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  • 1.
    Allwood, Jens
    SCCIIL Interdisciplinary Center, Dept. of AIT University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden .
    Cognition, communication, and readiness for language2012Inngår i: Pragmatics & Cognition, ISSN 0929-0907, E-ISSN 1569-9943, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 334-355Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article discusses some problems and needs for clarification that are connected with the use of the concepts culture, language, tool, and communication in Daniel Everett’s recently published book, Language: The Cultural Tool. It also discusses whether the idea of biological readiness and preparedness for language (rather than grammar) can really be disposed of as a result of Everett’s very convincing arguments against a specific genetic predisposition for the syntactic component of a grammar. Finally, it calls into question whether Everett really is true to his professed ideology of scientific ideographical pragmatism. ©2012 John Benjamins Publishing Company.

  • 2.
    Allwood, Jens
    Institutionen för lingvistik & Kollegium SSKKII.
    Language survival kits2006Inngår i: Lesser-Known Languages Of South Asia: Status And Policies, Case Studies And Applications Of Information Technology / [ed] Saxena, A; Borin, L, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2006, Vol. 175, s. 279-292Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Allwood, Jens
    University of Gothenburg.
    Meaning potentials and context: Some consequences for the analysis of variation in meaning2003Inngår i: Cognitive Approaches To Lexical Semantics, 2003, Vol. 23, s. 29-65Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a view of word meaning on the type level which is based on “meaning potentials” rather than on reified type meanings founded on either of the two traditional approaches of abstract generalization (Gesamtbedeutung) and typical or basic meaning (Grundbedeutung). It is suggested that actual meaning on the occurrence level is produced by context-sensitive operations of meaning activation and meaning determination which combine meaning potentials with each other and with contextually given information rather than by some simple compositionality operations yielding phrase and sentence meaning from simple type meanings of one of the two traditional kinds. To establish this goal, I first present the traditional notions and discuss some problems which arise when trying to handle variation in meaning. I then specifically discuss the relation of homonymy and polysemy to the traditional notions. In section 3, 1 introduce the notion of “meaning potentials” as an alternative to the traditional notions and then discuss in section 4 how this notion might be used to handle problems of meaning variation, focusing especially on homonymy and polysemy.

  • 4.
    Allwood, Jens
    Institutionen för lingvistik & Kollegium SSKKII.
    Multimodal corpora2008Inngår i: Corpus Linguistics, Part 1 / [ed] Ludeling, A; Kyto, M, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2008, Vol. 29, s. 207-225Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Allwood, Jens
    Department of Linguistics and SSKKII, Center for Cognitive Studies, University of Gothenburg, Box 200, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Some remarks on the relationship between the semantic and the pragmatic web2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on the Pragmatic Web: Innovating the Interactive Society / [ed] Pär J. Ågerfalk, New York: ACM Press, 2008, Vol. 363, s. 35-39Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the relations between the semantic and the pragmatic web. After recapitulating some characterizations and definitions of the semantic and the pragmatic web two main tasks of pragmatics and of the pragmatic web are distinguished. The nature of the first of these tasks is then briefly discussed, leaving a further explication for future work. The paper ends by relating both tasks of the pragmatic web to the semantic web. Copyright 2008 ACM.

  • 6.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    SCCIILL Interdisciplinary Center, Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Chindamo, M.
    Ahlsen, E.
    On identifying conflict related stances in political debates2012Inngår i: Proceedings - 2012 ASE/IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust and 2012 ASE/IEEE International Conference on Social Computing, SocialCom/PASSAT 2012, 2012, s. 918-925Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some problems in identifying stances and the features that express these stances in televised political debates where there is conflict escalation. The study is based on an analysis of video-recorded political debates in different European languages (Italian (1), German (2) and US-American English (1)) and consists of a qualitative analysis of the videos in order to understand the similarities and differences in the use of social signals for stances in conflict situations in a similar setting (televised political debate) in three western cultures. ©2012 IEEE.

  • 7.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Groqvist, L
    Ahlsén, E
    Gunnarsson, M
    Annotations and tools for an activity based Spoken Language Corpus2003Inngår i: Current And New Directions In Discourse And Dialogue, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003, Vol. 22, s. 1-18Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, University of South Africa, PO Box 392, Pretoria 0003, South Africa.
    Grönqvist, L.
    Hendrikse, A. P.
    Developing a tagset and tagger for the African languages of South Africa with special reference to Xhosa2003Inngår i: Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1607-3614, E-ISSN 1727-9461, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 223-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently two distinct but not necessarily mutually exclusive approaches to the retrieval of information from linguistic corpora. ’Corpus-driven’ approaches rely solely on the corpus itself to yield significant patterns. With the exception of orthographic spacing, no additional annotations to a ’raw’ corpus are used to guide searches and the retrieval of information from the corpus. Typically, key word in context (KWIC) analyses are applied to relevant concordance lines to extract statistically significant lexical and grammatical patterns. In ’corpus-based’ approaches, on the other hand, information is retrieved from an enriched corpus on the basis of annotations in the form of linguistic tags and annotations. That is, the annotations are used to direct the searches to specific grammatical and lexical phenomena in a corpus. In this article, we propose a corpus-based approach and a tagset to be used on a corpus of spoken language for the African languages of South Africa. A number of problematic linguistic phenomena such as fixed expressions, agglutination, morphemic merging and spoken language phenomena such as interrupted words etc., often have some effect on tagging principles. These problematic phenomena are discussed and illustrated. The development of the tagset is based on the morphosyntactic properties of Xhosa for reasons that are outlined in the article. Manual tagging of a large corpus would be quite a daunting and time-consuming task, not to mention the potential for various kinds of errors. This problem is solved in a two-step process. Firstly, a computer-based drag-and-drop tagger was developed to facilitate the manual tagging of a so-called training corpus. This training corpus then forms the input to the development of an automatic tagger. The principles and procedures for the development of an automatic tagger for African languages are also discussed. ©2003 NISC Pty Ltd.

  • 9.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hendrikse, A. P.
    Spoken language corpora for the nine official African languages of South Africa2003Inngår i: Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1607-3614, E-ISSN 1727-9461, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 189-201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we give an outline of a corpus planning project which aims to develop linguistic resources for the nine official African languages of South Africa in the form of corpora, more specifically spoken language corpora. In the course of the article, we will address issues such as spoken language vs. written language, register vs. activity and normative vs. non-normative approaches to corpus planning. We then give an outline of the design of a spoken language corpus for the nine official African languages of South Africa. We consider issues such as representativity and sampling (urban-rural, dialects, gender, social class and activities), transcription standards and conventions as well as the problems emanating from widespread loans and code switching and other forms of language mix characteristic of spoken language. Finally, we summarise the status of the project at present and plans for the future. ©2003 NISC Pty Ltd.

  • 10.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    SSKKII/SCCIIL, Dept. of Applied IT, Chalmers and University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindström, N. B.
    Lu, J.
    Intercultural dynamics of fist acquaintance: Comparative study of Swedish, Chinese and Swedish-Chinese first time encounters2011Inngår i: Universal access in human-computer interaction : 6th International Conference, UAHCI 2011, held as part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, proceedings / [ed] Constantine Stephanidis, Berlin: Springer, 2011, Vol. 6768 LNCS, nr PART 4, s. 12-21Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, intercultural first acquaintance meetings are becoming more and more frequent. The aim of this study is to describe, analyze and compare Swedish, Chinese and Swedish-Chinese first acquaintance interactions. Our focus lies on a classification of the topics in mono- and intercultural first-time encounters. The analysis is based on 12 arranged face-to-face first acquaintance interactions between Chinese-Chinese, Swedish-Swedish and Swedish-Chinese students (4 of each dyad). The interactions are video-recorded and transcribed. In addition, semi-structured interviews with the participants have been conducted to get a better understanding of their communication. The method of activity-based communication analysis is used to analyze the data. The result of the study is a classification and a cross-cultural comparison of topics and the order of their occurrence in first time encounters. In addition, the study sheds light on the similarities and differences between Chinese and Swedish communication patterns. ©2011 Springer-Verlag.

  • 11.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nivre, J.
    Ahlsén, E.
    On the semantics and pragmatics of linguistic feedback1992Inngår i: Journal of Semantics, ISSN 0167-5133, E-ISSN 1477-4593, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 1-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an exploration in the semantics and pragmatics of linguistic feedback, i. e. linguistic mechanisms which enable the participants in spoken interaction to exchange information about basic communicative functions, such as contact, perception, understanding, and attitudinal reactions to the communicated content. Special attention is given to the type of reaction conveyed by feedback utterances, the communicative status of the information conveyed (i. e. the level of awareness and intentionality of the communicating sender), and the context sensitivity of feedback expressions. With regard to context sensitivty, which is one of the most characteristic features of feedback expressions, the discussion focuses on the way in which the type of speech act (mood), the factual polarity, and the information status of the preceding utterance influence the interpretation of feedback utterances. The different content dimensions are exemplified by data from recorded dialogues and by data given through linguistic intuition. Finally, two different ways of formalizing the analysis are examined, one using attribute-value matrices and one based on the theory of situation semantics. ©1992 N.I.S. Foundation (1992).

  • 12.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Regmi, B. N.
    Dhakhwa, S.
    An activity based spoken language corpus of Lohorung2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social activities are an important part of the context of language use and provide many keys to understanding linguistic and communicative features. Such features can be well understood only if they are observed in their natural setting which to some extent is possible using a multimodal corpus as linguistic communication itself is multimodal. In order to study naturalistic multimodal communication using a corpus, the corpus should contain a combination of recordings, documentation, and transcription of multimodal communication from different social activities in naturalistic settings, preserving unedited conversation. This paper presents a brief account of the principles, methodology, current status, and further issues, based on an incrementally growing and multimodal activity based spoken language corpus of Lohorung.

  • 13.
    Allwood, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Regmi, B. N.
    Dhakhwa, S.
    Uranw, R. K.
    An activity based spoken language corpus of Nepali2012Inngår i: 2013 International Conference Oriental COCOSDA Held Jointly with 2013 Conference on Asian Spoken Language Research and Evaluation, O-COCOSDA/CASLRE 2013, 2012, s. 24-29Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Language is used for communication and communication facilitates social activities. If we want to capture this, linguistic investigation has to be carried out within a wider context. Examination of linguistic communication in a wider context shows that it is multimodal. In order to study naturalistic multimodal communication using a corpus, the corpus should contain a combination of recordings, documentation, and transcription of multimodal communication from different social activities in naturalistic settings, preserving unedited conversation. This paper presents a brief account of the principles, methodology, current status, and preliminary findings, based on an incrementally growing and multimodal activity based spoken language corpus of Nepali. ©2012 IEEE.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Anna
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    I jättens grepp?: En undersökning av morfemet jätte i svenska skriftspråket2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med undersökningen har varit att studera etableringen och användningen av morfemet jätte i skrivna elevtexter och tidningstexter idag, med fokus på jätte som förstärkande prefix. Frågeställningen lyder: ”Hur, av vem och i vilken utsträckning används morfemet jätte i elevtexter och tidningstexter?”.För att besvara ovanstående har två korpusundersökningar genomförts, en på tidningstexter och en på elevtexter. Resultatet visar att jätte förekommer i relativt stor utsträckning jämfört med andra förstärkande prefix som till exempel tok- och super-. Vanligast är att jätte används i sammansättningar med adjektiv, både i tidningstexterna och elevtexterna. I tidningstexter förekommer det oftast vid direkt talspråksåtergivning men det har också tagit sig in i mer formella delar såsom ledare. I elevtexterna används jätte oftast vid berättande inslag. När jätte förekommer i sin grundform används det aldrig i betydelsen ”en övernaturlig varelse”.Språkbrukarna i tidningstexterna kan delas in i två grupper, intervjuade och journalister. Spridningen bland användarna är stor då det används av både kvinnor och män i olika åldrar och med olika yrken. I elevtexterna används jätte främst av flickor. Jätte används också inom flera olika ämnesområden men är något vanligare inom sport- och nöjesjournalistiken. Den breda användningen av jätte tyder på en språklig förändring där jätte nu är accepterat i skriftspråket, det används dock fortfarande främst i mer informella sammanhang.

  • 15.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Lärandepraktiker i och utanför skolan (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Analytical framings on dis/abilities, participation and inclusion. Going beyond dichotomized hegemonies in the domains of Language and Identity2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Lärandepraktiker i och utanför skolan (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Languaging and Isms of reinforced boundaries across settings: Multidisciplinary ethnographical explorations2017Inngår i: Isms in language education: Oppression, intersectionality and emancipation / [ed] Damian J. Rivers, Karin Zotzmann, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2017, s. 203-229Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Lärandepraktiker i och utanför skolan (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    Languaging, diversity and neologisms. Reflections on the mobilization of terminologies in the 21st century2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Lärandepraktiker i och utanför skolan (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Meaning-making or heterogeneity in the areas of language and identity? The case of translanguaging and nyanlända (newly-arrived) across time and space2018Inngår i: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 383-411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented here, theoretically framed at the crossroads of sociocultural and decolonial perspectives, draws attention to the sudden proliferation of two specific neologisms in the area of language, education and identity across time and space. It particularly highlights concerns regarding the ways in which these are deployed within scholarship and in schools and teacher education currently in the nation-state of Sweden. The analysis presented in this paper throws critical light on the ways in which the emergence and proliferation of neologisms like translanguaging and nyanlända (newly-arrived) contribute towards (or confounds) issues related to communication and diversity in the educational sector. This is done by juxtaposing the trajectory and deployment of neologisms in relation to social practices across institutional spaces. Such an enterprise is important, given recent calls for flexibility against the backdrop of concerns regarding heterogeneous populations in schools in geopolitical spaces like Sweden. Here expectations regarding both inclusion and learning goals for all students are prioritised agendas. We draw upon data from ethnographical projects at the CCD research group (www.ju.se/ccd) to make our case. This includes naturally occurring interactional data and textual data, for instance, current scholarship, directives from the national bodies in charge of schools and teacher education in Sweden.

  • 19.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Lärandepraktiker i och utanför skolan (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gynne, Annaliina
    School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Handling languaging during empirical research: Ethnography as action in and across time and physical-virtual sites2019Inngår i: Virtual sites as learning spaces: Critical issues on languaging research in changing eduscapes / [ed] Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta, Giulia Messina Dahlberg & Ylva Lindberg, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, s. 331-382Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter builds upon data from different multi-sited ethnographic projects that have been conducted and are ongoing in different geopolitical and digital spaces. This chapter is framed within sociocultural, dialogical and decolonial perspectives which highlight that learning is a situated and distributed process where communication is collaboratively achieved. In these traditions, while the rich potentials and dimensions of human communication in concert with intellectual and material tools are recognized, attention in analysis has tended to be dominated over the decades by an “oral language bias”. The findings presented in this chapter raise epistemological and pragmatic challenges related to the very doing of ethnographic fieldwork and illustrate some closely related theoretical and methodological issues, specifically in settings where linguistic heterogeneity is the norm.

  • 20.
    Besic, Medina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Kapasi, Tayyeba
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Flerspråkiga barn och deras språkutveckling i förskolan2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka förskollärarnas syn på flerspråkiga barns språkutveckling i yngre åldrar i förskolan. I studien har vi utgått från följande frågeställningar: Vilken syn förskollärare har om strategier som används vid flerspråkiga barns språkutveckling? Hur använder förskollärare miljön för att utveckla flerspråkiga barns språk?

     

    I studien har kvalitativa intervjuer gjorts med sex förskollärare i en medelstor kommun. Anledningen att vi valde använda oss av kvalitativa intervjuer var att uppnå vårt syfte och få svar på våra frågeställningar. Denna metod lämpar sig för vår studie då vi vill undersöka förskollärarnas syn på vårt syfte. Vår studie genomsyras av sociokulturellt perspektiv.

     

    Det vi har kommit fram till är att förskollärarna tycker att flerspråkiga barns språkutveckling är lika komplex som de enspråkigas. Den är beroende av olika faktorer såsom förskollärarnas kompetens, miljön, hem och barns begåvning. Förskollärarna tycker inte att de skiljer sig från de andra förskolorna i sitt arbetssätt, bemötande och material som de använder på sina förskolor. Fast de tillämpar sitt arbetssätt och sin miljö till den barngrupp de har. De anser att de flerspråkiga barn som har goda kunskaper i sitt modersmål är lika duktiga på svenska.

  • 21.
    Bulut, Dilber
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Keskin, Özlem
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Barns flerspråkighet: En studie om hur förskollärare uppfattar barns språkutveckling2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka förskollärares uppfattningar om flerspråkiga barn och ele-vers språkutveckling i förskolan och i förskoleklass. I studien har vi utgått från två frågeställ-ningar som är följande; vilka strategier använder förskollärare för att utveckla språkutveckling hos flerspråkiga barn och elever? Vilken betydelse har miljön för flerspråkiga barn och elever och deras språkutveckling i förskola respektive förskoleklass?

    Kvalitativa intervjuer har använts, vilket innebär att åtta förskollärare intervjuats för att besvara frågeställningarna i studien. Ett sociokulturellt perspektiv genomsyrar studien. Resultatet visade på att de olika förskolorna och förskoleklasserna arbetade på olika sätt med flerspråkighet. En del arbetade medvetet med flerspråkighet medan andra arbetade mindre medvetet. Responden-terna ansåg att det finns många faktorer som påverkar både förskollärarnas förmåga att arbeta medvetet med flerspråkighet och även de flerspråkiga barnens språkutveckling. Resultatet visar att de olika faktorerna som påverkar förskollärares förmåga till medvetet arbete är kopplade till vilka resurser som finns, hur miljön ser ut och vilket förhållningssätt förskolläraren har mot barnen.

  • 22. Chindamo, M.
    et al.
    Allwood, Jens
    SCCIIL Interdisciplinary Center, Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ahlsen, E.
    Some suggestions for the study of stance in communication2012Inngår i: Proceedings - 2012 ASE/IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust and 2012 ASE/IEEE International Conference on Social Computing, SocialCom/PASSAT 2012, 2012, s. 617-622Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interlocutors, express not only information in the form of spoken words but also their feelings and commitments with regard to what is being said. In face-to-face communication participants interact in such a way that they react to one another’s multimodal positioning in the conversation. Often this means that they take a ’stance’. The goal of this paper is to explore the notion of stance through a review and discussion of some of the relevant literature and then relate this to research on social signal processing (SSP). The main focus of the review is on the notion of stance in linguistics, as the point of departure for exploring other fields. Consideration of the relation between gestural communication and expression of emotions will give a more complete view of how a stance is taken and upheld. ©2012 IEEE.

  • 23.
    Denke, Annika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Medie-, litteratur- och språkdidaktik.
    Fant, Lars
    Stockholm University.
    Negotiating with the Boss: An Inter- and Crosscultural Perspective on Problematic Talk2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24. Dhakhwa, S.
    et al.
    Allwood, Jens
    SSKKII Interdisciplinary Center, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Self documentation of endangered languages2012Inngår i: 2012 8th International Symposium on Chinese Spoken Language Processing, ISCSLP 2012; Hong Kong; China; 5 December 2012 through 8 December 2012, 2012, s. 392-395Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several minority languages are on the verge of extinction in Nepal, especially when they don’t have a generally accepted writing system and occur in an area where Nepali (the official language) is predominantly used. Lohorung is an example, which is spoken among the Lohroung Rai communities of Sankhuwasabha, a hilly district of eastern Nepal. Older generations of Lohorung are experts in Lohorung but they have limitations in reading and writing English or Nepali. The documentation of Lohorung and other similar endangered languages is important. If the right tools and techniques are used, we believe that self documentation is one of the best ways, to document a language. We have developed an online platform which community members can use to collaboratively self document their language. The platform is a multimodal dictionary authoring and browsing tool and it has been developed with a focus on usability, ease of use and productivity. ©2012 IEEE.

  • 25.
    Dybvik, Arne Rasmus
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Att läsa och skriva digitalt: En kvalitativ undersökning om fem lärares upplevelser av digitala verktyg i undervisningen av läsförståelse och skrivinlärning.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens samhälle är i en utvecklingsprocess där digitala verktyg får allt större plats. Vi använder oss av teknik mer nu än vad vi någon gång har gjort. Detta är något som påverkar skolan, då skolan ska utbilda elever så de klarar sig i samhället. Skolan har som mål att spegla samhället. Därmed har det tillkommit att elever ska få möjligheten att utveckla digital kompetens och lärare ska använda sig av digitala verktyg i undervisningen. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur lärare i årskurs 4-6 beskriver att de arbetar med och hanterar digitala verktyg kopplat till ämnet svenska med inriktning på läsförståelse och skrivinlärning. För att uppnå studiens syfte har det genomförts kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer där fem stycken lärare deltagit. Det centrala i studien är lärarnas resonemang samt likheter och skillnader i deras svar gentemot forskningsfrågorna. Resultatet av studien visar att digitala verktyg upplevs som ett hjälpmedel men att det finns orosmoment och utmaningar vid användningen av digitala verktyg i undervisningen.

    Today’s society is in development, where digital tools have gained more attention and are used more frequently. This change will affect the educational system. The educational system is intended to reflect society; thus, students should learn to develop their digital competence. Consequently, teachers should use digital tools in their education. The aim of this study is to explore how teachers for grades 4 to 6 in Swedish compulsory school works with and handles digital tools in their education, focusing on the subject Swedish with an emphasis on reading comprehension and writing acquisition. This paper used a qualitative research approach with semi-structured interviews conducted with five teachers. The central part of this paper is the teacher’s reasoning along with similarities and differences in their responses in relation to the research question. The results show that digital tools are indeed seen as helpful, however, there are several concerns and challenges in the use of digital tools for educational purposes.

  • 26.
    Erman, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Denke, Annika
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Språk-, litteratur- och mediedidaktik.
    Fant, Lars
    Stockholm University.
    Forsberg Lundell, Fanny
    Stockholm University.
    Nativelike expression in the speech of long-residency L2 users: A study of multiword structures in L2 English, French and Spanish2015Inngår i: International Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0802-6106, E-ISSN 1473-4192, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 160-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nativelike expression in L2 speech is investigated by comparing quantity and distribution of different types of multiword structures (MWSs) in the speech of very advanced L2 speakers with native speakers. Swedish speakers of L2 English, L2 French and L2 Spanish (average LOR in the UK, France and Chile 7–10 years) performing two oral tasks, a role play, and an online retelling task, are compared with matching native speakers, totalling 140,000 words. The L2 groups were nativelike in their use of MWSs as social routines in the role play. Collocations, the dominant category in the retelling task, were underrepresented in all three L2 groups compared to the native groups. Furthermore, the English NNSs were nativelike on more measurements of MWSs than the French and Spanish NNSs.

  • 27.
    Fant, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Denke, Annika
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Lärandepraktiker i och utanför skolan (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Negotiating with the boss: An inter- and crosscultural perspective on problematic talk2016Inngår i: Pragmatics and Society, ISSN 1878-9714, E-ISSN 1878-9722, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 540-569Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Elicited conversations with participants engaged in a problematic negotiation with their boss were analyzed in groups of native speakers of British English, Chilean Spanish and Swedish, and in groups of Swedish speakers of L2 English and L2 Spanish (longtime residents in their host community and highly proficient in their L2). Two planes of comparison were involved: cross-culturally, addressing differences between the native groups, and, inter-culturally, addressing interaction between natives and non-natives. Results show considerable distance between the three L1 groups, especially regarding how power distance and social distance are managed both by the ‘employees’ and the ‘bosses’. As regards L2 speaker behavior, alignment with target community patterns largely prevails and few instances of L1 transfer occur. Communicative clashes are found to take place more often in the Swedish-Spanish encounters than in the Swedish-English ones, arguably due to the wider cultural distance between the Chilean and Swedish socio-cultures.

  • 28.
    Gambarato, Renira Rampazzo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Komesu, Fabiana
    São Paulo State University, Brazil.
    What Are You Laughing At? Former Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff’s Internet Memes across Spreadable Media Contexts2018Inngår i: Journal of Creative Communications, ISSN 0973-2586, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 85-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses a delimited corpus of Internet memes showcasing former Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff. The theoretical framework is based on studies of memes and Internet memes as phenomena inserted in the online dimension of transmission and cultural production, and principles of the General Theory of Systems. The methodological approach is based on the classification tools developed by Dawkins (1976) to describe memes that spread widely across the digital space (fidelity, fecundity and longevity) and the patterns developed by Knobel and Lankshear (2007) as the main characteristics that contribute to an Internet meme’s spreadability (humour, intertextuality and juxtaposition). These classification tools are applied aiming to select and analyse Internet memes that feature the Brazilian president. The goal of the article is to extract from both classification systems relevant tools for guiding understanding about how certain specific sets of memes connected to Dilma Rousseff became memorable and spreadable within the Brazilian media landscape. The result findings show that the categories and patterns applied to the analysis are not isolated and are not mutually exclusive. On the contrary, they are frequently juxtaposed, which denotes their integrated nature and coherent disposition, corroborating to clarify and identify how certain specific sets of memes spread within the media.

  • 29.
    Goico, Sara Alida
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    The Impact of “Inclusive” Education on the Language of Deaf Youth in Iquitos, Peru2019Inngår i: Sign Language Studies, ISSN 0302-1475, E-ISSN 1533-6263, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 348-374Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Iquitos, Peru, a city of about 500,000 in the Peruvian Amazon, there is a disparity in the sign language skills of deaf individuals based on age. Large numbers of deaf adults use Peruvian Sign Language (LSP) as their primary means of communication and interact with one another at deaf association and church gatherings. In contrast, the majority of deaf youth younger than eighteen years old grow up primarily in hearing environments, without access to spoken Spanish or LSP. In order to communicate with the hearing individuals around them, many develop rudimentary manual communication systems, called homesigns. The disparity in language skills between deaf youth and deaf adults has not always been so prominent. In the past, deaf students in Iquitos gained access to LSP by attending one of four special education schools, where they could routinely interact with deaf peers and, sometimes, deaf adults. In recent years, however, deaf youth have been placed in regular education “inclusive” classrooms, where they are typically the only deaf person in the school and receive no support services to access the language of the classroom. This change in policy has had the unintended effect of cutting off the previous pathways by which deaf youth in Iquitos gained access to LSP in the classroom. Thus, the adoption of “inclusive” education as the new special education policy has resulted in large numbers of deaf youth relying on homesigns as their primary form of communication. This research is based on ethnographic fieldwork with deaf individuals in Iquitos that has been ongoing since 2010.

  • 30.
    Gross, Johan
    et al.
    Division of Educational Science and Languages, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Julia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Lärandepraktiker i och utanför skolan (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU).
    Weak Lips? A Possible Merger of /i:/ and /y:/ in Gothenburg2019Inngår i: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims:

    This study investigates a possible merger in the early stages between /i:/ and /y:/ among young speakers in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Methods:

    (1) A large-scale online perception experiment testing listeners’ abilities to identify the two vowels and (2) acoustic analysis of 705 vowels from 19 speakers. 

    Results:

    The perception study shows that listeners classify the horizontally centralized /y:/ as /i:/, both in isolated vowel items and in items containing the full word. This indicates that /y:/ is moving into the perceptual space of /i:/. Listeners also classify the unmerged /y:/ as /i:/ when listening to [y:] in isolation, indicating that lip rounding is a perceptually weak feature, for this centralized vowel, in this variety. The acoustic analysis shows that /i:/ tends to be produced as [ɨ:], and that there is no acoustic difference between /i:/ and /y:/ in measurements correlated with the first two formants, i.e. lip rounding is the most important distinctive feature.

    Conclusion:

    Results point in the direction of an incipient vowel merger, following a merger-by-approximation model. These results indicate a lack of perceptual strength of an articulatory feature in the disappearing phoneme, namely lip rounding, and the consequent perceptual similarities between the horizontally centralized [ɨ:] and /y:/.

  • 31.
    Hellström, Eugen
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    A lack of flæ:r: A comparative study of English accent stereotypes in fantasy role-playing games2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the use of linguistic stereotypes in two fantasy role-playing games, Witcher 3: The Wild Hunt and Dragon Age: Origins with a focus on phonology. It investigates how accent stereotypes are used and why they are important for characters in video games, for example regarding prestige and attractiveness. It analyzes each character from a character type perspective: hero, villain, comic-relief, mentor and lover. The results show that there are accent stereotypes in fantasy role-playing games and that they are, most likely, deliberately placed as such. It also shows that standard variations of English are mainly used for characters that serves a purpose to the story while non-standard variations are used for characters that serves no purpose to the game other than working as tools to enrich the world with a sense of life.

  • 32. Henrichsen, P. J.
    et al.
    Allwood, Jens
    University of Gothenburg.
    Swedish and Danish, spoken and written language: A statistical comparison2005Inngår i: International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, ISSN 1384-6655, E-ISSN 1569-9811, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 367-399Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of much linguistic research is to determine the grammar and the lexicon of a certain language L. The spoken variant of L - in so far as it is considered at all - is generally taken to be just another projection of the same grammar and lexicon. We suspect that this assumption may be wrong. Our suspicion derives from our contrastive analyses of four corpora, two Swedish and two Danish (covering spoken as well as written language), suggesting that - in the dimensions of frequency distribution, word type selection, and distribution over parts of speech - the mode of communication (spoken versus written) is much more significant as a determining factor than even the choice of language (Swedish versus Danish). ©John Benjamins Publishing Company.

  • 33.
    Holmqvist, Julia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Idiomatic Expressions in Fiction: A Textual Analysis of the Use and Effects of Idioms in Donna Tartt's The Secret History2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 34.
    Huang, Aijun
    et al.
    Soochow University, Shanghai, China.
    Ursini, Francesco-Alessio
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    The acquisition of the wh-pronoun duo-shao 'much-little' in child Mandarin2016Inngår i: A Festschrift for Stephen Crain / [ed] Nakayma, M. Ching, Y. Su & A. Huang, John Benjamins , 2016, s. 170-198Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mandarin Chinese wh-pronouns ji-ge ‘how many-CL’ and duo-shao ‘a lot-a little’ can be roughly translated in English as 'how-many' and 'how-much', respectively. When these two wh-pronouns interact with the negation operator mei ‘not’, there derive similar but not identical readings: while the negative ji-ge structure conveys a ‘smallness’ in number (i.e., ‘small-number’), the negative duo-shao structure conveys a ‘smallness’ in quantity (i.e., ‘small-amount’). Huang and Crain (2014a) studied Mandarin-speaking children’s acquisition of the ‘small-number’ reading of the negative ji-ge structure. It was found that children undergo three developmental stages in the acquisition of the ‘small-number’ reading of the negative ji-ge structure, exhibiting the emergence of the full range of the meanings of ji-ge in the course of language development. The present study extends the inquiry of Huang and Crain (2014a) and investigates the acquisition of the ‘small-amount’ reading of the negative duo-shao structure. The experimental data exhibit two developmental stages, which are argued to reflect the development of the semantic and pragmatic properties of the wh-pronoun duo-shao.  In short, the acquisition scenario of the negative duo-shao structure is different from that of the negative ji-ge structure, but both studies suggest that the semantic and pragmatic properties of Chinese wh-pronouns determine the acquisition of Chinese wh-pronouns in negative structures.  

  • 35.
    Hålén, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Johansson, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Flerspråkighet i förskolan: Åtta förskollärares syn på samarbetet med modersmålslärare2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I läroplanen för förskolan betonas modersmålets betydelse både i förskolans uppdrag och i förskolans mål. Barnen ska ges möjlighet att utveckla både det svenska språket och sitt modersmål, sin kulturella identitet samt förmågan att kommunicera på både modersmålet och svenska.  Det är viktigt att redan i förskolan arbetar aktivt för att stötta barn med annat modersmål än svenska för att främja språkutvecklingen och stärka deras självkänsla.

    Studien syftar till att undersöka hur åtta förskollärare ser på samarbetet med modersmålslärare i förskolan. Våra frågeställningar är följande:

    -          Hur beskriver förskollärarna samarbetet med modersmålslärarna?

    -          Hur ser förskollärarna på vikten av samarbete med modersmålslärarna?

    För att få svar på våra frågeställningar genomförde vi kvalitativa intervjuer med åtta förskollärare i åtta olika förskolor. Vi utgick från en hermeneutisk syn i vår analysering av materialet vi fick fram genom de kvalitativa intervjuerna med förskollärarna. Urvalet av förskolorna gjorde vi medvetet med utgångspunkt att det skulle finnas minst ett par flerspråkiga barn i barngruppen.

    Resultatet av analysen visar att alla förskollärare utom en ser att det finns ett stort behov av samarbete med modersmålslärare i förskolan. Däremot menar de att det finns hinder som tid och resurser som gör att samarbetet inte är genomförbart. Främst lyfts avsaknaden av tid för gemensam planering och bristen på modersmålslärare i kommunerna. I undersökningen finns det två förskolor som har ett väl fungerande samarbete med modersmålslärare när det gäller planering, men det finns inte modersmålsstöd till alla språk. På de övriga förskolorna fanns det inget fungerande samarbete mellan förskollärare och modersmålslärare.  

  • 36.
    Issa, Issa
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Didaktisk fonetik i andraspråksinlärning: En litteraturstudie om uttal2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska samhället blir allt mer mångkulturellt och i takt med den ökade invandringen förändras klassrummen i de svenska skolorna. När individer flyttar till Sverige och börjar i skolan blir de andraspråkselever samt en del av det svenska samhället och måste lära sig det svenska språket. I min litteraturstudie har jag intresserat mig för faktorer som har betydelse för uttalsundervisning för elever med svenska som andraspråk. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att identifiera faktorer som i forskningen lyfts fram som väsentliga gällande uttalsundervisning bland elever med svenska som andraspråk. Dessutom syftar studien till att sammanställa och presentera på vilka sätt uttalsundervisning kan användas i klassrummet för att möjliggöra andraspråkselevers utveckling i uttal och förståelse av svenskans fonologi. I litteraturstudien har nationella och internationella forskningstexter samlats för att kunna ge en helhetsbild av vilka faktorer som är av betydelse när elever lär  sig ett nytt språk. Resultatet av litteraturstudien visar att lärare bör undervisa andraspråkselever i fonetik, vilket är läran om uttal och de minsta betydelseskiljande enheterna fonem och därefter arbeta med artikulation. Fonetik-utbildning leder till fonemisk medvetenhet och kan spela en viktig roll i undervisningen om uttal för att elever ska kunna komma vidare till ord- och frasnivå. Målet med den svenska uttalsundervisningen är att eleverna ska undvika att överföra strukturer från modersmålet och istället utveckla ett brytningsfritt uttal och lära sig svenska språkets prosodi.

  • 37.
    Johansson, Simon
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Thou Shalt Not Split...?: A Corpus-Based Study on Split Infinitives in American English2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to shed light on the prevalence of the to + adverb + verb and to not + verb split infinitives in American English, both in a historical perspective and in present day usage, and how it varies in different contexts where different levels of formality are expected. Although students are taught to avoid splitting constructions, numerous grammarians and linguists question this prescriptive viewpoint. Two extensive corpora, the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA) and the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), were used to gather data. The results revealed how the frequency of the split infinitive was, and still is, rising rapidly, and becoming more and more a standard and accepted feature in American English. The most common context in which to find a split infinitive was that of informal spoken language. However, it was in the most formal of settings, that of academic texts, where the largest increase in prevalence of the split infinitive was seen.

  • 38.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Medie-, litteratur- och språkdidaktik.
    Biolinguistics or Physicolinguistics? Is The Third Factor Helpful Or Harmful In Explaining Language?2013Inngår i: Biolinguistics, ISSN 1450-3417, Vol. 7, s. 249-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Noam Chomsky (2005) proposed that a ‘third factor’, consisting of general principles and natural laws, may explain core properties of language in a principled manner, minimizing the need for either genetic endowment or experience. But the focus on third-factor patterns in much recent bio-linguistic work is misguided for several reasons: First, ‘the’ third factor is a vague and disparate collection of unrelated components, useless as an analytical tool. Second, the vagueness of the third factor, together with the desire for principled explanations, too often leads to sweeping claims, such as syntax “coming for free, directly from physics”, that are unwarranted without a case-by-case causal analysis. Third, attention is diverted away from a proper causal analysis of language as a biological feature. The point with biolinguistics is to acknowledge the language faculty as a biological feature. The best way forward towards an understanding of language is to take the biology connection seriously, instead of dabbling with physics.

  • 39.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Medie-, litteratur- och språkdidaktik.
    Constraining the time when language evolved2011Inngår i: Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, ISSN 1841-2394, Vol. 10, s. 45-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The precise timing of the emergence of language in human prehistory cannot be resolved. But the available evidence is sufficient to constrain it to some degree. This is a review and synthesis of the available evidence, leading to the conclusion that the time when speech in some form became important for our ancestors can be constrained to be not less than 400,000 years ago, thus excluding several popular theories involving a late transition to speech.

  • 40.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Evolutionary constraints on language and speech2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Medie-, litteratur- och språkdidaktik.
    How can a social theory of language evolution be grounded in evidence?2014Inngår i: The Social Origins of Language / [ed] Daniel Dor, Chris Knight, Jeremy Lewis, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, s. 56-65Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Medie-, litteratur- och språkdidaktik.
    How can a social theory of language evolution be grounded in evidence?2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Medie-, litteratur- och språkdidaktik.
    How language did not evolve2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Medie-, litteratur- och språkdidaktik.
    I-language is not what evolved biologically, and E-language is not what evolved culturally.2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Medie-, litteratur- och språkdidaktik.
    Neanderthals between Man and Beast: A Comment on the Comments of Barceló-Coblijn & Benítez-Burraco (2013)2013Inngår i: Biolinguistics, ISSN 1450-3417, Vol. 7, s. 217-227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Origins of language: Constraints on hypotheses2005Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sverker Johansson has written an unusual book on language origins, with its emphasis on empirical evidence rather than theory-building. This is a book for the student or researcher who prefers solid data and well-supported conclusions, over speculative scenarios. Much that has been written on the origins of language is characterized by hypothesizing largely unconstrained by evidence. But empirical data do exist, and the purpose of this book is to integrate and review the available evidence from all relevant disciplines, not only linguistics but also, e.g., neurology, primatology, paleoanthropology, and evolutionary biology. The evidence is then used to constrain the multitude of scenarios for language origins, demonstrating that many popular hypotheses are untenable. Among the issues covered: (1) Human evolutionary history, (2) Anatomical prerequisites for language, (3) Animal communication and ape "language", (4) Mind and language, (5) The role of gesture, (6) Innateness, (7) Selective advantage of language, (8) Proto-language.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Seeking compositionality in holistic proto-language without substructure – do counterexamples overwhelm the fractionation process?2008Inngår i: The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Evolution of Language / [ed] Smith & Smith & Ferrer i Cancho, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing , 2008, s. 171-178Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In holistic theories of protolanguage, a vital step is the fractionation process where holistic utterances are broken down into segments, and segments associated with semantic components. One problem for this process may be the occurrence of counterexamples to any segment-meaning connection. The actual abundance of such counterexamples is a contentious issue \cite{smith06,taller07}. Here I present calculations of the prevalence of counterexamples in model languages.  It is found that counterexamples are indeed abundant, much more numerous than positive examples for any plausible holistic language.

  • 48.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Medie-, litteratur- och språkdidaktik.
    The case for Neanderthal language. How strong is it?2012Inngår i: The evolution of language : proceedings of the 9th international conference (EVOLANG9), Kyoto, Japan, 13 - 16 March 2012 / [ed] Thomas C Scott-Phillips, Mónica Tamariz, Erica A Cartmill & James R Hurford, Hackensack, N.J.: World Scientific, 2012, s. 173-180Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Did Neanderthals have language? This issue has been debated back and forth for decades,without resolution. But in recent years new evidence has become available. New fossils andarchaeological finds cast light on relevant Neanderthal anatomy and behaviour. New DNA evidence,both fossil and modern, provides clues both to the relationship between Neanderthals andHomo sapiens, and to the genetics of language. In this paper, I review and evaluate the availableevidence. My conclusion is that the preponderance of the evidence supports the presenceof some form of language in Neanderthals.

  • 49.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Medie-, litteratur- och språkdidaktik.
    The Talking Neanderthals: What do Fossils, Genetics and Archeology Say?2013Inngår i: Biolinguistics, ISSN 1450-3417, Vol. 7, s. 035-074Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Did Neanderthals have language? This issue has been debated back and forth for decades, without resolution. But in recent years new evidence has become available. New fossils and archeological finds cast light on relevant Neanderthal anatomy and behavior. New DNA evidence, both fossil and modern, provides clues both to the relationship between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, and to the genetics of language. In this paper, I review and evaluate the available evidence. My conclusion is that the preponderance of the evidence supports the presence of some form of language in Neanderthals.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Medie-, litteratur- och språkdidaktik.
    The Third Factor does not come for free2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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