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  • 1.
    Ahlin, Jennifer
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    ”Integration är både en rättighet och en skyldighet för alla”: En innehållsanalys om de främsta verktygen för integration enligt Europeiska kommissionens handlingsplaner2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Integration is a well-known phenomenon all over Europe as a result of the increasing globalization that contributes to people moving across boarders more than ever. A joint effort is necessary for immigrants to integrate into their host societies which benefits not only the immigrant but the society overall. This thesis analyses the European Commission’s Action Plan on Integration in order to create a profound understanding of the main tools for integration of immigrants according to the Commission. The Commission has published two action plans, one from 2016, shortly after the refugee crisis, and one from 2020. The aim of the thesis is to identify which tools for integration are prioritized, how this changes over time and how it relates to Diaz integration model which is the theory that is used in the thesis. Diaz integration model explains the integration process in seven dimensions. The dimensions are used as a tool to interpret the texts in accordance with a qualitative content analysis. The results suggest that the Commission mainly prioritizes efforts related to the economic dimension, meaning workforce measures and economic self-sufficiency. The European Commission increases their focus on communicative integration in the latter action plan and intends to implement more measures to ensure improved language skills and better access to information. This leads to the conclusion that the action plans changes as the needs and requirements for integration tools changes a few years after the refugee crisis when many immigrants arrived to Europe. The commission seems to prioritize measures that favor the entire society, mainly referring to economic welfare, while for example political integration is low priority despite the  plans association with political actors.

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  • 2.
    Amberntsson, Pelle
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    Göteborg EU Migrants2016In: Social mobilisering: Lärdomar från fyra svenska städer / [ed] Andersson, Oscar & Amberntsson, Pelle, Malmö: Universus Press, 2016, p. 79-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Amberntsson, Pelle
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The Past of Present Livelihoods: Historical perspectives on modernisation, rural policy regimes and smallholder poverty - a case from Eastern Zambia2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an enquiry into the processes shaping rural livelihoods in peripheral areas. The study is situated in the field of livelihood research and departs in the persistent crisis within African smallholder agriculture and in rural policy debates during the postindependence era. The research takes a critical stance to the way that people-centred and actor-oriented approaches have dominated livelihood research, thereby over-shadowing structural and macro-oriented features.

    The aim of this study is to, through a historical perspective on rural livelihoods and policy regimes, uncover the political and economic processes, with their discursive foundations, that shape contemporary rural livelihoods in peripheral areas. The analytical framework emphasises four key factors: ideas of development and modernity; the terms of incorporation into the global economy; rural policy regimes; smallholders’ ways of making a living. Inspiration is gained from critical political geography, world-systems analysis and different perspectives on rural livelihoods and development.

    The empirical study is based on fieldwork in Chipata District in Eastern Zambia, investigations at the National Archives of Zambia, the British National Archives and library research. The findings are presented in three parts. The first part looks into contemporary policies and the situation among smallholders in Chipata District. The second part examines the history of the area up to independence in 1964. The third part examines the post-independence period which links colonial experience to the contemporary situation.

    The findings suggest that smallholders’ livelihoods are shaped by long-term politicaleconomic- discursive processes, rooted in the terms of the study area’s integration into the world-economy in the colonial period. Colonial policies peripheralised the area through tax, labour, and market policies and the creation of native reserves, all of which have led to contemporary problems of food insecurity, soil depletion and a marginal role in agricultural markets. Since the inception of colonial rule, semi-proletarianisation has been a dominant process in the area. Current diversified livelihoods are more a contemporary expression of this semi-proletarianisation than a consequence of postcolonial policies. The households in the study area show preference for a farming way of life. However, the development goal of modernity has since long led to an ‘othering’ of smallholders, labelling them backwards and resistant to change. In the early twenty-first century this ‘othering’ has been played out through a development programme aimed at changing attitudes and mindsets among the farmers in line with individualistic and entrepreneurial behaviour. The ‘othering’ discourses of contemporary and colonial policymakers display striking similarities in this case.

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  • 4.
    Antonsson, Andrea
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Svenska migranters upplevelser i Japan: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om svenskars upplevelser av att ha kontakt med japans offentliga sektor, arbetsplatser och relationer med japaner2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Migration to Sweden and integration of immigrants in Sweden is an ongoing subject in politics and the media. Swedish people migrating to other countries that have different cultures and values is not as talked about. One example of such a country is Japan which has experienced a drastic demographic change in the last decades with a growing elderly population. Japan has a restrictive migration policy and while the easiest way of solving this issue is allowing more migrants into the country, little has been done to change policies so far. This study aims to explore what experiences Swedish migrants in Japan have in their everyday life. What challenges do they face? To explore this the study focuses on their experiences of contact with Japan’s public sector, workplaces, and relationships with Japanese people. Five semi-structured interviews were conducted with Swedish people that all had experience of living and working in Japan. The results show that the respondents generally have a positive experience of Japan’s public sector, while they wish there were more English-speaking staff. They also critiqued Japan’s restrictive migration policies. In the workplaces they also had generally positive experiences. They talked about cultural differences they encountered and that they had to adapt how they behaved in certain ways. When it came to relationships with Japanese people it was a mixed bag. While they all had Japanese friends, and some had Japanese partners, they all felt that it was difficult to get close to or befriend Japanese people. Several of the respondents also experienced different types of discrimination and harassment. None of the respondents felt fully integrated into Japanese society, where some of them wanted to feel fully integrated, while some were happy the way it was.

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  • 5.
    Avery, Helen
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Mathematics Education Research. Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, Sweden.
    De la nation-foyer à la nation-forteresse: quelles implications pour l’éducation des réfugiés en Suède?2019In: AREF 2019: Livret des résumés, 2019, p. 209-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tensions between tendencies to support and reject that can be observed in reception measures for newly-arrived students in Sweden are a consequence both of the general climate of hostility towards immigration in Europe, and features particular to Sweden. The paper summarises the historical background to the present situation, from the 1960s onwards, and points to some of the impacts for teachers and for civil society. The analysis will above all focus on three diverging but parallell trends and which overlap: dynamics of integration, dynamics of competition and social segregation; dynamics of 'securitisation'. These dynamics evolve within different conceptualisations of education, but also relate to social developments and conflicting visions for society as a whole.

  • 6.
    Avery, Helen
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER). Centre for Advanced Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, Sweden.
    Entre les mesures spéciales de soutien et l’enseignement: la réception des nouveaux-arrivants en Suède [Between special support measures and teaching: receiving newcomers in Sweden]2020In: Allophonie: Inclusion et langues des enfants migrants à l’école / [ed] C. Mendonça Dias, B. Azaoui & F. Chnane-Davin, Limoges: Lambert-Lucas, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The system of welcoming newly arrived students in Sweden has experienced numerous modifications since its inception. Additionally, because the interpretation of education laws us left to the municipalities and head teachers, the various policies have resulted in a multitude of local practices. Over the years, a very wide range of models for organising newcomer reception have therefore been tried out in Sweden. This makes it possible to draw some conclusions regarding didactic implications, and to identify the most critical aspects. Across the various experiences, it is noteworthy that the reception system remains placed at the margins of the education system as a whole, which leads to inadequacies in teacher training as well as obstacles to the collaboration required across teams, professional groups and institutions. The pedagogy is based on a general perception ofthe incapacity of the student, while the many "specialmeasures" that aim to compensate for perceived deficits do not result in teaching approaches that facilitate the transition between education systems or take into account expectations of the students and their families.

  • 7.
    Avery, Helen
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU). Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University.
    Said, Salam
    Higher education as a socio-economic advancement opportunity for refugees2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Lopez, Esteban
    CEPR, Escuela de Negocios, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar, Chile.
    Rowe, Francisco
    Geographic Data Science Lab, Department of Geography and Planning, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    The occupational trajectories and outcomes of forced migrants in Sweden. Entrepreneurship, employment or persistent inactivity?2021In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 56, p. 963-983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current surge in forced migration to Europe is probably the largest and most complex since the Second World War. As population aging accelerates and fertility falls below replacement level, immigration may be seen as a key component of human capital to address labor and skill shortages. Receiving countries are, however, hesitant about the contribution that forced migrants can make to the local economy. Coupled with increasing pressure on welfare services, they are associated with increased job competition and crime. Underutilization of immigrants’ skills is, however, a waste of resources that countries can scarcely afford. Understanding the labor market integration process of forced migrants is thus critical to develop policies that unleash their full skills potential and ultimately foster local economic productivity. While prior studies have examined the employment and salary outcomes of these immigrants at a particular point in time post-migration, they have failed to capture the temporal dynamics and complexity of this process. Drawing on administrative data from Sweden, we examine the occupational pathways of forced migrants using sequence analysis from their arrival in 1991 through to 2013. Findings reveal polarized pathways of long-term labor market integration with over one-third of refugees experiencing a successful labor market integration pathway and an equally large share facing a less fruitful employment outcomes. Our findings suggest education provision is key to promote a more successful integration into the local labor market by reducing barriers of cultural proximity and increasing the occurrence of entrepreneurship activity. 

  • 9.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Frivilligt socialt arbete i svenska muslimska församlingar: Tradition, organisation, integration.2011In: Socionomens forskningssupplement, ISSN 0283–1929, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 34-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska muslimska församlingar är inte bara religiösa mötesplatser utan också centra för organiseringen av sociala välfärdsinsatser. I denna studie ges, för första gången i Västeuropa, en riksrepresentativ bild av muslimska församlingars frivilliga sociala arbete men också en analys av den roll sådana insatser spelar ur ett integrationsperspektiv. Bidrar muslimskt socialt arbete till att skapa inåtriktade parallellsamhällen eller bidrar det, tvärtom, till att skapa nya band till det omgivande samhället?

  • 10.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Mittuniversitetet.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work.
    Hidden Voluntary Social Work: A Nationally Representative Survey of Muslim Congregations in Sweden2011In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 968-979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on a nationwide survey of local Muslim congregations (n  =  105) and focuses on the patterns and function of voluntary social work carried out by the congregations. Muslim congregations in Sweden are not only religious meeting places, but also social meeting places and centres for the organisation of a broad range of social welfare services: outreach activities, support to newly arrived immigrants and activities for children and young people. The work is carried out on a voluntary basis at the intersection between the congregation and the community. Muslim voluntary social work appears to be most intensive in smaller municipalities with a large amount of unemployment. The dominant discourse on Islam in Europe has claimed that Muslim social work is part of an attempt to create self-sufficient enclaves that impede the integration of Muslim immigrants into the wider society. Claims of this type seem, however, to be largely unfounded. The Swedish Muslim congregations that carry out the most voluntary social work are those most interested in co-operation with other organisations and with authorities of different types and those that have the most positive experiences of the wider society.

  • 11.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbetet, Östersund.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work.
    Motstånd och stöd: en studie av svenska muslimska församlingar2010In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, E-ISSN 2002-066X, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 31-43Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbetet, Östersund.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Religion, etnicitet och organisation2010In: Invandrare & Minoriteter, ISSN 1404-6857, no 1, p. 13-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flertalet muslimska samfund i Sverige är mångetniska mötesplatser för troende från olika kulturer och islamska traditioner. Församlingarna söker en gemensam andlig plattform och vägar för att utveckla nya organisationsformer.

  • 13.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbetet, Östersund.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Samverkan eller Isolering?: Svenska muslimska församlingar2011In: SSTs Årsbok 2011, Stockholm: SST, Nämnden för Statligt Stöd till Trossamfund , 2011, p. 13-16Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbetet, Östersund.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work.
    Sällström, Anna
    Nordlander, Johanna
    Lundkvist, Elisabeth
    Muslimska församlingar i lokalsamhället: Samverkan eller isolering?2011In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, E-ISSN 2003-5624, no 1, p. 63-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Muslimska församlingars riksomfattande etablering i Sverige är en viktig förändring inom den ideella sektorn. Men hur förhåller sig församlingarna till den svenska traditionen av samverkan mellan ideella och offentliga aktörer? I artikeln studeras hur och i vilken omfattning muslimska församlingar samverkar med offentliga aktörer och vilka organisationsinterna och organisationsexterna faktorer som gynnar respektive missgynnar samverkan.

  • 15.
    Della Rosa, Asia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle.
    Lawson, ChloeLinköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle.Sim, KennaLinköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle.Smith, NatashaLinköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle.Spathia, KaterinaLinköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle.Berggren, ErikLinköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle.Bredström, AnnaLinköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle.
    Life During Covid-19: from Norrköping to the World2020Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How does one write about a storm when one is swept by the wind and an impending thunder overhead, and lighting?

    We’re writing whilst standing on moving tectonic plates; what we conclude today might be rendered obsolete by the discovery of a vaccine, or new outbreak on a so far, little-affected region. However, we can at least hope that writing from within the phenomenon of the Coronavirus pandemic we can construct a unique time capsule in what (we hope) will be a passing, though indelible, phase in history.

    These reflections and observations of the present will be perhaps premature in gauging the situation or in making conclusions, but they will nevertheless be a record of a period that will be discussed and reconsidered for decades if not centuries to come. Therefore the texts that follow herein are a mixture of subjective reflections, popular scientific analyses and journalistic reports.

    Ultimately, regarding the pandemic’s effects on the economy, migration policy, healthcare, social ties within and between societies, on the family and the quality of our friendships, our capacities for compassion and support, only time will tell.

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  • 16.
    Dijkshoorn, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Inclusive Education for Refugees and Asylum Seeking Children: A Systematic Literature Review2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of children with a refugee background in the Netherlands. All of these children who are under 18 years of age must go to school, but they face many barriers towards inclusion. Appropriately educating this diverse group of children presents schools with challenges. Supportive programs are needed to overcome these barriers and challenges. AIM The aim of this paper was to explore what supports are put in place to foster refugee students’ inclusion in school. METHOD A systematic literature review was conducted to synthesize research on school-based programs and practices. RESULTS A broad range of supports were identified. Most studies addressed access barriers to learning by offering emotional and educational support, while fewer studies focused on opportunity barriers such as negative attitudes and lack of parental involvement. CONCLUSION It was concluded that schools can play an important role in supporting the inclusion of refugee children and their families because of their accessibility, but that more high quality research is necessary in order to assess the effectiveness of supports that minimize barriers towards learning and promote their inclusion in school.

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  • 17.
    Dinu, Radu Harald
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Plats, Identitet, Lärande (PIL).
    Hårresande teser om religion och mångkultur [Recension av Eli Göndör, ”Religionskollision: majoritet, minoritet och toleransens gränser"]2018In: Jönköpings-Posten, ISSN 1103-9469, no 21 februariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Escobar, Karla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell. Jönköping University Library.
    Civil society initiatives for integrating refugees into Swedish society: Sustainable over time?2024Report (Other academic)
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  • 19. Escobar, Karla
    et al.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Civilsamhällets insatser i spåren av flyktingvågen 2015: Hållbara över tid?2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker vilka integrationsbefrämjande aktiviteter som civilsamhället, ofta med stöd av projektpengar från staten, bedrev i spåren av flyktingkrisen 2015. Vi undersöker också om aktiviteterna fick ett långsiktigt fäste i civilsamhällets organisationer eller inte. Vi har intervjuat representanter för kyrkor, biståndsorganisationer, sociala företag, ideella föreningar, invandrarföreningar och några kommunala projekt. Vi fann ett starkt samband mellan enskilda medlemmars tidigare erfarenheter av integrationsfrågor och vilka aktiviteter de valde att satsa på. Lärare startade språkcaféer, vårdpersonal informerade om sjukvården, behandlingspedagoger startade hälsoprojekt och så vidare. Vi fann också att de flesta av insatserna har avslutats. Projektformen, med krav både på nytänkande och förutbestämda resultatmått ledde till kortsiktighet. De yttre kraven var inte förenliga med de arbetssätt och de resultatmått som både civilsamhällets aktörer och flyktingarna föredrog så projekten förnyades inte. Organisationerna kunde inte långsiktigt härbärgera aktiviteterna. Undantagen är de fall där man efter att ha lyssnat till målgruppens behov bildat en ny, formell organisation som kunde härbärgera de önskade aktiviteterna. Detsamma gäller för invandrarföreningarna som inte var beroende av projektpengar och som redan hade ”integration” inbyggt i organisationens syfte och verksamhet. Studien ger lärdomar för myndigheter om vikten av att forma utlysningar så att syfte och resultatmått är förenliga med vad både civilsamhällets aktörer och projektdeltagare finner meningsfullt.

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  • 20.
    Escobar, Karla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Epistemic Cultures & Teaching Practices. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER). Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Multi-level governance and civil society’s work on integrating migrants after the migrant crisis of 2015 in Jönköping2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From foreword: This report describes how civil society and the public sector in Jönköping municipality collaborated with each other in assisting the welcoming and integration of the refugees who arrived in the municipality during the so-called ‘migrant crisis’ of 2015.

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  • 21.
    Escobar, Karla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Epistemic Cultures & Teaching Practices. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER). Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Styrda fast ändå inte?: Flernivåstyrning och civilsamhällets arbete med att integrera flyktingar efter flyktingkrisen 2015 i Jönköping2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från förordet: Den här rapporten handlar om hur civilsamhället och offentlig sektor i Jönköpings kommun har samarbetat för att hjälpa till att välkomna och integrera alla de flyktingar som kom i samband med flyktingkrisen 2015. Rapporten är en del av en större studie som i förlängningen syftar till att jämföra civilsamhällets roll i mottagningssystemen i Kanada och Sverige och är finansierad av Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council i Kanada.

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  • 22.
    Evansluong, Quang
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Ramírez-Pasillas, Marcela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    From Family Embeddedness to Families Embedding in Migrants' Opportunity Development Processes2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the roles of family in migrant entrepreneurs’ opportunity development. We employ the opportunity development and family embeddedness for theory building purposes. We conducted a longitudinal inductive case study on four cases of migrant entrepreneurs who have established businesses in Sweden and who have their origins in Lebanon and Syria, Cameroon, and Mexico, documented with 29 interviews and field observations. The paper identifies families embedding occurring by means of three norms of reciprocity and obligations that facilitate the opportunity development process. These norms are fulfilling the expectations of family and the existing family business, regularly interacting with family and the existing family business, and deploying family and business loyalty. These norms are connected to specific sub-processes of opportunity development, namely, the generation of an entrepreneurial idea, shaping an entrepreneurial idea, and defining the (new) family venture offering. By identifying these norms in the opportunity development processes, we theorize that migrant entrepreneurs rely on different family members and the existing family business from the home or host country at different moments of the opportunity development process. Such dynamic creates different norms of reciprocity and obligations for migrant entrepreneurs and their families, which influence the opportunity development.

  • 23.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Svenska muslimska församlingar - organisation, frivilligt socialt arbete och omvärldsrelationer2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24. Halimeh, Nihal
    et al.
    Halimeh, Mahmoud
    Avery, Helen
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER). Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University.
    Crafting futures in a Lebanese refugee camp: the Burj el Barajneh Souk2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hellström,, Anders
    et al.
    Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Tawat, Mahama
    Public Policy and Administration in the Department of Sociology and Research Associate at the Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM).
    Trouble in the homeland: How cultural identity and welfare politics merge in contemporary Danish and Swedish politics2020In: Nostalgia and hope: Intersections between politics of culture, welfare, and migration in Europe / [ed] O. C. Norocel, A. Hellström & M. B. Jørgensen, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 19-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines differences in the discourses on migration from two socio-economically similar countries—Denmark and Sweden. It employs the notion of conventional discourse to show how cultural identity and welfare politics intersect in the policy debates and blogospheres of the two countries. It also shows that a discursive shift had already occurred in the mainstream political discourse in Denmark before the 2015 refugee crisis—a discourse in which the dominant view is that cultural diversity is incompatible with social cohesion and thus a perceived threat to the welfare system. The same line of thinking is prevalent in Denmark’s blogosphere. In contrast, Sweden’s cultural issues have been consistently associated with redistributive policies in the mainstream political discourse, and these vary along the Left versus Right ideological cleavage. However, in Sweden’s blogosphere, welfare chauvinism and opposition to multiculturalism appear to be equally as strong as in Denmark.

  • 26.
    Hultsjö, Sally
    et al.
    psykiatriska kliniken, Jönköpings Läns Landsting.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Mötet mellan vårdpersonal och patienter med utländsk bakgrund inom akutsjukvård i sverige.2006In: Flervetenskapliga perspektiv i migrationsforskning: Årsbok 2006 från forskningsprofilen Arbetsmarknad, Migration och Etniska relationer (AMER) vid Växjö Universitet / [ed] Katarina Hjelm, Göteborg: Intellecta Docusys, Göteborg , 2006, p. 15-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet ger en sammanfattning av vilka svårigheter vårdpersonal inom svensk akut hälso- och sjukvård stöter på i vården av personer med utländsk bakgrund.

  • 27.
    Kaar, Carmen
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Protective factors for resilience in children living in refugee camps: A systematic literature review from 2010-20212021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Refugee children and adolescents living in refugee camps are a vulnerable population, at high risk for developing mental health disorders, behavioural problems and experiencing violence or trauma. However, not all children exposed to these stressors of displacement show negative outcomes; several refugee children and adolescents show adaptive functioning and resilient outcomes. Given the rising number of refugee minors, it is increasingly important to examine and understand protective factors for resilience among minors living in refugee camps. This knowledge could be used to develop resilience-building programs. This systematic literature review sought to identify protective factors for resilience, and available programs in the refugee camps targeting the development of resilience. Six databases were used for the searching process; ten studies were identified meeting predefined selection criteria and quality standards. Based on bio-ecological theory and the model of “7 Crucial Cs of resilience”, numerous protective factors were identified on multiple levels, including personal resources, social support, education, and connection to culture and community. Findings of this review highlight the need for a multidimensional view of resilience; the use of the “7 Crucial Cs of resilience” showed that focusing only on individual sources of resilience is not sufficient as these individual resources emerge from higher levels and systems. Two intervention programs were identified showing a resilience-building approach. Based on these results, recommendations for interventions and programs in this context are discussed. Limitations and the need for future research on sources of resilience and resilience-building interventions are outlined. 

     

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  • 28.
    Klaesson, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öner, Özge
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ethnic enclaves and segregation—self-employment and employment patterns among forced migrants2021In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 985-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance of residential segregation and ethnic enclaves for labor market sorting of immigrants has been investigated by a large body of literature. Previous literature presents competing arguments and mixed results for the effects of segregation and ethnic concentration on various labor market outcomes. The geographical size of the area at which segregation and/or ethnic concentration is measured, however, is left to empirical work to determine. We argue that ethnic concentration and segregation should not be used interchangeably, and more importantly, the geographical area at which they are measured relates directly to different mechanisms. We use a probabilistic approach to identify the likelihood that an immigrant is employed or a self-employed entrepreneur in the year 2005 with respect to residential segregation and ethnic concentration at the level of the neighborhood, municipality, and local labor market level jointly. We study three groups of immigrants that accentuate the differences between forced and pulled migrants: (i) the first 15 member states of European Union (referred to as EU 15) and the Nordic countries, (ii) the Balkan countries, and (iii) countries in the Middle East. We find that ethnic enclaves, proxied by ethnic concentration at varying levels, indicate mixed results for the different immigrant groups we study, both for their employment and entrepreneurship probability, whereas residential segregation has a more uniformly distributed result where its relationship to any of the two labor market outcomes is almost always negative or insignificant.

  • 29.
    Lagerqvist, Adam
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    Den mångkulturella kyrkan: En jämförelse mellan Katolska kyrkans och Equmeniakyrkans integrationssyn2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte – Avsikten med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur den katolska kyrkan och Equmeniakyrkan i Jönköping ser på integrationsarbete. Studien görs på två kyrkor i Jönköping, dels på den lokala katolska församlingen, dels på Andreasförsamlingen, som tillhör Equmeniakyrkan. Därför kommer dessa två församlingarna att jämföras. För att uppnå detta så ställs följande frågeställning:

    1. Hur ser katolska kyrkan och Andreasförsamlingen i Jönköping på frågor om integration och migration?
    2. Vilka är likheterna och skillnaderna mellan katolska kyrkan och andra kyrkor inom Sveriges Kristna Råd i synen på integration och migration?

    Metod – Studien kommer att få svar på frågorna i frågeställningen genom en serie semi-strukturerade intervjuer med diakoner, pastorer och representanter från två församlingar i Jönköping och två organisationer som är relaterade till församlingen (en via mejl och en via telefon). De fyra intervjuade i studien var:

    • Sankt Franciskus Katolska Församling i Jönköping, med diakonen Göran Fäldt.
    • Equmeniakyrkans församling Andreasförsamlingen i Fjällstugan, Jönköping, där pastor Lennart Johansson är verksam.
    • Sveriges Kristna Råd (SKR), där Björn Cedersjö är direktor för Ekumenisk diakoni/kyrka-samhälle.
    • Caritas Sverige, där George Joseph är ansvarig för migrations- och flyktingfrågor.

    Från början skulle både SKR och Caritas intervjuas via mejl men på grund av omständigheter så kunde Caritas representant bara intervjuas via telefon. Dessa intervjuer kommer att jämföras för att få svar på frågorna som ställdes i uppsatsen.

    Diskussion och slutsatser – Katolska kyrkan via Caritas och Andreasförsamlingen hjälper migranterna med arbetssökandet, såsom att kontakta arbetsgivare och företag, samt hjälper dem att skriva sina CV:n. En annan likhet mellan Anderasförsamlingen och Sankt Franciskus Katolska Församling är att de hjälper migranterna att kontakta myndigheter, dock med några skillnader. Enligt resultatet anordnar samtliga intervjuade aktörer språkcaféer och språkhjälp till migranterna i sina samfund.

    För samtliga som var med i studien var språket och delaktigheten i samhället viktiga för integration av migranter. 

    Begränsningar – Denna studie är begränsad till två församlingar i Jönköping och två organisationer i Sverige: Caritas och Sveriges Kristna råd.

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    Den mångkulturella kyrkan
  • 30.
    Larsson, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Parent-Child Relations as Protective and Promotive Factors for Ethnic Minority Children Living in Relative Poverty: A systematic literature review2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic minority children living in relative poverty are a high-risk group for poor outcomes in all aspects of wellbeing. The relationship and interactions between child and parent are a key part of child development and a platform for providing positive experiences which can benefit a child’s wellbeing. There is therefore a need to identify what facilitates wellbeing for ethnic minority children in low-socioeconomic status families. By focusing on protective and promotive factors encompassing the parent-child relationship, factors can be identified which can use family strengths as a basis for interventions and practice within healthcare, social work and education, which is what this systematic literature review set out to do. Through a diligent search of the literature, 12 articles were identified for review according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, containing research on African American, Roma, Native American and Hispanic/Latino youth. The results inform how child wellbeing can be facilitated through several parental factors, including parental involvement and support, maternal attachment, paternal warmth and ethnic identity and ethnic socialization. The findings also indicate a need for further studies on paternal influence on wellbeing in especially Native American and Roma youth, as well as the impact of ethnic socialization on youth wellbeing. Parents have an important role to play in child wellbeing and are vital partners alongside the child when planning interventions. Considerations naturally need to be shown for each ethnic minority, the child’s setting and its individual characteristics. 

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  • 31.
    Lundgren, Ulla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Castro, Paloma
    Woodin, Jane
    Tracking the traces of Internationalisation - towards a framework2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Lundh, Ottilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Gender roles in households: A case study on gender roles in households in northern Tanzania2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study investigates perspectives and changes in gender roles in household activities from a gender (in)equality context in Tarime, northern Tanzania. The participants in this study part-took in a previous project called the Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem Project (SEMA) which aimed to integrate gender perspectives and sustainable livelihoods in rural parts of Tarime. Women in these areas often bear the primary responsibilities of caring for the household. The area is also controlled by male authority, and women are daily exposed to oppression and physical violence. Statistically, girls in the study area often miss the chance to higher education since boys are prioritized. Instead, girls risk the chances of early marriage and are exposed to female genital multination. So far, there has been little research on gender roles in household activities in these areas. Therefore, this case study strived to provide such material for future project operations. The main goal of this study was to investigate gender equality in households, focusing on how women and men describe norms linked to equality and gender roles in households, if norms and roles have changed after the project and if so, which circumstances have led to such a change. Both men and women were interviewed through semi-structured interviews, focus group interviews and informal interviews. The empirical data was later analyzed through the lens of the social role theory. Research findings showed that women are still living subordinate to men and unequal distribution of household duties still exists. However, education on equal rights and women empowerment from the SEMA project has changed people's perspectives on the matter, inspiring both women and men to fight for a sustainable change. The study explores root causes that hinder the implementation of equal rights. This study can contribute to more understanding of cultural traditions and finding new ways to sustain the implantation of equal rights.

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    Gender roles in households
  • 33.
    Mahmud, Yashar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department for Quality Improvement and Leadership. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Organising (Refugee) Integration in Sweden: How It Begins2023In: Organising Immigrants’ Integration: Practices and Consequences in Labour Markets and Societies / [ed] A. Diedrich & B. Czarniawska, Springer, 2023, p. 31-47Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, I argue that the focus on specific phases in migration and the lives of refugees might limit the understanding of refugees’ struggles in their efforts to integrate. Refugee integration, as a process, is highly individual and thus the beginning of integration might be different for each refugee. To put it simply, refugee integration has multiple beginnings. Hence, to have a more comprehensive view, one needs to look at refugee integration as a flow of chained events that occur at various places and times. Doing so would not only provide a more comprehensive understanding of the organising practices refugees go through, but it would also illuminate certain power struggles and vulnerabilities that refugees face when trying to settle in a new country. Most importantly, providing a different understanding of the beginning of refugee integration could have implications for practice and policy, and contribute to a construction of more humane and sustainable refugee integration practices.

  • 34.
    Nilsson, Marco
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Badran, Dany
    Department of English, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Surviving seemingly endless refugeeship—Social representations and strategies of Palestinian refugees in Ein El Hilweh2021In: The Journal of Refugee Studies, ISSN 0951-6328, E-ISSN 1471-6925, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 3423-3441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, about 470,000 Palestinian refugees are registered with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East in Lebanon, with 45 per cent of them living in the 12 official Palestinian refugee camps. Previous research identified several socio-economic problems facing the Palestinian refugees in Lebanon. The refugee camps have generally been very poor and relatively dangerous places to live. Moreover, all the Palestinian camps suffer from overcrowding, unemployment, poor housing conditions, inadequate infrastructure, as well as a lack of access to justice. Although previous research has identified several difficulties with living in a Palestinian refugee camp, this study takes a fresh look at life in the largest camp in Lebanon—Ein El Hilweh. In addition to identifying such problems and difficulties, it also explores the various strategies adopted by Palestinian refugees to handle them. While acknowledging that not all problems can be resolved, these problem-solving strategies of refugees is a significant gap in the literature on refugees that warrants further investigation. The study is grounded in Serge Moscovici's theory of social representations, analyzing Palestinian refugees' shared experiences in facing difficult situations as well as their strategies for solving them.

  • 35.
    Nordén, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Avery, Helen
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER). Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, Sweden.
    Transitions towards an unknown future: Non-formal learning in transnational communities for a sustainable society2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study makes an inventory of learning opportunities young people were offered in connection with CEI 2016, one of the annual international conferences organized by the NGO named Caretakers of the Environment International (CEI), which year 2016 took place in Aalborg in Denmark. The learning opportunities offered by this transnational learning community are discussed in relation to some essential learning qualities to meet the comprehensive sustainability challenges facing our societies - in particular youth, who can be seen as a target group per se, many times in transition-like situations: (1) learning for uncertain future, 82) dealing with complex crossborder issues, (3) ability to collaborate, (4) take initiative and act in society. These qualities are difficult to achieve in formal school systems that are essentially organized to ensure the transmission of a specific learning content and measurable abilities. The question in this study has been inspired by a previous study in a Swedish school context (Nordén, Avery & Anderberg, 2012, Nordén, 2016), about abilities that allow high school students to get an agency towards local and global sustainability challenges. The critical skills identified were: (1) Organization/self-regulation and independent decision-making skills (2) Development of Transnational Learning Communities (3) Democratic cooperation in action. There is widespread consensus that radical new educational approaches are needed to address the challenges of our time (Breiting & Wickenberg, 2010; Mochizuki & Yarime, 2016; Reid & Scott, 2013). Traditionally, focus has been placed on transmitting an existing knowledge base. The situations we face are changing at a staggering rate, and future developments are characterized by great uncertainty. Barnett (2012) therefore claims that preparation for the unknown should be guiding in education. Young people must not only be able to explore different complex situations, but also be prepared to take initiatives to act, find solutions to major environmental and social problems, and steer up their own learning during their life journey (Almers, 2013; Barrat, Barratt-Hacking, Scott & Talbot, 2006; Öhman, 2008). In this context, one has talked about sustainability literacy (Dawe, Jucker & Martin, 2005). CEI's activities are nonformal (Mocker & Spear, 1982) in the sense that they are organized for the purpose of promoting learning for sustainability and have a well-considered overall structure, but participants can independently define the issues and projects they work with . The transnational learning community could thereby support a challenge-oriented learning (UE4SD, 2015). The results indicate that the processes are supported when young people and their teachers experience a sense of community and having a place in the local-global context. This is done both through intensive work on their own projects prior to the conference, through participation in the physical meetings during the conference and the subsequent network activities in connection with it. In order for society as a whole to take advantage of the potential of non-formal learning, alternative educational approaches need to gain increased recognition and attention. The focus has to be shifted from a narrow performance focus that values isolated results, to reflect more widely on the learning opportunities offered by different forms of education in their entirety.

  • 36.
    Saar, Maarja
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Sojka, Bozena
    Institute for Community Research & Development (ICRD), University of Wolverhampton, UK.
    Runfors, Ann
    Historical and Contemporary Studies, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Welfare Deservingness for Migrants: Does the Welfare State Model Matter?2022In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws on the idea that welfare systems and institutions are based on normative assumptions about justice, solidarity, and responsibility. Even though the literature on welfare deservingness has highlighted the connection between ideas of solidarity and the support to, for instance, people with different ethnic backgrounds, there is very little research on the interconnections of different welfare state models and ideas on how migration should be governed. This article suggests that there is a link between the welfare state models suggested by Esping‐Anderssen and different discourses on migrant welfare deservingness. The article explores the interlinkages of three welfare state models—liberal, socialdemocratic, and continental‐corporative—and four discourses on welfare deservingness of migrants in respect to social welfare—labourist, ethno‐cultural, residential, and welfarist (see Carmel & Sojka, 2020). It is suggested that the normative foundations embedded in different welfare systems lead to dissimilar ways of approaching migrants and migration.

  • 37.
    Saijeva, Heda
    Jönköping University. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Segregation and employment in Swedish regions2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Immigration to Sweden has increased since Second World War. The immigra-tion pattern has also shifted from labor immigration to refugee immigration. The relative labor market performance of immigrants began to worsen at the end of 1970s. The employment rate among foreign born persons is considera-bly lower than it is among Swedish born persons.Integration of foreign born persons in the areas of education, income and em-ployment varies among FA-regions in Sweden. FA-region means functional analysis region, where you can live and work without having time-wasting trips.The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the relationship between labor market participation of immigrants and segregation on the regional level.Three indices (Dissimilarity, Isolation and Gini) of segregation are used in or-der to investigate the relationship between segregation and employment level among immigrants. The results show that there exists a negative relationship between these variables. In FA-regions of metropolitan regions in spite of high segregation rate the relationship between segregation and employment rate is slightly weaker, than it is among FA-regions of large city regions. The main conclusion of this study is the regional perspective, the necessity of making this kind of analysis on regional level, not country level.

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  • 38.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Young core leaders of civil society groups development program: Some personal reflections2008In: Macrocosm, ISSN 1072-5466, Vol. 5, no 82, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Tawat, Mahama
    Higher School of Economics, National Research University, Moscow, Russia.
    Controlling immigration: A global perspective. James Hollifield, Philip Martin and Pia Orrenius, eds. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 2014. 512 pp. $29.95 (paper)2017In: Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions, ISSN 0952-1895, E-ISSN 1468-0491, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 162-163Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Tawat, Mahama
    University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Danish and Swedish immigrants’ cultural policies between 1960 and 2006: toleration and the celebration of difference2014In: The International Journal of Cultural Policy, ISSN 1028-6632, E-ISSN 1477-2833, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 202-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 1960s, as non-Nordic immigrants became an important component of their immigration flows, despite their similar policy backgrounds Sweden opted for multiculturalism, while Denmark did not. Their policies diverged even further from the so-called migration crisis of the 1990s. This article compares and analyses Sweden and Denmark’s respective policies between 1960 and 2006, arguing that their policies effectively diverged in the late 1960s; Danish assimilation is constituted of the toleration or acceptance, albeit disapproving, of immigrants’ cultures. Swedish multiculturalism, by way of contrast, celebrates difference, holding that immigrants’ cultures are necessary for their well-being and that ethnocultural diversity enriches the national culture. However, both policies deemed some aspects of immigrants’ cultures unacceptable, in that they were looked upon as illiberal or repugnant. This study also contends that, alongside citizenship and national identity studies, Ministries of Culture’s policies are a relevant field of enquiry into states’ policies on immigrants’ cultures.

  • 41.
    Tawat, Mahama
    Centre for Advanced Studies of the Higher School of Economics, Moscow; Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare, Malmö University, Sweden.
    Frontiers of Fear: Immigration and Insecurity in the United States and Europe. Ariane Chebel d'Appolonia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2012. 305 pp. $87.95 (cloth). Survival Migration: Failed Governance and the Crisis of Displacements. Alexander Betts. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013. 256 pp. $77.95 (cloth)2016In: Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions, ISSN 0952-1895, E-ISSN 1468-0491, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 433-446Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Tawat, Mahama
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS). Université de Montpellier.
    How the migration and mobility pact has helped to reset AU-EU relations2022In: The Conversation, E-ISSN 2201-5639Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Tawat, Mahama
    Malmö Institute for the Study of Migration, Diversity and Welfare, Malmö University, Sweden.
    Multiculturalism: Is Denmark a den of intolerance and Sweden a land of political correctness? [blog post]2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Introductory paragraph: The recent ban on the wearing of full-face veils in Denmark is evidence of that country’s unease with multiculturalism, a feeling shared by some other European nations who have adopted similar legislation. Sweden, meanwhile, has largely stayed true to its policy of multiculturalism. Mahama Tawat compares Danish and Swedish policies towards immigrant communities, tracing the clear difference between the two that has emerged over time while also sounding a note of caution against exaggerating the difference.

  • 44.
    Tawat, Mahama
    Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden; School of Sociology, Higher School of Economics, National Research University, Moscow, Russia.
    The birth of Sweden’s multicultural policy: The impact of Olof Palme and his ideas2019In: The International Journal of Cultural Policy, ISSN 1028-6632, E-ISSN 1477-2833, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 471-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The breadth of Sweden’s multicultural policy has left it as one of the few truly multiculturalist countries in the West. This exceptionalism is puzzling and has generated a lot of attention from scholars and the public alike. Using a policy process perspective, this article traces its process of adoption in the 1970s. It shows that the adoption of an official multicultural policy relied crucially on Olof Palme and his ideas in his role as an ‘activist gatekeeper.’ The article takes as illustration the country’s first State Cultural Policy passed in 1974.

  • 45.
    Tawat, Mahama
    Higher School of Economics, Moscow.
    The Births of Danish and Swedish Cultural Integration Policies: Ideas from Policy Legacy in Denmark and Olof Palme in Sweden2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Tawat, Mahama
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    The Divergent Convergence of Multiculturalism Policy in the Nordic Countries (1964 - 2006): Immigration Size, Policy Diffusion and Path Dependency2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic countries are among the main destinations for immigrants in the world because of their traditionally generous policies. They are also some of the most integrated and similar countries. Yet, in the 1970s when they became confronted with the “multicultural question”, they made different choices. This article shows that the presence or absence of a sizeable immigration was the main causal factor. It explains why Sweden adopted multiculturalism while Finland and Iceland did not. However, this factor was sufficient and not necessary. The formulation of multicultural policy provisions (MCPs) in Norway despite a small and late labour immigration was the result of diffusion from Sweden. In Denmark, the absence of sizeable immigration combined with the presence of a nationally-oriented policy legacy to further deny such outcome. There was an upward albeit slow convergence towards multiculturalism. Groupings of multiculturalist and assimilationist countries stuck together until the civic turn in the mid-2000s.

  • 47.
    Tawat, Mahama
    Centre of Advanced Studies, Higher School of Economics, Russia.
    The ethics of multiculturalism: A re-appraisal2016In: International perspectives of multiculturalism: The ethical challenges / [ed] O. D. Clennon, New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, p. 1-24Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is much disagreement among scholars about the concepts of multiculturalism and assimilation. As a consequence, they are polysemic and in need of both differentiation and homogenisation. In this chapter, Mahama Tawat will seek to differentiate between the ethical considerations of Assimilation, Liberal Nationalism and Multiculturalism by examining the theoretical frameworks proposed by David Miller and the various readings of the 'Celebration of Difference' as advocated by Charles Taylor, Iris Marion Young and Bhikhu Parekh.

  • 48.
    Tawat, Mahama
    Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM); Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    The Tip of the Iceberg: Prop. 1975:26 and its Freedom of Choice Goal in Sweden’s Multiculturalism Policy2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the expansive literature on Swedish multiculturalism policy, the Freedom of Choice Goal (FCG) of the Bill, Prop. 1975:26, Guidelines for an Immigrant and Minority Policy is often presented as its founding document. But this belies the fact that the Goal was beset by a controversy about its multicultural scope in the years that followed its adoption in 1975 that was never really settled. This article revisits the question and shows that the Goal indeed represented a multicultural vision. However, it was just the tip of an iceberg formed by socioeconomic integration policies. Earlier and more consistent multicultural policy provisions were present most notably in the state cultural policy. The article draws evidence from multiple sources including comparison with Norway.

  • 49.
    Tawat, Mahama
    Higher School of Economics, National Research University, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Towards an ever “closer” union?: Refugee Policy and Social Cohesion in Eastern EU Member States2016In: East European Politics, ISSN 2159-9165, E-ISSN 2159-9173, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 277-284Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introductory paragraph: In the grand chessboard of refugee politics that has spooked Western Europe since the first “migration crisis” broke out in the mid-1980s, a new opening has appeared with an ominious sign for the future of the Union. A schism has occurred between “old” and “new” Europe following the policy chaos that occurred with the mass arrival of Syrian refugees. On the one hand, Western EU (WEU)1 governments have been willing to welcome refugees as illustrated by Angela Merkel's unilateral decision to suspend the Dublin Regulation on the first country of entry and give blanket asylum to Syrian refugees. On the other hand, Eastern EU (EEU) leaders from the Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) and the Visegrád Group (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia) have refused to receive these refugees. Hungary, for example, rushed to build a fence along its frontier with Serbia and at times blocked their onward travel to Austria and Germany. In 2014, while acceptance rates for refugees hovered around 77% in Sweden, they fell as low as 24% in Latvia (IRIN 2015). For countries that must equitably apply the same regulations, this gap is astonishing.

  • 50.
    Tawat, Mahama
    Higher School of Economics, Moscow.
    Two Tales of Viking Diversity: A Comparative Study of Denmark and Sweden’s Immigration Policies2011Conference paper (Refereed)
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