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  • 1.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Entrepreneurship and Gender2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The scientific reproduction of gender inequality: A discourse analysis of research texts on women's entrepreneurship2004Book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The theory of conditional social equality: Group homogeneity as a prerequisite for challenging (some) inequalities among older men2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    Entrepreneurship and the postfeminist turn: Women’s final emancipation or the same old story?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nelson, Teresa
    Simmons College, USA.
    Moving forward: Institutional perspectives on gender and entrepreneurship2010In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 5-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a re‐directed and purposeful attention to the design of research on gender and entrepreneurship moving forward.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper questions the value of more studies on the men v. women binary and encourages research on the institutions supporting the gendered construction.

    Findings – The paper suggests a re‐framing of gender (to include men, women, femininity, masculinity, etc.) both in topics investigated and in building the cadre of scholars engaged. It asks for discrimination of gender from biological sex in language use and believes that dialogue will be improved if the word “gender” is maintained as a socially constructed phenomenon directed at distinguishing the norms around “what women do” and “what men do”. Researchers, too, must necessarily confront personal pre‐existing ideas and language shaped by the norms and habits of one's upbringing and daily life in societies that are not acute observers of gender in action.

    Originality/value – The paper assesses trends in research on gender and entrepreneurship and recommends ideas regarding new directions to create better research and application in practice, teaching, and training.

  • 6.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Swedish welfare state retrenchment and the call for women’s entrepreneurship to fill the void2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last two decades have seen major welfare state retrenchment in Sweden. The public sector, which used to be a large and stable employer for women, was downsized. Public schools and public health and care services were privatized. Customer choice models were introduced. The rhetoric connected to privatization stressed the unique opportunities for women formerly employed by the state to start their own businesses in this sector, now open for competition and private initiatives. In this paper we ask what the results were. We discuss the results from a feminist perspective, i.e we ask if privatization and business ownership has improved women’s situation on the labor market, or not. The paper draws together the research findings from our own empirical research (about fifteen different studies) as well as from research done by other Nordic scholars in the field.

  • 7.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    A common education-for-all and life-long learning? Reflections on inclusion, equity and integration2014In: Theory and methodology in international comparative classroom studies / [ed] Berit H. Johnsen, Kristiansand: Høyskoleforlaget , 2014, p. 225-243Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two important reasons are often presented to account for the significant organizational shift at the compulsory educational level and for ways in which continuing education is conceptualized in many parts of the world in the post-World War II period. These two encompass ideologies related to a “common education-for-all” and a “life-long learning” perspective. They have had far reaching consequences for both individuals and collectives. Even though access to schooling and learning opportunities over the life-span are unevenly distributed across the globe, a major transition has occurred during the last five-six decades: doors to formal education have become a feasibility (if not a reality) for all members of society. Formal education became a possibility for groups that were previously marginalized; for instance, girls, functionally disabled, economically disadvantaged, individuals in rural areas, immigrants, etc., and for the post-school and college going sections of the population.

    A common education-for-all young people including the life-long learning movement are, in different ways, understood as constituting fundamental principles that many democracies currently uphold. These conceptual traditions, based upon the notions of equity and human rights, have specific implications regarding (i) what is understood as legitimate in the conceptualization of human diversity and (ii) concomitantly how teaching and learning are organized for groups that previously stood outside the educational system/s. In other words, how human difference is conceptualized has a bearing upon how communities have historically organized education and/or provision for “different” groups. In addition and more significantly, as will be argued, what is meant by learning plays an important role in how education gets organized for some groups within the framework of a “common education-for-all”.

    This chapter takes the discourse of equity and rights as a point of departure in order to discuss how education for different groups of young people and adults in the post-World War II period has been organized, particularly in the contexts of the global North. Issues related to human difference, the meanings subscribed to different identity categories or constructs (for instance, immigrants, functional disability and gender) and the ways in which learning for different groups gets framed is of focal interest here. My aim here (and in current academic work) is to theorize what can be termed the “didactics of inclusion-equity-integration”. Thus for instance, an interest is to understand the basis on which education for different groups has been argued for and organized. Given that learning and instruction was organized differently for different groups in the pre-World War II era, an interest here is to try and tweeze out the ways in which exclusion and segregation currently get played out, particularly in the contexts of the global North. What kinds of knowledge about human diversity are seen as important, are privileged and are made relevant in educational contexts? What understandings of learning and instruction guide the organization of education and everyday practices in educational contexts? In other words, what are the didactics of inclusion, integration and equity? These constitute some of the issues that are explored here.

    Reflections on the themes attended to here arise from my previous and ongoing studies across different projects. The cumulative empirical work that the present chapter draws upon can be understood in terms of different long term ethnographically oriented projects that are framed within sociocultural and postcolonial perspectives and that furthermore invite intersectional analysis. In addition to these empirically driven research projects, the issues I raise here draw upon experiences from both large scale school developmental projects and national level work for Governmental and policy organisations since the mid-1990s.

  • 8.
    Barasinska, Nataliya
    et al.
    Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. German Institute for Economic Research DIW Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Gender role asymmetry and stock market participation – evidence from four European household surveys2018In: European Journal of Finance, ISSN 1351-847X, E-ISSN 1466-4364, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1026-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the importance of social norms for shaping women's and men's decision to participate in the stock market, aiming to disentangle the different channels playing a role in this decision. Gender role asymmetry is indicated by the country's rank in the gender equality index of the World Economic Forum. Using data from four national household surveys, we find that in Italy – the country with highly asymmetric gender role prescriptions – women's risk-taking behavior responds to this non-supportive environment. Consistent with the theory of social identity, Italian women refrain from stock market participation more than their self-reported risk tolerance levels would suggest. In contrast, in the three countries with a lower asymmetry in gender role prescriptions, no exaggerated female backing off from investing in stocks is observable. The result is robust to separately analyzing sub-samples of singles and couples. However, women who self-select into stock market participation invest the same portfolio share in stocks as do their male peers – independent of the society's degree of gender role divergence. 

  • 9.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Management and Organization Stockholm Business School at Stockholm University.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Department of Urban and Rural Development Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    School of Business and Economics Linnaeus University.
    Women's entrepreneurship, neoliberalism and economic justice in the postfeminist era: A discourse analysis of policy change in Sweden2018In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 531-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, there has been investment in women's entrepreneurship policy (WEP) in Sweden, which continued until 2015. During the same period, Sweden assumed neoliberal policies that profoundly ch7anged the position of women within the world of work and business. The goals for WEP changed as a result, from entrepreneurship as a way to create a more equal society, to the goal of unleashing women's entrepreneurial potential so they can contribute to economic growth. To better understand this shift we approach WEP as a neoliberal governmentality which offers women 'entrepreneurial' or 'postfeminist' subject positions. The analysis is inspired by political theorist Nancy Fraser who theorized the change as the displacement of socioeconomic redistribution in favour of cultural recognition, or identity politics. We use Fraser's concepts in a discourse analysis of Swedish WEP over two decades, identifying two distinct discourses and three discursive displacements. Whilst WEP initially gave precedence to a radical feminist discourse that called for women's collective action, this was replaced by a postfeminist neoliberal discourse that encouraged individual women to assume an entrepreneurial persona, start their own business, compete in the marketplace and contribute to economic growth. The result was the continued subordination of women business owners, but it also obscured or rendered structural problems/solutions, and collective feminist action, irrelevant.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-16 00:00
  • 10.
    Bergman, Emelie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Wallin, Ellen
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Kompetensförsörjning som mål - jämställdhet som medel: Om upplevda hinder för att söka chefstjänster2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle är kunskap och kompetens kritiska framgångsfaktorer för företag och organisationer. I och med detta är det av stor vikt att kompetens tillvaratas, särskilt när det kommer till rekrytering av chefer. För att göra detta anser vi att man behöver undanröja alla de irrationella faktorer som hindrar att kompetenta människor söker sig till chefstjänster. I ett könssegregerat Sverige behöver särskilt de hinder som gör att kvinnor inte når ledande positioner identifieras och undanröjas. Utifrån detta konstaterande formades syftet med denna studie; att få ökad förståelse och insikt i vad som kan upplevas som hinder för att söka chefstjänster på en statlig myndighet. Studien utgick från en fenomenologisk forskningsansats och genomfördes med kvalitativ metod. Datainsamlingen genomfördes med kvalitativa intervjuer vilka analyserades utifrån en metod, inspirerad av tematisk analys och meningskoncentrering. Resultatet visade att det finns upplevda hinder. De hinder som identifierades var bland annat; ett alltför stort fokus på manligt/kvinnligt och att kvinnor i hög grad vill vara säkra på sin förmåga innan de söker en chefstjänst. I resultatet konstaterar vi även att det till viss del finns hinder i organisationsstruktur, organisationskultur och livet utanför arbetet, men att dessa inte är lika stora som de övriga. 

    Studien ger en bild över vilka upplevda hinder för att söka en chefstjänst som kan finnas. Förhoppningen är att resultatet kan vara en hjälp i myndighetens fortsatta arbete med att få fler kvinnor till ledande positioner. En slutsats vi drar är att arbetet med att få jämn könsfördelning är komplext och att det finns risk att ett fokus på hinder i sig blir ett hinder.

  • 11.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Melin, Leif
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership.
    Förebilder för kvinnor i familjeföretag: var finns de?2011In: Kvinnors företagande: mål eller medel? / [ed] Eva Blomberg, Gun Hedlund och Martin Wottle, Stockholm: SNS Förlag , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    de Kervenoael, Ronan
    et al.
    Sabancı University, Istanbul, Turkey and Aston Business School .
    Özturkcan, Selcen
    Sabancı University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    ‘It’s in Her Eyes’ A ‘barometer’ for EU accession through female perceptions of role portrayals in advertising: a Crosscultural study of Ukraine and Turkey2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines female response to gender role portrayals in advertising for Ukraine and Turkey. Being both new potential EU candidates, we argue that gender stereotype could also be used as a ‘barometer’ of progress and closure towards a more generally accepted EU behaviour against women. While their history remains different, both from a political and society values point of views, constraints are currently being faced that require convergence or justification of practices and understanding. Principal components analysis is employed over 290 questionnaires to identify the underlying dimensions. Results indicate overall similarities in perceptions, fragmentation within groups, but seem to provide divergence regarding thresholds.

  • 13.
    Dribe, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Age Homogamy, Gender, and Earnings: Sweden 1990-20092017In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 239-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown considerable marriage premiums in earnings for men, but often penalties for women of being in a union. In this study we extend this research by analyzing how the age difference between spouses affects the earnings profiles by gender. As we follow people over time in advance as well as within their marriage, we can separate premarital from postmarital earnings movements. The data consist of information on annual earnings 1990-2009 for all Swedes born 1960-1974 (N = 926,219). The results indicate that age homogamy is related to higher earnings for both men and women, and that larger age differences are generally associated with lower union premiums, quite independently of which spouse is older. However, most of these results are explained by assortative mating, in which men and women with greater earnings potentials find partners of a similar age. Overall, the age difference between spouses seems to have a limited causal effect, if any, on individual earnings.

  • 14.
    Eidevald, Christian
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Det finns inga tjejbestämmare: Att förstå kön som position i förskolans vardagsrutiner och lek2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research studies have shown that in their address and behaviour towards girls and boys, pre-school staff apply stereotyped gender concepts, thus reinforcing rather than challenging stereotypes. The present thesis therefore focuses on which of children’s positions that are accepted or that face resistance from the staff. In this way, children’s gender-based "identity-formation" can be critically analyzed based on different possible descriptions of how it is to be a girl or a boy, and what unaware assumptions about gender representations that in this way may be made in different ways by both children and adults.

    The theoretical point of departure is feminist poststructuralism; and the analysis focuses on variations found between the groups of girls and boys, as well as within these groups, and within individuals. The empirical data consists of video-taped sessions from two teams working with children aged 3-5, and focus groups interviews with the adult. Then different "readings" of the empirical material have been conducted based on different assumptions (discourses); i.e. assuming that girls and boys "really" are different or equal, different behaviours will appear as more or less obvious and natural. By showing that several different discourses are present at the same time, gender-based "identity-formation" is described as a very complex process. The analyzed situations show that girls and boys in pre-school are defined and treated in stereotyped ways, however, there is a large hidden variation of how different girls and different boys positions themselves in different contexts. Pre-school teachers thus work actively to distinguish between girls and boys based on how they are being perceived as either girls or boys. Teachers’ expectations then become decisive of how different children are addressed and treated in different situations. To conclude, the pedagogical consequences of this are discussed with regard to gender equality work in which also alternative discourses are formulated.

     

  • 15.
    Elms, Jonathan
    et al.
    Lancaster University Management School, UK.
    Dunphy, Claire
    Lancaster University Management School, UK.
    de Kervenoae, Ronan
    Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey & Aston Business School, UK .
    Özturkcan, Selcen
    Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    “It’s in His Eyes”: The Negotiation and Interpretation of Masculinity using the Dolce et Gabbana’s 2005 Print Advertising Campaign2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of 'masculinity' has over more years received increased attention within consumer research discourse suggesting the potential of a 'crisis of masculinity', symptomatic of a growing feminisation, or 'queering' of visual imagery and consumption (e.g. Patterson & Elliott, 2002). Although this corpus of research has served to enrich the broader gender identity debate, it is, arguably, still relatively underdeveloped and therefore warrants further insight and elaboration. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to explore how masculinity is represented and interpreted by men using the Dolce et Gabbana men's 2005 print advertising campaign. The rationale for using this particular campaign is that it is one of the most homoerotic, provocative, and well publicised campaigns to cross over from the 'gay' media to more mainstream UK men's magazines. Masculinity, and what it means to be 'masculine', manifests itself within particular ideological, moral, cultural and hegemonic discourses. Masculinity is not a homogenous term which can be simply reduced, and ascribed, to those born as 'male' rather than 'female'. One may exhibit different degrees of masculinity or femininity, depending on social-cultural situation regardless of biological sex (Eagly 1987; Putreve, 2001). Fischer and Arnold (1994) suggest, for example, that masculine and feminine identities are 'orthogonal' rather than 'bi-polar' concepts, entangled and enmeshed together in a dialectical relationship. Therefore, it is more appropriate to consider multiple masculinities, which are plural, transient and ephemeral. As Askegaard (1991) maintains socio-cultural identity concerns' questions such as "who are we and who are the others?" and "how are we related to each other?". Advertising images, and imagery, attempt to answer some of these questions, through the continual negotiation of both individually and culturally accepted masculinities. Masculinity is not merely a 'visual' concept but advertisers have begun to represent 'visions of masculinity' to entice male consumers (e.g. Schroeder & Borgerson, 1998; Schroeder & Zwick, 2004). The portrayal of masculinity through the representation of male body has emerged from that of the muscle bound, rugged, 'cowboy', the stereotypical 'heterosexual masculinity' of the 1960s, to the 'New Man' of the 1980s: a more sensitive man who is in touch with his 'feminine' emotional side (Patterson & Elliott, 2002). The 'New Man' has been recently reinvented, taking the form of the 'metrosexual male' - the 'straight' man who dresses 'gay' - which is increasingly been used as a marketing ploy to target products, particularly clothes and cosmetics, at younger men (Simpson, 2002). This, in turn, has led to increased men's participation in the wider cultural arenas of consumption as well as encouraging visual consumption where 'men gaze at men' (e.g. Patterson & Elliott, 2002). A convenience sample of sixteen in-depth interviews was conducted with self-identified 'straight' men, between the ages of 18 and 24. Within the interview context, each respondent was asked to construct of collage of their masculine self ideals using images from men's magazines. Following the logic of 'photo-elicitation' and 'auto-driving' (Heisley & Levy, 1991), respondents were then given a copy of the Dolce et Gabanna print ads, which they were asked to describe in detail. Our findings would suggest that, for these men the visual images contained within the ads were largely rejected as representative of a singular, hegemonic, notion of 'masculinity'. The men voiced varying degree of distaste of the use and representation of the male models displaying interest and intrigue in each other in various state of undress with little, or no, reference to women within the ads. These models were not axiomatically considered as not being 'masculine' but were defended as "definitely not being 'gay'". A further concurrent theme was the continuous need for the men to demonstrate and reinforce their own masculinity by discursively 'proving' themselves as heterosexual men. Our tentative conclusions argue that masculinity manifests itself in not only what is included in the ads, and what is not, but also, more importantly, in the intangible spirit or character of the visual imagery. This masculine spirit is expressed visually via physical body image, but more insightful interpretation of masculinity is embodied within body language and gaze, as illustrated in Figure 1.

  • 16.
    Engstrand, Klara
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Palm, Axel
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    "Likt Homer Simpson kväver Bart": En kvalitativ studie om maktutövning och maskulinitet i Morgonpasset i P32019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify and investigate different behaviors in the conversations between men and women in Morgonpasset i P3. This to determine how the male and female hosts and the guests are speaking to each other in the perspective of masculinity and power. Primarily, behaviors are investigated consisting of power exercises, in the form of master suppression techniques, and masculinity. The analysis is done through a critical discourse analysis, CDA, using lexical choices as an analytical tool. To place the analysis in a theoretical context, relevant research on gender equality, power and radio are presented. The theoretical framework consists of, among others, theories concerning CDA, master suppression techniques, masculinity, media influence and gender. The material for the analysis consists of parts from five selected sections of the Morgonpasset i P3. This material is received from the Swedish Radio website and was broadcasted week 44 in 2018.

    The result of the analysis shows that, from a perspective of power, there are differences in how men and women speak to each other in Morgonpasset i P3, but the difference mainly depends on the individual's personality and not on gender. From a masculinity perspective, the study shows that it is primarily the men who showcase masculine sides or do masculine manifestations i Morgonpasset i P3.

  • 17. Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Röster från sidlinje: Form och norm i anhörigspelet2010In: Genusperspektiv på vård och omvårdnad / [ed] H. Strömberg & H. Eriksson, Stockholm: Liber, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Fabbre, Vanessa
    et al.
    Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA.
    Siverskog, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Transgender ageing: community resistance and well-being in the life course2019In: Intersections of ageing, gender and sexualities: Multidisciplinary international perspectives / [ed] Andrew King, Kathryn Almack, Rebecca L Jones, Bristol: Policy Press, 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Falk, Max
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Jakobsson, Kristin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Hur många kön finns det i världen?: En kritisk diskursanalys av Socialstyrelsens handböcker för socialtjänsten och upprätthållandet av tvåkönsnormen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates The Swedish Board of Health and Welfare handbooks and the upholding of the binary gender system using critical discourse analysis. The purpose of this study is to examine how the handbooks construct, produce and reproduce gender and examines the binary gender system prominence and dominance using Faircloughs critical discourse analysis. The study also makes use of a social constructivist perspective and queer theory. The results revealed how the handbooks both produce and reproduce the binary gender system by using a language, which exclude people who identify outside of the system. In this kind of study, it is only possible to speculate about the consequences from the order of discourse, by making the binary order of discourse visible and to reflect on the possible consequences for people who do not identify themselves as a woman or a man.

  • 20.
    Gillberg, Claudia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Becoming visible in Iran: Women in contemporary Iranian society, by Mehri Honarbin-Holliday2010In: Gender and Education, ISSN 0954-0253, E-ISSN 1360-0516, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 703-704Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Gillberg, Claudia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Feminist Pedagogy: Looking Back to Move Forward2010In: Gender and Education, ISSN 0954-0253, E-ISSN 1360-0516, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 348-349Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Gillberg, Claudia
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik.
    Transformativa kunskapsprocesser för verksamhetsutveckling: En feministisk aktionsforskningsstudie i förskolan2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis had two purposes. 1. To study some preschool teachers’ possibilities to develop a gender aware pedagogy by applying theories of organisation, profession and collaboration. 2. To do qualitative research by drawing on principles of research for social justice, as a contribution to the development of methodology in feminist educational action research. The following research questions helped elucidate these purposes: How do preschool teachers create space for reflection and knowledge processes over time? What individual and collective actions do preschool teachers take over time? How can this study contribute to organisational development? Feminist pragmatism served as the philosophical underpinning for feminist action research (FAR) as a methodology and method. The preschool teachers were regarded as agents for change in their own pedagogic and organisational practices. Over a three-year period meetings were conducted on a regular basis. One-on-one interviews, group interviews, numerous emails, telephone calls and some observations completed the data collection. The analytical research narrative emerged by linking the preschool teachers’ actions to their ambiguous professional status. Actions were interpreted by applying the principles inherent in FAR, what, who and critical incidents over time. The absence of professional recognition from the municipal employer and parents for the preschool teachers was evident. Since the preschool teachers needed professional recognition, they experienced the collaborative nature of this study of great value as it conferred legitimacy for their professional development. There emerged meaningful pedagogic change over time, which emphasised the temporal aspect of organisational change from the bottom up. Collective actions began to take root in a shared value system. The design of the project – to collaborate with an outside ally – was decisive in regard to creating space for reflection and collective actions. Collective actions were possible due to the courage of individual participants who dared break silences surrounding organisational injustices. In conclusion, it can be stated that organisational change over time is indeed possible by practising radical openness for agency. Transformative knowledge processes can be achieved provided that genuine offers of participation are issued and well received. By elaborating on terms such as action, participation, emancipation, social justice and knowledge, a methodological contribution could be made to feminist action research.

  • 23.
    Gillberg, Claudia
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik.
    Hartman, Thérèse
    Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Gender Equality in Higher Education: Democracy and Student Access2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Gillberg, Claudia
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Lund, Stefan
    Växjö universitet.
    Kampen om utrymme för lärande på en arbetsplats som förskolan2009In: En bok om genus: nyfikenhet, nytänkande, nytta / [ed] Christina Angelfors & Eva Schörner, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2009, p. 143-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Gomér, Maria
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Kermani Magham, Shima
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Genuskonstruktioner i vardagen och arbetslivet: En studie om könsroller och chefskap2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersökte faktorer som kan förklara bristen på kvinnliga chefer och frågeställningarna berörde vilka egenskaper kvinnor och män tillskrev sig, om en önskvärd chef tillskrevs feminina eller maskulina egenskaper samt även könsskillnader angående balansen mellan familjeliv/arbetsliv. Ett bekvämlighetsurval gjordes på ett privat företag (n=82) och instrument som användes i undersökningen var BSRI-SE (Bem, 1974; Persson, 1999) (α=0.85) samt en omarbetad version av Work/family pressure scale (Marongiu & Ekehammar, 1999) (α=0.71). Resultatet av en One-Way ANOVA analys visade signifikanta skillnader mellan respondenterna angående femininitet (p=0,001) men inte gällande maskulinitet (p=0,103). Maskulina och feminina egenskaper var önskvärda hos en chef dock skattades maskulina egenskaper något högre än feminina egenskaper. Undersökningen visade också att männen hade lättare för att balansera familjeliv med arbetsliv. Slutsatsen blev att chefsrollen fortfarande överensstämmer något mer med den manliga normen samt att männen hade lättare för att balansera familjeliv/arbetsliv.

  • 26.
    Gynne, Annaliina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Young people’s languaging and social positioning: Chaining in “bilingual” educational settings in Sweden2013In: Linguistics and Education, ISSN 0898-5898, E-ISSN 1873-1864, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 479-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented in this paper examines languaging in a "bilingual" school setting. Theoverall aim here is to explore young people’s doing of multilingualism as well as social posi-tioning in and through the everyday social practices where literacy is salient. Anchored inperspectives that highlight the social construction of reality, and located in the geopoliticalspace of Sweden, this study investigates an educational setting where Swedish and Finnishare used as the primary languages of instruction but where other linguistic varieties arepresent. In the paper, the analytically relevant concept of chaining is empirically illustratedthrough the analysis of ethnographically created data. These data include video recordingsof classroom interaction and materials framed within the school diary literacy practice. Thechained flow of various oral, written and multimodal varieties in human meaning-makingis presented as an analytical finding.

  • 27.
    Hallberg, Jennny
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Hem- och konsumentkunskap i grundskolan: En studie om ämnets värde och status bland lärare och elever2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka hur lärare och elever värderar ämnet hem- och konsumentkunskap (HK) jämfört med idrott och hälsa (IDH) i grundskolan. Undersök-ningen görs ur ett genusperspektiv och resultatet kommer även att jämföras med politikers värdering av ämnet. De frågeställningar jag utgått ifrån är följande:

     Hur värderarlärare och elever HK i förhållande till IDH?

     Finns det några skillnader mellan kvinnliga och manliga lärares syn på HK och IDH, och vilka är dessa i sådana fall?

     Finns det några skillnader mellan flickors och pojkars syn på HK och IDH, och vilka är dessa i sådana fall?

    För att få fram elevers och lärares värderingar kring skolämnena har en kvantitativ under-sökningsmetod använts. Resultatet visar att HK varken har hög eller låg status bland lärare och elever då ämnet i genomsnitt placerar sig i mitten bland alla ämnen. Värt att notera är att IDH, som är den manliga motsvarigheten till det kvinnliga HK-ämnet, får hög status i skolan då det ses som ett viktigt hälsoämne. Hälsoaspekten, som har en framträdande roll även i HK-ämnet, uppmärksammas dock inte av deltagarna i studien.

  • 28.
    Halvardsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Social Studies and Didactics.
    Östlund, Linda
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Social Studies and Didactics.
    Jämställdhet är en kunskapsfråga: En studie om jämställdhet, genus och sexualitet inom samhällskunskapsämnet för årskurs 4–62014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällskunskapsämnet är under ständig förändring, precis som samhället. I kursplanen för samhällskunskap har flera centrala innehåll tillkommit i och med läroplansreformen 2011. Det är inte längre ett ämne som enbart berör demokratisk fostran och kunskap. I undervisningen för årskurs 4–6 ska ”Hur könsroller och sexualitet framställs i medier och populärkultur” och ”Familjen och olika samlevnadsformer. Sexualitet, könsroller och jämställdhet” (Skolverket, 2011b, s. 201) behandlas. Denna studie utreder vad könsroller, sexualitet och jämställdhet innebär samt vikten av ett normkritiskt förhållningssätt i samhällskunskapslärarens undervisning. Det redogörs även för hur kön och sexualitet gestaltas i medier. Syftet med studien är att redogöra för hur synen på sexualitet och könsroller framställs och förstås i olika sammanhang. Metoden som har använts är en kvalitativ litteraturstudie där vi analyserat tidigare forskning. Resultatet av studien visar att alla människor är medskapare och återskapare av normer, vilket inte behöver vara dåligt i sig, men de bör inte föras vidare utan reflektion. Det är alla lärares uppdrag att ifrågasätta normer som kan vara av kränkande eller diskriminerande karaktär. Det är därför viktigt att samhällskunskapslärare utmanar och ifrågasätter stereotypa gestaltningar av kön och sexualitet i sin undervisning. I studien framgår även att många lärare undervisar om jämställdhet och genus utan att ha gedigen kunskap i ämnet. Undervisningen baseras då på lärarens åsikter i ämnet, när det istället bör baseras på kunskap och vetenskap.

  • 29.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Catching glimpses of youth: Women’s experiences of their husbands visiting Men’s Shed2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Catching glimpses of youth: Women’s experiences of their husbands visiting Men’s Shed2019In: The Contributions of Education and Learning For Older Adults’ Well-Being: Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the ESREA -Research Network On Education and Learning of Older Adults (ELOA) / [ed] Carla Vilhena & Maria Helena Gregório, Faro: Universidade do Algarve , 2019, p. 310-321Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Learning to deal with freedom and restraints: Elderly women’s experiences of their husbands visiting a Men’s Shed2019In: Australian Journal of Adult Learning, ISSN 1443-1394, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 76-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the effects of activities in Men’s Sheds on elderly women. Specifically, it investigates the opportunities that are made available for women when their husband/partner becomes active in the Men’s Shed movement; focussing on ‘empowerment’, ‘gender identity’ and ‘well-being’. Five focus group interviews and eight individual interviews with elderly women were conducted and subsequently analysed through a content analysis, guided by the concepts of ‘empowerment’, ‘gender-as-performative’ and ‘well-being’. The result indicates that the notions of ‘self-fulfilment’ and ‘self-sacrifice’ are central to understanding how men’s participation in Men’s Sheds has affected elderly women’s empowerment, gender identities, and well-being. When men visit Sheds, it empowers women and offers them a sense of freedom and independence due to the women feeling less concern for their partners and a concomitantly eased bad conscience for leaving the men home alone with nothing to do when the women leave the household to pursue their own activities. Simultaneously, ‘Shedding’ provides new avenues for women to reproduce traditional feminine gender roles where they are primarily responsible for the socio-emotional work within their marriage. This was demonstrated by the women’s extensive engagement by which they, practically and emotionally, prioritised their husbands/partners and their new Shedding experiences.

  • 32.
    Hegestig, Erika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Andersson, Erika
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Jämställdhet i förskolan: En studie om hur förskollärare bemöter barn ur ett könsperspektiv2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    The purpose of this paper is to look into how preschool teachers treat children regarding to their sex. Using observations we want to study if preschool teachers are addressing the children with different sex equally or not.

    On the basis of the study we have the following question of issue:

    - Do preschool teachers use different vocabulary, vocal pitch, and body language to boys respectively girls?

    - Do the children receive equally amount of help based on their sex?

    - Do preschool teachers differentiate in the way they address and act towards children with different sex?

    The study is based on our observation of eight preschool teachers in two different preschools with children in the age range of 1-5 years old. A structural observation scheme has been used under two different situations at the preschools. The first structural observation was conducted in a teacher lead situation, getting the children dressed for outdoor activity. The second structural observation was made during recess where the children chose the game of play; the teachers did not plan the activity.

    The result shows that the boys receive more vocal encouragement then the girls in the dressing situation. The girls are supposed to be more self going and are often left to first try on their own. The girls in our study did not get any positive encouragement from the preschool teachers during the dressing setting. During recess the results show that the boys received more vocal communication with the preschool teacher than the girls did. The preschool teachers often used a hard and loud voice to address the boys and on the other side a low and soft voice when addressing the girls.

  • 33. Henry, C.
    et al.
    Orser, Barbara
    Coleman, Susan
    Foss, Lene
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Braun, Patrice
    de Bruin, Anne
    Diaz-Garcia, Cristina
    Gawell, Malin
    Lawton Smith, Helen
    Lewis, Kate
    McGowan, Pauric
    Niziku, Dina
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Sheikh, Shandana
    Tillmar, Malin
    Welter, Friederike
    Yousafzai, Shumaila
    Women’s entrepreneurship policy: A 13 nation cross-country comparison2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Foss, Lene
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Mikalsen, Geir
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Women's entrepreneurship research: What's context got to do with it?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Hoffschir, Camille
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. KEDGE Business School.
    Fourault, Ségolène
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. KEDGE Business School.
    Lastennet, Clara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. KEDGE Business School.
    The assertion of female managers facing male leadership: A comparative study between the banking, consulting and agri-food industries in France.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women in senior positions have been, for a long time, discredited. We wanted to study their current situation and understand how they assert themselves in their companies. We thought it would be interesting to see their link to management and leadership.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the position of female managers in organizations through the exploration of gender roles, characteristics and stereotypes.

    Method: We conducted our research by reviewing literature about leadership theories, management versus leadership and gender influences over leadership. Then, we conducted a qualitative study with a comparison analysis between the banking, consulting and agri-food industries in France to update the current knowledge regarding female managers, to understand how they assert themselves.

    Conclusion: The results suggest that it is still hard for women to assert themselves and reach manager or leader positions. However, this is mostly due to their own perceptions of themselves. Women tend to lack self-confidence, which is unfortunate because female managers generally use a transformational leadership style which is considered as one of the best, which means they have all the keys to become both successful managers and leaders, using androgynous characteristics. They also endure the maternity leave and tend to sacrifice their professional career for the benefit of their family life. Women simply need to be more confident and keep asserting themselves. 

  • 36.
    Karlsson, Amanda
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Historiskt perspektiv på genus i skönlitteratur: Genusstrukturer i skönlitterära klassiker från 1850-talet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen görs en kvalitativ textanalys av tre böcker utgivna under 1850-talet. Studien har ett genushistoriskt perspektiv. I böckerna undersöks vilka bilder det finns av manligt och kvinnligt och relationen mellan dessa manligheter och kvinnligheter. Syftet med studien är att synliggöra dessa bilder och relationer. Skönlitteratur behandlar hur författaren tolkar sin egen samtid och de värden och strukturer som fanns. Därav analyseras genusstrukturerna i böckerna i denna uppsats. Undersökningen har baserats på Joan Scotts teori om att genus utspelas på flera nivåer i samhället och R. W. Connells teori och kategorisering av pluraliteten av maskuliniteter. Utefter Scotts och Connells teorier har ett analysschema skapats som använts i studien. Resultatet visar att bilderna av manligt och kvinnligt överlag liknar varandra i böckerna med några mindre variationer. Det finns både normbyggande och normbrytande karaktärer och relationer i böckerna. Det finns hegemonisk femininitet som står över underordnad maskulinitet samtidigt som det finns hegemoniska maskuliniteter som står över den hegemoniska femininiteten. Det finns även män som genom andra attribut eller tillvägagångssätt uppnår värdet av hegemonisk maskulinitet utan att vara hegemonisk maskulinitet och är då antingen marginaliserad eller delaktig. Det finns exempel på femininiteter som är både överordnad och underordnad samtidigt som det finns femininitet som är dubbelt underordnad. Även maskulinitet kan vara dubbelt underordnad, en underordnad maskulinitet som är underordnad både hegemonisk maskulinitet och hegemonisk femininitet. Därav kan det fastslås att kvinnan inte alltid är undertryckt av män och män är inte alltid den som undertrycker i dessa tre klassiker.

  • 37.
    Karlsson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Lilja, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Sandahl, Annika
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and communication science.
    Pojkar har skägg, det har inte flickor, det är för att de ska vara lite finare: – Sexåringens syn på kvinnligt och manligt2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att få veta hur sexåringen i tre förskoleklasser ser på kvinnligt och manligt. Utifrån syftet har vi formulerat följande frågeställningar:

    – Anser barnen att det finns sysselsättningar beroende på könstillhörighet?

    – Inom vilka områden anser barnen att kvinnor och män är jämställda?

    – Anser barnen att det är skillnad på flickor och pojkar?

    För att besvara frågeställningarna har vi använt oss av en kvantitativ strukturerad enkät och kvalitativa intervjuer med öppna svar, i tre olika förskoleklasser. Sammanlagt 52 barn, varav 27 flickor och 25 pojkar deltog i undersökningen.

    Resultatet av studien visar att flickor och pojkar kopplar aktiviteter och yrken till respektive kön. Aktiviteter som kopplas till kvinnligt är enligt barnen hushållssysslor och motsvarande för mannen är teknik, underhåll och fritidsaktiviteter. De yrken som de flesta av barnen kopplar till kvinnan är förskollärare, frisör och affärsbiträde. De yrken flest barn kopplar till mannen är brandman, lastbilschaufför och bonde. Vidare visar resultatet av studien att flickorna i större utsträckning än pojkarna ansåg att både kvinnor och män skulle dela på aktiviteter och yrken. Barnen vet vad det är för skillnader mellan flickor och pojkar, som till exempel att flickor får barn och pojkar har skägg. Flickor och pojkar är överens om vad som kopplas till det egna könet och det motsatta i form av yttre attribut som kläder, leksaker och färger. Flickorna skulle enligt barnen bland annat ha klänning och glittriga kläder, medan pojkarna enligt barnen skulle ha kläder med dödskallar och eldsflammor. Leksaker som associerades till flickor, var dockor av olika slag, för pojkar var det bilar och krigsleksaker som gällde. Färgen barnen främst förknippade med flickor var rosa, medan färgen barnen främst förknippade med pojkar var svart.

  • 38.
    Lindholm, Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    NO-lärares syn på genus: en kvalitativ undersökning om NO-lärares arv- och miljöresonemang mot genusforskning2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Manzo Menares, Kristoffer
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Den förändrade bilden av kvinnor i läromedel för gymnasiet: En undersökning om läromedlens förmedling av kvinnor inom svensk historia mellan 1500 - 1780-tal2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted to research on history books in upper secondary school and how they dealt with the image of women in the material, especially with the Swedish history writing from 1600 to 1800 century. Therefore seven different books were selected in this study, ranging from the periods 1987 to 2016. The methods to research these books lies under text analysis, which means that this is fokusing on what the writer/authors of the books have been handling the image of women and the way they have been trying to implement it in the history books in school. To further aid this study and the view women in history books, I have used the curriculum that is mandated from the school minister on the view of what should be taught in school: Lgy 70, Lpf 94 and Lgy 11. I have used these in conjunction with how the history books and the writers/ author have been representing the image of women in the different history books. The result shows that the image of women have been changed from 1987 to 2016 and have gone from a descriptive description of women to a more of a mix between adjective and descriptive description. Furthermore have the latter history books been focusing more on different women in the Swedish nobility then on women in whole. One interesting point that came up in this study, was that the image of Queen Christina had different interpretation. This depended on which current curriculum was in power and on the writers/ authors current objective was in respective history book. However despite having a more of an adjective description on the image of women, has the content about women not really changed or increased. Furthermore has some parts of the image of women even decreased in favor to other. However even though the quantity has not change regarding the image of women, this study found out that the quality in the description of the image of women has changed and thus can conclude that there has been a change in how the image of women have been portrayed.

  • 40.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    The narratives of choice: Contextualizing mumpreneurship in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Migotto, Sandra
    et al.
    Hospital Nursing Service, AULSS 2 - Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy.
    Garlatti Costa, Grazia
    Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Ambrosi, Elisa
    Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Pittino, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Bortoluzzi, Guido
    Department of Economics, Business, Mathematics and Statistics, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Palese, Alvisa
    Nursing Science, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Gender issues in physician-nurse collaboration in healthcare teams: Findings from a cross-sectional study.2019In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aims of the study were (a) to assess whether the proportion of female nurses and female physicians in a given unit influences the attitude of collaboration between nurses and physicians as reported by nurses, and (b) to examine how these two dimensions interact to influence attitudes towards cooperation.

    BACKGROUND: Available studies have documented that gender influences the collaboration between physicians and nurses, but no have explored the influence of specific combinations-such as a high proportion of female nurses and a high proportion of female physicians.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 700 nurses working in 36 hospital units in Italy. The validated Italian version of the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration was used. A three stages hierarchical linear regression was performed by entering: (a) the control variables at the individual and at the unit levels, (b) the proportion of female nurses and physicians and (c) the two-way interaction.

    RESULTS: A total of 430 nurses participated; the average Jefferson Scale of Attitudes towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration total score was 48.64 ± 5.27. At the second and third stages of the hierarchical linear regression model (explaining 12.8% and 14.1% of the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration variance, respectively), having more female RNs as staff (model two: ß = 0.61, p =< .1; model three: ß = 0.69, p =< .05) was significantly associated with higher Jefferson Scale of Attitudes towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration scores; differently, higher physician-nurse ratios (model two: ß = -4.09, p =< .05; model three: ß = -4.54, p =< .01), and more female physicians (model two: ß = -1.06, p =< .05; model three: ß = -1.29, p =< .01) were associated with lower Jefferson Scale of Attitudes towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration scores.

    CONCLUSION: There is a decreased collaboration as reported by nurses when predominantly male nursing teams interact with teams with more female physicians. However, in units lead by female physicians, having more female members among the nursing team, ensures increased attitudes of collaboration as reported by nurses.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: With the increasing proportion of female physicians and male nurses, unit mangers should be prepared to manage their influence on interprofessional cooperation.

  • 42.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Baù, Massimo
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    All about My Mother: Factors Influencing Women’s Entrepreneurship2019In: Academy of Management Proceedings, Academy of Management , 2019, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data on all businesses started by mothers of young children in Sweden between 2000 and 2014, we investigate what factors are the most important drivers of entrepreneurship among mothers. We find that being unemployed or being an immigrant are important drivers of entrepreneurship among mothers. However, our findings show that the most important and primary determinant of entrepreneurship by mothers in Sweden is the amount of paternity leave taken by their partners. These findings suggest that in institutional contexts such as Sweden gender inequality is not a persistent feature of most households and that women can make career choices by negotiating with their partners who will make use of the parental benefits offered by the government.

  • 43.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Baù, Massimo
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Home Alone: Gender (in)equality Within The Household And Business Start-up Among Mothers2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Nguyen, Thuha
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    I'm proud that I've been in the army as a woman: A qualitative study of women's testimonies of their military service in Israel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The IDF (Israel Defence Forces) is an important part in many Israelis lives since there is a mandatory military service for both men and women, making the country stand apart from many others. Although it may seem as men and women have an equal army service experience, this is not the case. Women only make up of 34 percent of all IDF soldiers. Furthermore, female soldiers are often subjected to military positions that are considered gender appropriate for women. Even though women are moving into combat units and positions of military leadership, gender segregation is still evident in the Israeli army.  

     This study explores the perspective of Israeli women’s experiences in their time in the army by using a phenomenological approach. This is a qualitative study which is based on semi-structured interviews which were conducted with nine women from Israel who have completed their service. The aim of the paper is to analyse the respondents experience in the military and if they experienced limitations because of their gender. The results of the study show that the respondents feel they were being given different opportunities than their male counterparts, especially when it came to joining combat units. Furthermore, while some felt mistreated by the male soldiers, others stated they never felt differential treatment. This study concludes that combat units seem to be the main barrier between men and women, which reproduces inequality in the army. In order to reduce gender segregation there needs to be more female combatants and more men working in positions not related to combat.

  • 45.
    Nilsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för sociala studier.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jeppsson Grassman, Eva
    Linköpings universitet.
    To age as a man: Ageing and masculinity in a small rural community in Sweden2013In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 58-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to add to knowledge on the relation between ageing and masculinity in society by looking at how older unmarried and childless men in a small Swedish rural community articulate their masculinity in relation to being old. The study is based on interviews with eleven men. An intersectional perspective is used to analyse how age and gender interplay in the self-presentations as well as how their identity is articulated in relation to the rural context. The interviewed men articulate their identity through the use of a logic we call ‘what I have done is who I am’. This reaffirms the rural aspect of their masculine identity as well as the work-centred values of midlife as a reference point in the identity construction in old age when their bodies to a diminishing degree can live up to the physically defined masculinity of the rural context. In this situation, the local rural community is important for the way the men perform both age and masculinity in their daily lives. The men’s place integration can have a mitigating effect as it makes it possible to have their physically defined rural masculinity accepted as the ‘truth’ of who they are. To be known, to have their history known, we argue is central for the resignification of the old, devalued, body as a masculine body. Their continued place integration is a resource in that it can sustain their self-presentation as men defined by their stoic work character and not by their age.

  • 46.
    Ostrowska, Alicja
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    War is Peace: A Study of Relationship Between Gender Equality and Peacefulness of a State2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the previous studies, the hypothesis of this research is that the higher the level of gender equality in a state, the higher level of its peacefulness. It is a quantitative study using linear regression analysis with three variables, namely Global Peace Index (GPI) as a dependent variable, Gender Inequality Index (GII) as an independent variable and Human Development Index (HDI) as a control variable. The data of 139 states from year 2013 were submitted into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The result shows a significant and positive linear relationship between gender inequality and a high level of conflict, which confirms the hypothesis. However, HDI shows to be less reliable as a control variable due to issues with multicollinearity (heavily related independent variables). Further studies should replace the HDI with another control variable.

  • 47.
    Pennlöv, Henric
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Jag blir inte i Yngsjö: En hermeneutisk analys av rättegångarna i Yngsjömordet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Natten mellan den 27:e och 28:e april 1889 mördas HannaJohansdotter på den skånska landsbygden i Yngsjö. Hon tas avdaga av sin man, Per Nilsson, och sin svärmor, Anna Månsdotter.Under rättegången i Villands häradsrätt utvecklas händelsentill en utredning som varade i drygt nio månaders tid där debåda anklagade gjort sig skyldiga till mycket mer än bara mord.Den här undersökningens syfte är att genom en hermeneutisktextanalys utröna vilka de anklagade, Anna Månsdotter och PerNilsson, var som personer med utgångspunkt i Villandshäradsrätts rättegångsprotokoll. Uppsatsen tar avstamp i AnjaPetersens teori kring rättsväsendets framställningar av enmanlig och kvinnlig våldsbrottsling där den manligebrottslingen som aggressiv och våldsam till sin natur och denkvinnlige brottslingen som ett offer för sina omständigheter.I fallet med Yngsjömordet visar det sig att båda dessakaraktäriseringar ger sig uttryck under rättegången. Dock ärtillämpningen av dessa karaktärsdrag applicerade på motsattkön. Per Nilsson blir, enligt Petersens teori, den kvinnligebrottslingen och Anna Månsdotter blir den manlige.

  • 48.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm Business School at Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linneaus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organization and Entrepreneurship, Sweden.
    In the name of women? Feminist readings of policies for women's entrepreneurship in Scandinavia2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 50-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy actors seeking to stimulate entrepreneurship sometimes give special attention to women. It is not given, however, that policy initiatives for women entrepreneurs necessarily contribute to gender equality, to social change for women – such as enhancing entrepreneurship as a means to women's well-being and financial or other independence – or to gendered change of society. We claim that the outcomes depend on the premises behind the policies. We claim that such an outcome depends on the premises behind the policies. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an analysis of the feminist approaches that are taken in policies for women's entrepreneurship in the Scandinavian countries. We analyse how these policies argue for women's entrepreneurship, how they position women, and what assumptions they hold with respect to women and their businesses. We analyse and compare state-level polices that have been implemented by the national governments in three Scandinavian countries; Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, during the period 2005–2015. A comprehensive analytical tool, building on six different feminist theoretical approaches, is developed. We find that, even if a liberal feminist perspective is present, along with elements of other feminist approaches, polices give precedence to economic growth in a non-feminist fashion. Over time, economic growth becomes the key focus, while feminist approaches are silenced. We observe that, in the name of supporting women, the actual aim of policies for women entrepreneurs often seems to be economic growth, and women are seen merely as an untapped, and yet not fully adequate, resource. 

  • 49.
    Rastell, Angelica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Ojala, Monica
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Talutrymme och uppmärksamhet i förskolans samling ur ett genusperspektiv.2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi vill ta reda på hur kvinnliga pedagoger i förskolan fördelar talutrymmet och hur kommunikation/samspel ser ut mellan pedagog, flickor och pojkar. De frågeställningar som ligger till grund för vår studie är:

    · Skiljer det sig i flickors och pojkars tilldelade talutrymme/uppmärksamhet i samling på förskolan. Är det så att pojkar får större talutrymme/uppmärksamhet?

    · Finns det en medvetenhet hos pedagogen i hennes förhållningssätt/kommunikation/samspel/interaktion?

    · Finns det skillnader i pedagogens uttryckssätt till flickor och pojkar vid tillsägelser och bekräftelse?

    · Använder pedagoger lika/olika ordval, röstläge, tonfall, kroppsspråk gentemot flickor och pojkar?

    I vår fallstudie har vi observerat pedagoger och barn genom videoinspelning och intervjuat pedagogerna angående genus och jämställdhet. Intervjuerna dokumenterades genom ljudupptagning. Vår studie visar att i kommunikationssammanhang skiljer sig flickor och pojkar åt. Det har visat sig att pojkar både tar och får mer utrymme.

  • 50.
    Raudales Erlandsson, Elsa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Larsson, Mimmi
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Female Entrepreneurs in Honduras: The Motivation Factors Behind their Decisions2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial activity can promote economic development on a national level. Women are the most underdeveloped workforce globally. The amount of entrepreneurs is higher in developing countries, where lack of equality, education and resources most detain them from engaging economically. It is crucial to understand what motivates these entrepreneurs, more specifically women entrepreneurs, since they are so important for the development. Few studies have been done about women entrepreneurs’ motivation compared to those done about men and even more scarce are the studies done in developing countries.This study is conducted through interviews and a survey among women entrepreneurs within the PFME. The PFME is a program within the private organisation CCIT that aims to strengthen women entrepreneurs in Honduras through support and education.Push-factors are those motivation factors that come out of necessity and pull-factors are those that come out of opportunity. This study shows that the push-factors are more common among these Honduran women than among women in studies from other countries. Economic reasons and independence are among the highest ranked motivations. Further research need to be done in order to understand what affects these motivation factors on a country level and why there are differences between the motivation of women entrepreneurs in developed countries and developing countries.

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