et al.
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden;Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö, Sweden.
    Koch, Göran
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Papias, Apostolos
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Anastassaki Köhler, Alkisti
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nydell Helkimo, Anna
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Brahm, Carl-Otto
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Lindfors, Ninita
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anna
    Public Dental Health Service, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Rolander, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Futurum, Academy for Health and Care, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ullbro, Christer
    UiT. The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Wärnberg Gerdin, Elisabeth
    Dental Research Department, Public Dental Service, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Frisk, Fredrik
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Oral health of individuals aged 3-80 years in Jönköping, Sweden during 40 years (1973-2013): II. Review of clinical and radiographic findings2015In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 69-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this epidemiological study performed in 2013 was to analyze various clinical and radiographic data on oral health and compare the results to those of four cross-sectional studies carried out 1973–2003. In 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013 random samples of 1,000; 1,104; 1,078; 987; and 1,010 individuals, respectively, were studied. The individuals were evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 years. Eighty-year-olds were not included in 1973. All subjects were inhabitants of the city of Jönköping, Sweden.

    The clinical and radiographic examination assessed edentulousness, removable dentures, implants, number of teeth, caries, restorations, oral hygiene, calculus, periodontal status, and endodontic treatment.

    The frequency of edentulous individuals aged 40–70 years was 16, 12, 8, 1, and 0.3% in 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013, respectively. No complete denture wearer younger than 80-years old was found in 2013. During the 40-year period, the mean number of teeth in the age groups 30–80 years increased. In 2013, the 60-year-olds had nearly complete dentitions. Implants were found in all age groups from 30 years of age. The total number of individuals with implants was 36 in 2013. This was higher than earlier surveys, 4 in 1993, and 18 in 2003.

    The percentage of children and adults without caries and restorations increased during the 40-year period. It was found that the percentage of caries-free 3- and 5-year-olds were 79% and 69%, respectively, of the individuals in 2013. In the age groups 10–20 years, the percentage of caries-free individuals increased between 2003 and 2013. In 2013, 43% of the 15-year-olds were completely free from caries and restorations compared to 20% in 2003. In all age groups 5–60 years, DFS was lower in 2013 compared to the earlier examinations. There was no major change in DFS between 2003 and 2013 in the age groups 70 and 80 years. The most obvious change was the decrease in number of FS over the 40- year period of time. Regarding crowned teeth the most clear changes between 1973 to 2013 were the decrease in percentage of crowned teeth in the age goups 40 and 50-year-olds. The percentage of endodontically treated teeth decreased between 1973 and 2013 in all age groups.

    In age groups 10–30-year-olds a major reduction from about 30% to 15% in mean plaque score was seen between 1973–2003. Only a minor change in plaque score was seen during the last decade. For the age groups 40 years and older, a decrease in the percentage of surfaces with plaque was observed between 2003–2013. The percentage of tooth sites with gingivitis was for 20 years and older about 40% in 1973. In 2013, the percentage was about 15%. The frequency of sites with gingivitis was generally lower in 2013 compared with the other years, 1973–1993.

    The percentage of individuals with probing pocket depths >4mm increased with age. Between 2003–2013 a clear reduction was seen in all age groups in frequency of individuals with probing pocket depth >4mm. Over the 40-year period an increase in the number of individuals with no marginal bone loss and a decrease in the number of subjects with moderate alveolar bone loss were seen.

    The continuous improvement in oral health and the reduced need of restorative treatment will seriously affect the provision of dental helath care and dental delivery system in the near future.

  • 44. Ostberg, AL
    et al.
    Andersson, P
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) in Swedish2008In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 187-195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Petersson, L G
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Lodding, A
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, G
    Fluorine profiles in human enamel after in vitro treatment with dentifrices of different compositions and acidities.1989In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 177-183Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Rolandsson, M
    et al.
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Factors associated with snuffing habits among ice-hockey-playing boys2001In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 145-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present investigation was to study differences in background factors between ice-hockey-playing boys who used snuff, who had tried using snuff, and who had never used snuff. The background factors studied were the socio-economic conditions of the boys' parents; the tobacco habits of the boys' parents, siblings, and friends; the boys' choice of theoretical or practical upper secondary school programme; knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco as well as participation in a sport other than ice hockey. Data were collected usinG a questionnaire. Of 249 boys in the age group 12-19 years who participated in the study, 13% used snuff, 34% had tried using snuff, and 53% had never used snuff. The factors knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco and choice of theoretical or practical upper secondary school programme had no significant association with the boys' snuffing habits. This was also true for the parents' tobacco habits unless their habits were analysed separate from each other, where "mother smoked" showed an association with boys who used snuff. The study also showed a significant difference between boys who used snuff and boys who had never used snuff and between boys who had tried using snuff and boys who had never used snuff; boys who used snuff tended to have siblings who used snuff. Of boys who used snuff, 77% reported that their friends' use of snuff had influenced them to start using snuff. A significant difference could also be shown between boys who used snuff, had tried using snuff and never-users depending on whether the boys participated in a sport other than ice hockey. Snuff usage was not as widespread among boys who participated in other sport activities. This was verified by the multivariate logistic regression analysis where "taking part in other sports than ice hockey" was the explanatory variable that showed the strongest association with the dependent variable. An active participation in ice hockey and the environment, in which this sport is practised, would consequently be a strong influencing factor to start using snuff.

  • 47. Rolandsson, M
    et al.
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Knowledge and habits of tobacco among ice-hockey-playing boys: An intervention study.2000In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 24, no 1-2, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate tobacco habits among ice-hockey-playing boys in three clubs in the County of Värmland, Sweden and to analyse whether health information about the harmful effects of tobacco could change the players' tobacco habits. In addition, the issue of whether there is any correlation between knowledge of tobacco and its harmful effects with tobacco habits was studied. Ice-hockey-players from three ice-hockey clubs were represented and one of the clubs acted as a control group. A total of 252 male ice-hockey-players, 12-19 years old participated. A specially designed questionnaire containing 33 questions on background, socioeconomics, behaviour, and knowledge was used. The boys answered the questionnaire on three occasions. The first and second examinations took place on the same occasion with the intervention occurring between the examinations. The third examination was carried out after 3-5 weeks. The study showed that the use of snuff played a more important role among the ice-hockey-players than did smoking and that they had tried using snuff at the age of 12. The baseline investigation showed that there were no significant differences between the clubs in tobacco habits and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco. After the health information, the boys' knowledge of tobacco and its harmful effects increased significantly (p<0.001), but regardless, no change in their use of tobacco was found after 3-5 weeks. Knowledge also increased significantly among the boys in the control group (p<0.001), but no change in the use of tobacco was found here either. No significant difference could be demonstrated between the group of boys who used snuff and the non-users with regard to their knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco.

  • 48. Rolandsson, Margot
    et al.
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Changes in tobacco habits: A prospective longitudinal study of tobacco habits among boys who play ice hockey.2003In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 175-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the investigation was to follow up tobacco habits and actual sporting activities among the boys who participated in an earlier study by the authors, and to examine whether knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco and tobacco behaviour patterns and/or the choice of tobacco had changed amongst the participants. The study was conducted 3 years after the original study. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Of the 183 boys in the age group 15-22 years who participated in the study, 26.8% were tobacco users: 19.7% only snuff users, 6.0% both snuff users and smokers and 1.1% smokers. Compared with the original study, a further 16.4% of the boys had started to use tobacco. The use of tobacco increased in all age groups except amongst 19-year-olds where tobacco use was unchanged. The age group 17-22 years included boys who were both snuff users and smokers. An increase in tobacco use between the ages of 17 and 19 years could be shown compared with the original study, for equivalent age groups. Among the 132 boys who still played ice hockey, 25.8% were tobacco users: 18.2% only snuff users, 6.1% both snuff users and smokers and 1.5% smokers. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) could be shown between boys who used snuff and non-users depending on whether the boys participated in another sport besides ice hockey. Snuff usage was thus not as widespread among boys who participated in other sporting activities. The increase in tobacco use amongst the boys in the study showed that the various preventive initiatives which society so far has offered have been inadequate. Hence, the preventive measures need to be evaluated and developed to prevent tobacco habits from becoming established. The results of this and previous studies show that the environment in which ice hockey is practiced can, in itself, constitute a risk for tobacco usage becoming established among ice-hockey-playing adolescents.

  • 49. Sondell, Katarin
    et al.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Dental care utilization in a Swedish county in 1993 and 20032010In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 217-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Sundqvist, B
    et al.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Individual prediction of treatment outcome in patients with temporomandibular disorders2001In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
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