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  • 1. Ahlgren, Jennie
    et al.
    Görman, Ulf
    Mathers, John C
    Grimaldi, Keith A
    Nordström, Karin
    Do we know enough?: A scientific and ethical analysis of the basis for genetic-based personalized nutrition2013In: Genes & Nutrition, ISSN 1555-8932, E-ISSN 1865-3499, no 8, p. 373-381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Jennie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Görman, Ulf
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Nordström, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Ethical considerations in relation to personalised nutrition: An overview of Work Package 5, with respect to ethics2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of Food4Me work package 5 included a baseline assessment of the ethical and legal aspects of personalised nutrition at the start of the project in 2011, as well as a final assessment at the end of the project (2015), taking into account results achieved in other work packages. The initial assessment made a number of ethical issues visible, most of them relating to the consumer of personalised nutrition service. The results depicted in this publication indicate that many of the questions raised in relation to these issues remain unsolved, and in some cases they seem to be neglected in relation to the services offered by internet companies.

  • 3. Ahlgren, Jennie
    et al.
    Görman, Ulf
    Nordström, Karin
    Nordgren, Anders
    Perrudin, Maud
    Ronteltap, Amber
    Savigny, Jean
    van Trijp, Hans
    Consumers on the Internet: ethical and legal aspects of commercialization of personalized nutrition2012In: Genes & Nutrition, ISSN 1555-8932, E-ISSN 1865-3499, no 4, p. 349-355Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4. Ahlgren, Jennie
    et al.
    Görman, Ulf
    Savigny, Jean
    Nordström, Karin
    Perrudin, Maud
    Nordgren, Anders
    van Trijp, Hans
    Ronteltap, Amber
    Consumers on the Internet: Ethical and legal aspects of commercialization of personalized nutrition2013In: Genes & Nutrition, ISSN 1555-8932, E-ISSN 1865-3499Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Ahlgren, Jennie
    et al.
    Görman, Ulf
    Önning, Gunilla
    Ska generna styra vad vi äter?2008In: Miljöforskning: Formas tidning för ett uthålligt samhälle, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Ahlgren, Jennie
    et al.
    Görman, Ulf
    Önning, Gunilla
    Ska generna styra vad vi äter?2005In: Miljöforskning, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Ahlgren, Jennie
    et al.
    Ethics Unit, Centre for Theology and Religious Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Centre for Applied Ethics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Perrudin, Maud
    Keller and Heckman LLP, Brussels, Belgium.
    Ronteltap, Amber
    LEI, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Savigny, Jean
    Keller and Heckman LLP, Brussels, Belgium.
    van Trijp, Hans
    Marketing and Consumer Behaviour, Group Wageningen University and Research .
    Nordström, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Social Studies and Didactics.
    Görman, Ulf
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Consumers on the Internet: ethical and legal aspects of commercialization of personalized nutrition2013In: Genes & Nutrition, ISSN 1555-8932, E-ISSN 1865-3499, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 349-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers often have a positive attitude to the option of receiving personalized nutrition advice based upon genetic testing, since the prospect of enhancing or maintaining one’s health can be perceived as empowering. Current direct-to-consumer services over the Internet, however, suffer from a questionable level of truthfulness and consumer protection, in addition to an imbalance between far-reaching promises and contrasting disclaimers. Psychological and behavioral studies indicate that consumer acceptance of a new technology is primarily explained by the end user’s rational and emotional interpretation as well as moral beliefs. Results from such studies indicate that personalized nutrition must create true value for the consumer. Also, the freedom to choose is crucial for consumer acceptance. From an ethical point of view, consumer protection is crucial, and caution must be exercised when putting nutrigenomic-based tests and advice services on the market. Current Internet offerings appear to reveal a need to further guaranty legal certainty by ensuring privacy, consumer protection and safety. Personalized nutrition services are on the borderline between nutrition and medicine. Current regulation of this area is incomplete and undergoing development. This situation entails the necessity for carefully assessing and developing existing rules that safeguard fundamental rights and data protection while taking into account the sensitivity of data, the risks posed by each step in their processing, and sufficient guarantees for consumers against potential misuse.

  • 8.
    Annerhult, Daniella
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Hagelberg, Elin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Utmaningar och svårigheter vid bedömning i etik inom religionskunskap: En litteraturstudie om religionskunskapslärares arbete samt utmaningar vid bedömning i etik2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka hur lärare i årskurs 4-6 arbetar med bedömning i etik inom religionskunskap. Frågor som kommer besvaras sker genom att titta på tidigare forskning som har gjorts inom området. För att skapa en förståelse hos läsaren inom ämnet presenteras i bakgrunden en beskrivning av läroplanen samt vilka specifika kunskapskrav det finns i religionskunskapen för etik, lärarens roll vid betygsättning, olika bedömningsformer samt syftet med bedömning. Vidare diskuteras val av den metod som använts i studien samt vilka urval som gjorts vid informationssökningen. Studiens resultat visar på att det finns svårigheter för lärare vid bedömning av sina elever när det kommer till etik. Det framkommer också genom olika studier att lärarna upplever att de inte har tillräckligt med kunskap vid bedömning inom ämnet och att det bedömningsstöd som ges är vagt då det är tolkningsbart. 

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  • 9. Back, Elin
    "Demoner härskar i ungdomens värld": Hur rollspel beskrevs i svenska dagstidningar 1980-19992023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how tabletop roleplaying games were portrayed in Swedish newspapers during the 1980s and the 1990s. to examine this a total of 48 articles from various Swedish newspapers have been analysed. The aim is to see how they were portrayed within the articles and to apply a model regarding moral panics to the descriptions. 

    The method used is text analysis of the articles, and the theoretical framework used is Stanley Cohens theory regarding moral panics and folk devils. The model used is created by Tommy Gustafsson and Klara Arnberg’s and is used to find roles and mechanism present in a moral panic. The model is based on the theoretical framework designed by Cohen.

    The result showed that all roles and mechanisms described in Gustafsson and Arnberg’s model were present in the descriptions of roleplaying games in Swedish newspapers during this period. During both the 1980s and the 1990s the descriptions contained both positive and negative aspects of roleplaying games and its effect on the youth. During the 1980s the negative descriptions were reliant on the satanic panic in the United States, and during the 1990s several cases involving suicide, murder and crimes in Sweden were blamed on the roleplaying games. This created a fear of roleplaying games and what effect it had on the children and young adults that played these games. It also created a need to understand the contents of these games and why the young wanted to play them.

     

    Key words: roleplaying games, newspaper analysis, moral panics, Stanley Cohen, folk devils

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  • 10.
    BarDavid, Hidiana
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Vad är egentligen lycka?: En komparativ studie av lyckobegreppet enligt Aristoteles, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill & Dalai Lama XVI.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är egentligen lycka? är en magisteruppsats inom etik. Syftet med uppsatsen är att göra en jämförelse av Aristoteles, Bentham, Mill och Dalai lamas lyckobegrepp utifrån deras litterära verk. Lyckobegreppet är något som man genom människans livstid har diskuterat och många menar att människans mål med livet är att sträva efter lyckan. Men vad är egentligen lycka och hur kan människan uppnå lyckan?

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  • 11.
    Broman, Martin
    Jönköping University.
    I välmeningens skugga: En etisk undersökning av Cancerfondens kampanj ”Säg NEJ till cancer!”2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In april 2016, Cancerfonden launched a campaign against the endemic disease cancer. The campaign

    was named ”Say NO to cancer!” which purpose was to raise awareness for the preventive

    measures, which if followed correctly could preclude one third of all affected by the disease. The

    campaign met a lot of criticism in media, from both individuals and the media itself. As a result of

    the criticism, the campaign came to an end a week after its launch.

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate what is morally doubtful with the campaign itself, and if

    the criticism directed towards the campaign is morally justified. As a subsidiary aim, the essay also

    examines whether it is reasonable to argue that the individual alone bears responsibility for their

    own health.

    Through a reflective qualitative content analysis, the following conclusion was reached. The campaign

    was morally doubtful in that way that the criticism directed towards the campaign mediated

    that the message was perceived as they were kicking on those who already suffered from cancer,

    even if these individuals hade followed their measures, as they presented the preventive measures as

    a lifestyleification where it all was taken very easy upon. The fact that Cancerfonden on their own

    decided to lay the campaign to rest is evidence enough that something wasn’t right. Cancerfonden

    themselves did in a public message explain that it was never their intention to blame anyone for getting

    affected by cancer. As an individual and the society has a shared interest in the individuals

    health, the campaign met a lot of criticism in areas such as guilt, responsibility of the individual

    versus the institution, misinterpretation of the purpose of the campaign and generally a lack of clarity

    of its purpose.

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    I välmeningens skugga
  • 12.
    Dahlros, Adam
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Schabbla genus Hallå, jämlikhet varför då?: En kritisk diskursanalys som undersöker representationen av jämlikhet i Skavlan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 13.
    Ekenvärn, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Kärlekens glädje?: En studie om relationen mellan teologiska ideal och pastorala problem vid formandet av praktisk katolsk etik i Amoris Laetitia2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are probably many people who imagine that religiously motivated ethics are static and immobile. That is probably an especially common thought when Catholic ethics are mentioned. Most people imagine that Catholic ethics is formed from above, by the Pope and the college of bishops, and that Church members have to comply with it without a shred of influence. Is this true? This paper (in swedish) examines the relationship between religious motivated ideals and pastoral problems, aiming to find out how theory and practice interact in the formation of Catholic ethics. The theoretical starting point for this paper is four models presented by Niclas Lindström that describe four ways that theory and practice interact. The material being investigated is the Catholic Church's recent post-synodal exhortation Amoris Laetitia, in english "The joy of love". By examining the ideals, problems and proposed actions mentioned in the exhortation, and by comparing the study to previous research regarding doctrinal development within the Catholic Church, a conclusion is made: Catholic ethics is developed and clarified slowly. The bishops are finalizing teachings based on theological ideals, in matters that their members have put on the agenda based on their pastoral problems. Finally, suggestions are presented regarding how school teachers that teach religious studies can make use of the paper in his or her work, in a way that meets the Swedish National Agency goals.

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    Amoris Laetitia
  • 14.
    Frondell, Jennie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Pietilä Sarmiento, Johanna
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    NURSES’ ETHICAL INTERACTION IN CARE OF PATIENTS: A minor field study in South Africa2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 15.
    Görman, Ulf
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Social Studies and Didactics.
    Editorial2013In: Genes & Nutrition, ISSN 1555-8932, E-ISSN 1865-3499, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 345-347Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special section of Genes and Nutrition presents a baseline analysis of ethical and legal issues undertaken within the EU FP7 research project Food4Me, which investigates the feasibility today of the vision for delivering personalized nutrition. Four major topics are addressed: Do we know enough for offering personalized nutritional advice? How can personal, cultural, and scientific perspectives on food and health be integrated? How does personalized nutrition affect individual autonomy? Which urgent ethical and legal matters stand out when personalized nutrition is commercialized?

  • 16.
    Görman, Ulf
    et al.
    Centre for Theology and Religious Studies, Ethics Division, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Jennie
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Plats, Identitet, Lärande (PIL).
    Nordström, Karin
    Theologische Fakultät, Universität Luzern, Luzern, Switzerland.
    Ethical considerations in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics2020In: Principles of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics: Fundamentals of individualized nutrition / [ed] R. De Caterina, J. A. Martinez, & M. Kohlmeier, London: Elsevier, 2020, p. 543-548Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethics is the study of the normative dimensions of human relations and experiences. This chapter discusses such questions in relation to basic values in modern society. The normative foundations for the analysis are the values of human dignity, autonomy, freedom, equality, and solidarity, as well as the responsibilities of society toward its citizens, including freedom, security, and justice. The questions that are brought up touch on how implementing nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics in personalized nutrition services relates to these values.

    Health and food are primary human needs. The choice of food can contribute to the support of health, but it can also come into conflict with health. Personalized nutrition may be seen as part of a wider trend toward early preventive actions to treat susceptibility to disease. If personalization of nutrition can contribute to eating habits that support health instead of threatening it, this will be beneficial for the individual, but it may also be good for society as a whole. As a consequence, pressure on societal expenses for health care may be reduced.

    Personalized nutrition, as well as the wider concept of precision nutrition, have stimulated expectations and are often described as having great potential, but it has also been difficult to realize them. Studies indicate that there is widespread optimism among researchers engaged in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics regarding at least its long-term benefits, whereas there are divergent viewpoints within the wider research community. In this situation, ethical concerns need to receive attention.

  • 17.
    Jansson, Philip
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Spel och moral: En studie om de moraliska omständigheterna kring TV-spelet This War of Mine1991Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A study about the moral circumstances of the video-game This war of mine. By use of earlier research it establishes a connection between video-games and our behavior. Through that and the arguments of Michel Sicart I define video-games as an ethical object. With that as a main premise, I continue to analyze This War of Mine (abbreviated as TWoM) using normative, ethical models, with the purpose of highlighting the games underlying values. The main component of the study is divided into two parts: analysis of the games twelve, playable characters and analysis of the games rules. The results establish that the games underlying, ethical values are universalistic in nature with a tone of utilitarianism through the quantitative and contextual natures of how your actions are measured.

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  • 18.
    Karlsson, Josefine
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Experimentet med människor som spelpjäser: En etisk analys av Vipeholmexperimentet utifrån Beauchamp och Childress fyra etiska principer2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to investigate the ethical issues that permeated the carbohydrate experiment that was going on at Vipeholm's hospital for "uneducable insane" in Sweden. The material about the experiment is taken from Elin Bommenel's dissertation The Sugar Experiment: The Caries Experiments 1943–1960 at Vipeholm Hospital for the Insane. To create understanding, Beauchamp and Childress´s four ethical principles, which are used as ethical guidelines in health care, were used in the analysis of the experiment. The four principles are the principle of nonmaleficence, the principle of respect for autonomy, the principle of beneficence and the principle of justice.

    The analysis based on the four principles showed that the Vipeholme experiment is complex to understand as Beauchamp and Childress's principles provided a picture of the research which from many aspects cannot be seen as ethically correct. From other aspects, however, some elements can be supported by Beauchamp and Childress. The researchers had the task of investigating caries that would successfully help many people. Based on the principle of beneficence, one could imagine that the researchers acted correctly, but had no respect for the patients' autonomous decisions. The two principles are then in conflict with each other, something that critics of Beauchamp and Childress point out as a shortcoming.

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  • 19.
    Kjellberg, Jimmi
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Yrkesetik i teori och praktik: En fokusgruppsstudie av lärares yrkesetiska praktik i relation till de yrkesetiska principerna2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I min uppsatsskrivning har jag utgått ur en explorativ ansats där fokusgruppsintervjuer har använts som en metod för materialinsamling. Med hjälp av fokusgrupper vill jag lyfta fram och se hur yrkesetiska principerna i yrkesrådet syns i praktiken enligt professionella lärare. Jag vill också ta reda på hur de beskriver olika situationer och framför allt hur de resonerar kring detta.

    Det finns totalt elva professionella högstadielärare som har intervjuats i tre grupper. Efter intervjuerna slutfördes transkriberades de. Sedan delade jag upp materialet utifrån de fyra olika yrkesetiska principerna. Detta gjorde det lättare för läsaren att se vilken av principerna som är i fokus. 

    Resultatet visar att det finns en avsaknad av de yrkesetiska principerna både i teori och praktik för de intervjuade lärarna. Det finns en stor kunskapslucka hos dem kring dessa och de upplever att det är något som man sällan eller aldrig diskuterar. 

    Efter avslutat arbete och utifrån vad informanterna diskuterat kan man ställa sig frågan om vem som är ansvarig när det kommer till yrkesetiken och dess upprätthållande. Läraren är ju såklart en av de ansvariga parterna, men finns det fler? Utifrån svårigheter som informanterna lyft, är det rimligt att peka ut andra som har ett särskilt ansvar för yrkesetiken (ex ledning, kommuner, utbildare, skolverk etc.) och på vilket sätt och varför i så fall?

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  • 20.
    Kjellström, Sofia
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department for Quality Improvement and Leadership. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Forskningsetik2023In: Vetenskaplig teori och metod: från idé till examination inom vård- och hälsovetenskap / [ed] M. Henricson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, 3. uppl, p. 61-83Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21. Larsson, Robin
    Etik på gymnasiet: En analys av några läroböckers behandling av ämnet etik2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Larsson Sarja, Amanda
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Våra tysta soldater: En undersökning kring hur nutida etikers forskning kan appliceras på behandlingen av djur under första och andra världskriget2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom etikområdet finns många vinklar och olika sätt att se på saker, i min uppsats har jag undersökt hur tre nutida etikers teorier och forskning kan appliceras på ett historiskt fenomen, djurens behandling under första och andra världskriget.

     

    Jag har läst och valt ut tre etikers teorier som berör ämnet djuretik, för att sedan applicera dessa teorier på ämnet djur i krig. De etiker som valts är Petra Andersson, Peter Singer och Richard D. Ryder. De tre etikerna fokuserar på olika aspekter av djuretiken, Petra Andersson talar om antropomorfism, som innebär att människor lägger sina egna tankar och värderingar på djuren. De förmänskligar djuren mer och får på så sätt, enligt Andersson, mer kontakt och igenkännande med djuren. Peter Singer tillhör den utilitaristiska etiken och hävdar att man ska lindra mängden lidande för att kunna ge större lycka senare. Han hävdar att om man tänker ut vad som kommer ge mest lycka så ska man handla på ett sätt där största mängden lycka är målet. Richard D. Ryder är också av det utilitaristiska tankesättet men inte lika utpräglat, han hävdar att det viktigaste är att lindra individuell smärta snarare än mängden. Det handlar om att avgöra vem som lider mest och också samtidigt bortse från art, varken människa eller djur prioriteras eller väljs bort.

     

    Utifrån etikernas teorier kan man dra slutsatsen att djurens behandling under kriget både var etiskt riktigt men också felaktigt. Man måste därför se till varje situation för att kunna avgöra ifall behandlingen av djuren var etiskt rätt eller fel. Det går inte att tala om behandlingen i allt för stora drag utan man måste plocka ut enskilda situationer och se på dem utifrån de etiska teorier och ramar som lagts fram.

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  • 23.
    Melin, Daniéla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Ismail, Khadra
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Framtiden avgörs idag – inte imorgon: En litteraturstudie kring hur elever uppfattar de ekologiska, ekonomiska och sociala dimensionerna av hållbar utveckling2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to clarify how pupils in pre-school and the grades one to six relate to sustainable development. The literature study presents pupils´ perspectives on the three dimensions in sustainable development. Furthermore, it is presented how the concept sustainable development has expanded. The study also presents a summary of national and international discussions about how the world can work towards a sustainable future. Additionally it is presented how sustainable development stands in the Swedish curriculum. The study includes surveys from Sweden, Turkey and USA, where pupils during interviews or through illustrations visualized their view on what awaits the human kind and the planet. The result indicates a general concern regarding the environment and the future. A majority of the pupils could not refer to a connection between the three dimensions of sustainable development. Pupils indicated an overall anxiety for environmental problems, which can be redirected as “ecophobic” ideas. Finally, there is a discussion about an imposition of Sustainable development as an individual subject in the curriculum, the importance of a paradigm shift and how teaching about sustainable development can be exemplified in the classroom.

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  • 24.
    Nasic, Elvis
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Skolans värdegrund – i teori och praktik: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om verksamma lärares tolkningar och appliceringar av skolans värdegrund2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish schools’ “värdegrund”, or as it would be called in English, the Swedish schools’ fundamental values, are something that’s been granted the first chapter in the national curriculum. It’s something quite unique and not something you’ll find in other nations’ curriculums.1 The questions this study has been asking is not why it exists but rather how teachers interpret it and how they work in relation to these values. Another question that’s been raised concerns how teachers relate to the fosterage role that is assigned to them according to the curriculum.

    To answer these questions a qualitative interview study has been conducted where six upper secondary school teachers were interviewed. The interviews where analyzed thematically and then further analyzed and discussed in relation to different theoretical perspectives.2

    The study found that even though these teachers were somewhat vague in their interpretation of the fundamental values they still showed an awareness about the central principles of it and how to work accordingly. The study also showed that there were two ways the teachers worked according to the fundamental values, in this study these were named: “the conflict solving fundamental values” and “the knowledge mediating fundamental values”. The study also found that the teachers’ relations to their fosterage role is quite strong and that it’s something they try to act according to.

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  • 25.
    Nimmersjö, Oskar
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Refusing the Axe: Undervisning i etik och moral med hjälp av tv-spel enligt Karen Schriers ramverk: EPIC.2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, the author examines the EPIC (Ethics Practice and Implementation Categorization) framework which stated purpose is to identify and categorize strategies and teaching goals for ​​ethics and morality in video games. This is done by putting the framework into use as intended and then discussing whether it achieves its purpose, and whether it is suitable for use in teaching. The study is carried out based on the following questions:

     

    1. What educational goals and strategies are found in the video game Assassin's Creed: Valhalla.

    2. How is EPIC useful in finding teaching opportunities in video games?

    3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the EPIC framework?

     

    These questions are answered by analyzing the video game Assassin's Creed: Valhalla based on EPIC. The framework is carefully studied, and the game is explored in depth. The author attempts to identify the twelve strategies and the seven teaching objectives that the framework categorizes. These touch on everything from the game's narrative features, to gameplay moments and technical game design. To facilitate the investigation and its presentation, it is divided into two main parts: overall systems and themes, and the moral dilemmas of the game. In this way, the author can give a nuanced picture of the game's content and demonstrate what EPIC is capable of when it comes to analyzing video games.

     

    The investigation of Assassin's Creed: Valhalla is then discussed with a focus on whether EPIC achieves its purpose, what obstacles the investigation encounters, and what EPIC can be used for beyond its stated purpose.

     

    The result shows that EPIC is a very effective tool for identifying strategies and possible teaching goals in video games. EPIC's problem is mainly that it does not function as an evaluative tool, and that it does not consider the potentially conflicting strategies. In some cases, the research shows that a simple identification of EPIC's strategies and teaching goals is not enough for a teacher to make a well-informed decision about whether the given material is suitable for teaching. A deeper analysis is required, and that is not reasonable for most teachers. The study also confirms that the design of video games creates a risk for players who do not choose to interact with the game's systems as the developer intended. Video games can present shades of gray and ambiguous questions and dilemmas that require some attention and interest from the player. In teaching environments it therefore becomes very important that the teacher assumes the role of an encouraging guide.

     

    It should also be mentioned that EPIC considers much of the criticism leveled at several ethical theories. It has been found to be a versatile tool that tries to apply many different principles. For example, ethics of care is given a large place, which absence has been an object of criticism against previous theories and frameworks in ethics. The author suggests that EPIC is possibly better suited as a tool for game developers that wish to design games specifically for teaching ethics and morality.

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  • 26.
    Nordström, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Coff, Chrisitan
    Department of Research and Development, University College Zealand, Sorø, Denmark.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Department of Arts and Cultural Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nordenfelt, Lennart
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Görman, Ulf
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Food and health: individual, cultural, or scientific matters?2013In: Genes & Nutrition, ISSN 1555-8932, E-ISSN 1865-3499, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 357-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In personalized nutrition, food is a tool for good health, implying an instrumental relationship between food and health. Food receives a secondary value, while health would appear to be a descriptive biological concept. This article gives an introduction to cultural understandings of food and health. The wider definition of food and health is explored in relation to the commonly used scientific approach that tends to take a more reductionist approach to food and health. The different discourses on food and health are being discussed in relation to ethical aspects of personalized nutrition. The success of personalized nutrition is likely dependent upon the ability to integrate the scientific approach with everyday cultural, emotional, ethical, and sensual understandings of food. Health theories can be divided into two principal rival types—biostatistical and holistic. Biostatistical focuses on survival, while holistic focuses on ability as a precondition for health. Arguments in favor of a holistic and individualistic theory of health and illness are presented. This implies a focus on the ability of the individual to realize his or her “vital goals.” A holistic and individualistic health concept may have a reinforcing effect on the individualized approach in personalized nutrition. It allows focus on individual health premises and related dietary means of health promotion, as well as an individualized perspective on the objectives of health promotion. An individualistic notion of health also indicates that people with high levels of vital goals benefit more easily. To reach beyond these groups is likely difficult. This potential injustice should be balanced with global preventive medical programs.

  • 27.
    Nordström, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Juth, Niklas
    Stockholm Centre of Healthcare Ethics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Sofia
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Meijboom, Franck L.B.
    Department of Philosophy, Ethics Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Görman, Ulf
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Values at stake: autonomy, responsibility, and trustworthiness in relation to genetic testing and personalized nutrition advice2013In: Genes & Nutrition, ISSN 1555-8932, E-ISSN 1865-3499, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 365-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personalized nutrition has the potential to enhance individual health control. It could be seen as a means to strengthen people’s autonomy as they learn more about their personal health risks, and receive dietary advice accordingly. We examine in what sense personalized nutrition strengthens or weakens individual autonomy. The impact of personalized nutrition on autonomy is analyzed in relation to responsibility and trustworthiness. On a societal level, individualization of health promotion may be accompanied by the attribution of extended individual responsibility for one’s health. This constitutes a dilemma of individualization, caused by a conflict between the right to individual freedom and societal interests. The extent to which personalized nutrition strengthens autonomy is consequently influenced by how responsibility for health is allocated to individuals. Ethically adequate allocation of responsibility should focus on prospective responsibility and be differentiated with regard to individual differences concerning the capacity of adults to take responsibility. The impact of personalized nutrition on autonomy also depends on its methodological design. Owing to the complexity of information received, personalized nutrition through genetic testing (PNTGT) is open to misinterpretation and may not facilitate informed choices and autonomy. As new technologies, personalized nutrition and PNTGT are subject to issues of trust. To strengthen autonomy, trust should be approached in terms of trustworthiness. Trustworthiness implies that an organization that develops or introduces personalized nutrition can show that it is competent to deal with both the technical and moral dimensions at stake and that its decisions are motivated by the interests and expectations of the truster.

  • 28.
    Olausson, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    The ethics of sustainable communication: Overcoming the world of opposites2023Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-functioning communication is a prerequisite for achieving sustainability. But how could this be accomplished in a world plagued by grave sustainability crises, where polarization proliferates and adds to a profound experience of fear and separation? To answer this critical question, an integrated ethical system that acknowledges all life as one is needed. The Ethics of Sustainable Communication elegantly interweaves theoretical and empirical knowledge from the social sciences with wisdom traditions from various parts of the world. This includes the world’s great religions, the knowledge of indigenous peoples, and the transcendent understanding of reality that artists of diverse kinds have always expressed. On this solid ground, the book argues for the necessity of a significant shift in human consciousness to achieve lasting sustainability. The book develops a communication ethics that aims at facilitating a genuine experience of the interconnectedness of all life through the expansion of trust. In a pioneering, intelligent, and eye-opening argument, including practical examples and advice, it demonstrates how the experience of separation in fact is a delusion. Our systems of thought and language have simply fettered us in a world of opposites – duality. The ethics helps us to overcome this illusory world, and when duality is dissolved, deep sustainability – caring for people, the Earth, and every lifeform – comes as an entirely effortless result.

  • 29.
    Palmaer, Maddelene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    "If you're not with me, then you're my enemy.": En narrativ analys av ondskans representation i Star Wars utifrån protagonisten Anakin Skywalker2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines the representation of evil in the Star Wars prequel film series. The starting point of the study comes from a narrative analysis of the protagonist Anakin Skywalker. Using Gerard Genette's three-part model of narrative, Anakin's narrative is examined and presented based on the model's first part, story; which highlights what the narrative is portraying through structure, characters, setting and themes. The analysis shows that Anakin got underlying attributes that create tension in him that leads him to his downfall. Turning points and events in his narrative are presented that reinforce his climax where he allies himself with the dark lord of the Sith, Darth Sidious. The presentation of the narrative chisels out three overarching themes (self-esteem, love, and fear) that are discussed to find out what Anakin's narrative implies concerning the representation of evil in the Star Wars prequel.

    The final analysis suggested that Anakin's feels hindered in advancing in the Jedi-orders hierarchy but also that he is met with scepticism that affects his self-esteem. The analysis also implies that Anakin's fear of losing his loved ones is disregarded by the Jedi-order that rather encourage him the let go than giving him tools to work it through. Furthermore, the analysis concludes that Anakin does not ally himself with the dark side of the Force because it is evil, but because it – in his mind – offers him, not just power but also the possibility to save Padmé from dying.  

    Through a presentation of Anakin's narrative and his fall to the dark side, evil in Star Wars is discussed. Evil, then, is not represented as one might expect, dualistic with a good and a bad, light, and dark. But rather shifting alongside Anakin's moral compass when he allies himself with the dark side. The dark side that initially represented evil, will therefore become good and its counterpart the light side of the Force and the Jedi-order who fights for peace and justice in the galaxy, will for Anakin represent evil instead.

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  • 30.
    Pennlöv, Henric
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    När döden har en lag: En argumentationsanalys av etiska texter om eutanasi2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla människor har tankar som berör deras egen död. Hur begravningen ska gå till, vilks som ska vara närvarande vid dödsbädden eller vad som är det bästa sättet att avsluta livet på är bara några tankar om döden. Studiens syfte är att söka svar på hur akademiska filosofer argumenterar om etik och moral i förhållande till aktiv dödshjälp, eutanasi. Genom att analysera fyra argumentativa texter skrivna av både förespråkare och motståndare till eutanasi kan det ses ett mönster i vilka aspekter som är ständigt återkommande i debattten. Studien analyserar Daniel Callahan, John Keown, Torbjörn Tännsjö och Helga Kuhse vilka har valts ut utifrån olika kriterier. Undersökningen visar bland annat tydligt att uppfattningen om den moraliska skillnaden mellan att döda och att låta dö är en väldigt viktig fråga i debatten. Vidare har undersökningen visat att genom att belysa problematiken på att döda och låta dö anspelar man på aktiv och passiv eutanasi. I studien görs sedan en komparation där de argument som lyfts fram fråna båda sidor för att pröva hållbarheten utan att för sin skull påpeka att den ena sidan är mer rättfärdig än den andra.

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    När döden har en lag
  • 31.
    Philip, Jansson
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Djur och moral: Examensarbete om resonemang angående ickemänskliga djurs moraliska ställning och människors ansvar gentemot djuren2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the position of non-human animals in modern moral philosophy. Arguments from four different philosophers from opposing sides are described, analyzed and compared in a methodical way. As well as analyzing the arguments of non-human animals’ moral position, our human moral responsibilities towards animals are also looked at. The philosophers whose arguments are analyzed are Peter Singer, Tom Regan, Carl Cohen and Ingemar Nordin. The analysis is going to showcase and problematize what premises their arguments stand upon, and valued accordingly. The result is going to showcase some of the problems with Singer’s utilitarian point of view, as well as Cohen’s and Nordin’s perspectives. Out of the four philosophers, Regan’s application of right ethics holds up the best in this analysis.

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  • 32.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Skolavslutning i kyrka – en moralfilosofisk analys2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the moral arguments put forward in the debate on end of term ceremonies held in church. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of the opinion pieces on the subject in Sweden’s two largest nation-wide daily newspapers. The material consists of six such opinion pieces - the total number of pieces written on the subject within the relevant time period.

    The moral arguments, once identified, have then been analysed using Maria Klasson Sundin’s models of children’s freedom of religion. This was done in order to identify how the arguments relate to the religious freedom of Swedish school pupils. The result shows that there is some disagreement with regards to end of term ceremonies being held in church, and that this disagreement can be seen as a consequence of how there appears to be no general consensus on the religiosity of the church as a space. The opinions on end of term ceremonies fall broadly within three groups: those who think that end of term ceremonies in church is unproblematic, those who think that end of term ceremonies in church is inappropriate, and those who think that end of term ceremonies in church is unproblematic as long as the ceremony contains no confessional elements.

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  • 33.
    Sandman, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Kjellström, Sofia
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Etikboken: Etik för vårdande yrken2018 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en heltäckande etikbok för dig som arbetar med vårdande,från grundläggande kunskaper till fördjupning och reflektion. Du kommer att få ta del av:

    • Beskrivningar av centrala etiska teorier och begrepp.
    • Hur en etisk analys utförs.
    • Konkreta fall från vårdens vardag.
    • Analysinstrument för att hantera etiska problem.
    • Ett digitalt material med frågor, tentamen och rollspel.
    • Etiska dilemman från olika professioners perspektiv.

    I den reviderade utgåvan har strukturen i förra upplagans kapitel förbättrats och ett kapitel om att handla mer etiskt i vårdens vardag har lagts till.

    Etikboken riktar sig speciellt till sjuksköterskestudenter på grundnivå, men den passar också andra yrkesgrupper som arbetar med vårdande och hälsa i olika former.

  • 34.
    Sandman, Lars
    et al.
    Borås högskola.
    Kjellström, Sofia
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Etikboken: Etik för vårdande yrken2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken är en heltäckande etikbok för den som arbetar med vårdande och där etikkunskaper ges möjlighet att fördjupas. Författarna beskriver en stor mängd etiska teorier, begrepp och infallsvinklar på etik inom vården och illustrerar tillämpningen av dessa genom flera konkreta exempel. Boken visar hur etiska problem kan analyseras mer i detalj samt hur arbete med konkreta etiska frågor inom vården kan ske. Syftet med boken är att ge en verktygslåda för att hantera de etiska problemställningar som anställda ställs inför i vårdandet. Med boken följer även ett digitalt material som ger möjlighet att bättre tillägna sig kunskaper från boken genom frågor och provtenta. Likaså ger det digitala materialet instruktion för hur man kan använda rollspel som ett instrument i etikreflektionen.

    Etikboken vänder sig till studenter som kommer att arbeta med vårdande uppgifter och med att befrämja andra personers hälsa. Det kan vara olika vårdutbildningar såsom sjuksköterskor, sjukgymnaster och arbetsterapeuter. Den passar också för vidare- och specialistutbildning av yrkesverskamma inom området, men kan också med fördel användas av yrkesverksamma i sin dagliga verksamhet.

  • 35.
    Sandman, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Kjellström, Sofia
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department for Quality Improvement and Leadership. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Etikboken: Etik för vårdande yrken2024 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en heltäckande etikbok för dig som arbetar med vårdande, från grundläggande kunskaper till fördjupning och reflektion.

    Du kommer att få ta del av:

    • Beskrivningar av centrala etiska teorier och begrepp.
    • Konkreta fall från vårdens vardag.
    • Analysinstrument för etiska problem.
    • Etiska dilemman från olika professioners perspektiv.

    I den reviderade utgåvan har innehållet uppdaterats med den senaste lagstiftningen och ny relevant forskning har lagts till. Boken har även kompletterats med ett avsnitt om moralpsykologi och strukturen i vissa kapitel har förbättrats.

    Etikboken är en mycket uppskattad bok som riktar sig främst till studenter på grundläggande nivå inom omvårdnad och vårdvetenskap men är också högst relevant för studenter inom socialt arbete, fysioterapi, arbetsterapi och på läkarprogrammet.

  • 36.
    Spånberg, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Etikens Pathos: En undersökning av begärsbegreppet i Emmanuel Levinas Totalitet och oändlighet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I examine the conception of metaphysical desire as understood by Emmanuel Levinas within his work Totality and Infinity. The main problematic of the work is whether a relationship with an absolute Other, understood as a positive infinity, that is posited beyond the realm of the I, is possible, or whether the totality of the same is inevitable. I present metaphysical desire to the Other as a crucial point in Totality and Infinity, which in its endless-growing hunger beyond satisfaction becomes an infinity within a finite subject, therefore sets up the relationship between the I and the infinite Other, as a concretization of the idea of infinity. In addition, I construe, in the light of the critique of Levinas by Jacques Derrida and other research, an understanding of metaphysical desire as a pathos of ethics that interrupts the spatio-temporality of the same by being a spatio-temporality which opens the I and directs it toward the Other without abolishing their distance. In this neverending movement the egoism of the I is discontinued and peace becomes possible without resulting in totality. Instead, the movement toward the infinite Other is a movement toward an uncharted future, a movement which consists of an infinite dialogue with the Other.

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  • 37.
    Sterckx, Elina
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Juridik eller yrkesetik – En prioriteringsfråga?: En kvalitativ jämförande litteraturstudie om lärarens arbete med bedömning och betygsättning i relation till lärarens yrkesetik2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Juridik eller yrkesetik – En prioriteringsfråga?:
  • 38.
    Stiborg, Jonathan
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Myter och människor: En kvalitativ textanalys av myters koppling till mänskliga beteendemönster ur nordisk mytologi2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 39.
    Svensson, Kristin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Roman, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Omsorgen – den komplexa och ovärderliga: En studie om etisk omsorg och dess synlighet i förskolors systematiska kvalitetsarbeten2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förskolans utbildning har alltid präglats av olika roller, såsom omsorg, tillsyn och undervisning (Tallberg Broman, 2017). Tidigare forskning visar att omsorgen har fått ett allt mindre utrymme i förskolans dokumentationsarbete och att lärandet i stället har fått en framträdande roll. Detta trots att forskningen samtidigt visar att omsorgen är nödvändig för barns välbefinnande, lek, utveckling och lärande och att målet med omsorg inte bara är för barnens egen skull, utan också för samhällets skull. Forskning visar att förskolans arbetslag behöver reflektera över sitt etiska förhållningssätt för att kunna bemöta barnens grundläggande behov (Josefson, 2018; Noddings, 2005; Noddings, 2013; Skolverket, 2018). Utifrån detta blev vårt syfte med studien att analysera hur förskolans etiska omsorg kommer till uttryck i dokumentationen av förskolors systematiska kvalitetsarbeten. 

    Studiens databearbetning utfördes på tre systematiska kvalitetsarbeten och analyserades med hjälp av en innehållsanalys, där huvudkategorierna var etiska omsorg och omsorg och lärande subkategorierna var normer och värden, trygghet och relationer, behov och förutsättningar samt arbetssätt och utforskande. Analysen utfördes även med stöd av det postmoderna perspektivet och begreppen komplexitet, verkligheter och mångfald. 

    Studiens resultat visar att den etiska omsorgen ofta kopplas till lärandet i dokumenten genom att barnens tankar beskrivs och får utrymme, vilket ses som värdefullt i undervisningen. I dokumentationen av det systematiska kvalitetsarbetet synliggörs även den etiska omsorgen, genom att arbetslagen beskriver barnens utforskande som centralt och kopplar ofta samman detta utforskande med ett omsorgsfullt lärande, där leken och det multimodala lärandet får ett tydligt utrymme. Resultatet visar på att den etiska omsorgen kan synliggöras på många olika sätt, därmed framhävs dess komplexitet, samtidigt som den etiska omsorgen också synliggörs som ovärderlig och en viktig grund för barns trygghet, lärande och utveckling.    

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  • 40.
    Wendel, Erika
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Social Studies and Didactics.
    Öga för öga! Eller?: En kvalitativ studie kring elevers ställningstaganden då de ställs inför etiska dilemman rörande kränkande behandling2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är sedan tidigare konstaterat att ut­budet av tidigare forskning kring elevers etiska förhållningssätt är ma­gert. Syftet med denna studie är därför att undersöka elevers ställningstagan­den då de ställs inför etiska dilemman kopplade till kränkande behandling i skolan. Studien är inspirerad av kritisk hermeneutik, vilket innebär att den del­vis präglas av en förutbestämd teori mot vilken empirin prövas. Empirisk data har samlats in via semistrukture­rad­e parintervjuer, vilka har spelas in och genom transkribering omvand­lats till skriven text. I studiens resultat­kapi­tel presenteras elever­nas ställnings­tagan­den och moti­veringar till dessa. I kapitlet framkommer även vilka lik­heter och skillnader som kan identi­fieras i elevernas ställningstaganden. Efter utförd analys av empirin kan slut­satsen dras att det finns uttryck i elevernas ställningstaganden som kan kopplas till de etiska redskapen.

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  • 41.
    Åberg, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Holmgren, Malin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Etik - skolans fostran: En litteraturstudie om hur lärare undervisar kring etik inom religionskunskap och utmaningar de upplever inom området2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av denna litteraturstudie vill vi ge lärare, lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter en inblick i hur etikundervisning kan organiseras samt visa på diverse utmaningar som lärare upplever inom ämnet. Syftet med litteraturstudien är att undersöka vad samtida forskning säger om hur lärare arbetar för att utveckla elevers reflektions- och resonemangsförmåga inom etikundervisning. För att få en ökad förståelse för litteraturstudiens resultatavsnitt kan läsaren ta del av bakgrundsavsnittet där etik, som en del av läroplan och styrdokument, förklaras. Vidare kan läsaren ta del av relevanta begrepp och den sociokulturella traditionen som kopplas samman med strategierna, resonera och reflektera. Den sociokulturella traditionen förespråkar sociala aktiviteter vilket är centralt i undervisning kring etik. I metodavsnittet redovisas det tillvägagångssätt som använts för att hitta och analysera relevant material för studien. I resultatet presenteras vad samtida forskning säger om olika strategier och metoder inom etikundervisningen samt vilka utmaningar lärare upplever i ämnet. En av metoderna handlar om att låta eleverna samtala och resonera om etiska dilemman. Genom att låta eleverna diskutera dessa får de höra sina kamraters tankar och kan därmed ta ställning och reflektera över sin egen ståndpunkt. En av utmaningarna som tas upp i studien handlar om bristande ämneskunskap hos lärare vilket hindrar eleverna från att ges en god etikundervisning. I kunskapskraven behandlas strategierna reflektera och resonera vilka vi ansåg vara mest relevanta för studien. Att reflektera och resonera tar sig uttryck i olika metoder som läraren kan använda sig av i sin undervisning, dessa presenteras i resultatet. Studien avslutas med en diskussion där metod och resultatet diskuteras, egna reflektioner lyfts och framtida forskning beskrivs.

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