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  • 1.
    Abdi, Joseph
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Moms på elektroniska tjänster2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2002 the member states of EU took a decision regarding whether to introduce a special tax base on digital supplies or not. This tax base was later on implemented to the member states domestic laws. Question may sometimes arise as to where or by whom VAT should be paid regarding electronically supplies. The administrative court and the Swedish government have made different judgments regarding two Swedish companies whose services already have been subject to VAT in other member states. While the administrative court sentenced company A to pay VAT the government exempted company B.

    This bachelor thesis will examine how tax claims regarding the same electronically supply can occur in different member states and if the providers are selling to or from a permanent establishment or if they are to be considered as distributors.

    The answer to the first question can partly be due to the difference between Swedish law and EU-law regarding the different use of word for designating a taxable person. The words used for designating a taxable person have different meanings which can constitute confusion. It can furthermore be due to the vague and broad definition for the term electronically supplies and the differences that occur, regarding what can be covered by the definition of electronically supplies.

    Providers of digital supplies shall pay VAT in the country where the buyer has his place of business or where the fixed establishment is located to which the supplies are provided. Regarding revenue or acquisition it is the one who acts like the real seller or the customer who acquires and consumes the provided service who determines where the supply is situated. The main elements for the services provided have to be examined.

    Providers of digital supplies are not to be regarded as distributors because they do not meet the criteria’s that are set out for the term. 

  • 2.
    Adolfsson Sjökvist, Simon
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Mellanmannens skadeståndsansvar i samband med strandade företagsförvärv2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A company acquisition is a complicated and long process. The road to the final purchase agreement is lined with several contacts between the parties. By that, the parties may incur costs in order to acquire the company. Typically, negotiations are conducted with involvement of intermediaries, acting on behalf of the selling or the buying party. If the acquisition is aborted and the final purchase agreement fails to materialize, it is conceivable that the denied party wants compensation for its expenses in association with the negotiations. Then they can claim damages under culpa in contrahendo, negligence of contract conclusion. The intermediaries who negotiate for a principal may be subject to the above tort claims if certain subjective and objective condition exists.

  • 3.
    Ahonen, Joel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Internationellt tvingande regler: En genomgång och jämförelse av artikel 3.4 och artikel 9 i Rom I-förordningen2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4.
    Akbari, Haddis
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Is there a requirement for 'good faith' or a 'duty of honesty' under article 102 TFEU, as regards misuse of public procedures and regulations, when establishing an abuse of dominant position?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Alam, Milea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Law.
    Nederländska ränteavdragsbegränsningsregler i Sverige?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the fact that the Swedish tax authority had paid attention to the issues concerning tax avoidance with the use of interest deduction, the first Swedish rules on interest deduction limitations on intra-group loans were introduced for associated companies in 2009. These rules were inspired by the equivalent Dutch rules on interest deduction limitations. Since the tax avoidance continued, the scope of the Swedish interest deduction limitation rules were extended in 2013. However, it has been shown that due to the formulation and the scope of the current Swedish rules, the legislation causes both interpretation issues and continuing tax avoidance. This thesis aims at examining the outcome of introducing similar rules as the Dutch interest deduction limitation rules in Sweden, instead of the current Swedish legislation, in order to analyze which of these legislations that better fulfills the purpose of the Swedish rules on interest deduction limitations. The thesis shows that there are both similarities as well as differences, with regards to both the formulation and the scope, between the Swedish and the Dutch rules on interest deduction limitations. It appears in the thesis that the differences in every provision of the Dutch legislation do not provide a possible solution to the remaining issues with the Swedish rules on interest deduction limitations. The author of the thesis considers a mixed application, containing some current Swedish provisions and some selected provisions similar to the Dutch provisions, to better fulfill the purpose of the Swedish rules on interest deduction limitations.

  • 6.
    Alderin Harling, Frida
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Traditionsprincipen i närståendetransaktioner: En skräddarsydd lösning?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Alsnäs, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Wilhelmsson, Petra
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    About the aims of China's Anti-Monopoly Law: -With special reference to the concept of socialist market economy2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chinas first comprehensive competition law, the Anti-monopoly law of the People’s Republic of China (AML), was enacted on August 1, 2008. Despite a long history of planned economy, the Chinese economy has developed into one of the fastest growing economies in the world during the last decades. The adoption of the law was a crucial step towards a more market-based economy. Article 1 of the AML states that one of the aims to achieve with this law is to develop a socialist market economy. The notion was founded in the 1990s and can be found in several other Chinese legislations.

    The concept has no prominent definition and can be interpreted in many different ways, which opens up for the ruling Party to interpret the notion in accordance with their political believes. The central government will probably put most emphasize on the word “socialist” instead of “market economy” when interpreting the concept. The concept is of central meaning and will affect the interpretation of the other aims stated in article 1. The other aims are not ranked in any hierarchical order and are in conflict with each other. The central government will give priority to the aims which are beneficial for a socialist society. The aim to promote public interest, which includes state owned enterprises, will be strongly favored. Also the aim economic efficiency will be prioritized since China strives to become a rich country. Consumer welfare will not be highlighted but might be more important in the future.

    One reason that the aims are vague and not put in any hierarchical order could be that the objectives for adopting AML were not solely of competition reasons. The objectives show that AML is part of a wider economic policy. Neither does the central government strive towards a free market. Instead the goal is to establish a fair market. A fair market will most probably be a market beneficial for state owned enterprises and can therefore be contradictory to the keystones of competition. Competition principals arise from sophisticated market economies and China aims to apply those principals in the light of socialist ideology. AML covers the general competition provisions but with a specific chapter to regulate administrative monopolies. It can still be seen as contradictory to prohibit administrative monopolies but without any sanctions stipulated for violation of the provisions.

    Also the fundamental elements for establish effective competition are missing. The statute cannot be seen as objective or provide legal certainty and the competition authorities do not have divided responsibilities. Neither is any specific competition court established. Other factors that can contribute to an inefficient competition law are China’s history and culture, affected by socialist ideology. Time is required in China in order to develop an efficient competition culture.

    Altogether, it is no coincident that the notion of socialist market economy is undefined. The notion includes a quest to enhance the socialist society with strong economic development. More specific guidance is determined by the central government when the right time has come. From a Chinese perspective, the aims in article 1 will be achieved since the undefined concepts open up for different interpretations. From a sophisticated point of view, the aims will not be seen as achieved since no effective competition is established.

  • 8.
    Ammar, Sarah
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Skatteflyktsklausulens tillämpbarhet när gällande skatteavtal saknar bestämmelser mot skatteflykt: Problematiken mellan folkrättsliga skatteavtal och svensk intern rätt2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En metod för att angripa skatteflykt är genom tillämpning av skatteflyktsklausulen som stadgas i 2 § lagen mot skatteflykt. Skatteflyktsklausulen har kritiserats för bristen på förutsägbarhet ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv med särskild hänsyn till legalitetsprincipen. Den 26 mars 2012 meddelade Högsta Förvaltningsdomstolen sin dom där svensk intern rätt tillämpades framför skatteavtalet mellan Sverige och Peru på ett skatteupplägg med ett utländskt holdingbolag. Om ett skatteavtal missbrukas i syfte att uppnå skattemässiga fördelar finns det i kommentarerna till OECD:s modellavtal vägledning som öppnar för internrättsliga angreppssätt mot skatteflykt. Däremot finns det en gräns för hur generellt utformade sådana motverkansregler får vara för motivera ett sådant åsidosättande om skatteavtalets fördelningsregler. Risken med att åsidosätta en skatteavtalsbestämmelse är att det kan resultera i att staten ifråga gör sig skyldig till avtalsbrott, s.k. tax treaty override. Rättspraxis har gett upphov till kritik ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv avseende tillämpligheten av skatteavtal i relation till svensk intern lagstiftning. Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen har öppnat upp för att reglerna om obegränsad skattskyldighet i 3 kapitlet inkomstskattelagen tillämpas och inte skattflyktsklausulen vid skatteupplägg med utländska holdingbolag som ägs av svenska ägare, förutsatt att den skattskyldige ifråga är bosatt i Sverige utifrån kriterierna om obegränsad skattskyldighet i 3 kap. 8 § IL. Det är dock viktigt att värna om Sveriges relationer med andra stater och därför inte bryta mot ingångna skatteavtal genom att tillämpa svensk intern rätt i strid mot gällande skatteavtals bestämmelser. När det däremot gäller EU-rätten har det i rättspraxis uttryckts att tillämpning av en intern regel kan motiveras om syftet är att motverka skatteflykt.

  • 9.
    Anastasios Tekeoglou, Joakim Prevander
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Nödsituationer i en hyresgästs lägenhet: vilka är en hyresvärds rättigheter och skyldigheter?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to clarify the landlord’s rights and obligations towards the tenant

    when a case of emergency occurs in the tenant’s apartment. What can a landlord do to get

    access to the tenant’s apartment when a case of emergency occurs? Will the landlord be liable if he damages any property of the tenant during the time in the apartment? These are some of the questions that we will answer.

    The problem is guided by two main principles: the landlord’s right of possession of the

    apartment and also the tenant’s right of use of the same property. The conflict between

    these two principles and between the interests of the landlord and the tenant is the foundation

    of this problem.

    Case of emergencies in an apartment are not regulated in Swedish law. Therefore, we have

    chosen to do comparisons to other forms of similar situations, which already are regulated

    in the law. These comparisons are made to see if similar rules can be applicated to cases of

    emergencies in the tenant’s apartment. In addition to this, we have also used case law,

    which treats similar situations, to see if the principles from these cases also can be applicated

    in case of emergencies in the tenant’s apartment.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    The Legality of Transfer Windows in European Football: A study in the light of Article 39 and 81 EC2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transfer system was created in order to control player movement between football clubs and has existed since the late nineteenth century. During the negotiation of today’s transfer rules FIFA, UEFA and the Commission found that a breach of contract during the season could upset the balance of competition and therefore should be restricted. It was considered necessary to strengthen the contractual stability and to apply a special rule to preserve the regularity and proper functioning of competition. This was done by the means of a provision stipulating that a football player only can be registered to play with a national association during one of the two registration periods per year, generally known as the transfer windows.

    Sport has never been included in the formal structures of the European Union and the regulation of sport has instead materialized through verdicts from the European Court of Justice. One of the most influential statements emerging from the Court is that sport is subject to Community law in so far it constitutes an economic activity. Consequently, if the activity is economic there is a risk that it infringes EU law. The purpose of this master thesis is to examine the FIFA transfer window system and to determine whether it violates Article 39 and/or Article 81 EC.

    The transfer windows, a regulation strengthened by the ECJ in the case of Lehtonen, restrict the ability of players to seek alternative employment and could therefore be regarded as a violation of the free movement of workers. In order to trigger the Treaty provisions guarding the right of freedom of movement the person in question must be a national of a Member State of the European Union and the activity must have a territorial dimension beyond the borders of a single Member State of the European Union. The person in question must also be engaged in some kind of economic activity. It is, however, clear that football players who are members of the European Union and are applying for a job in another Member State, and are performing at a certain level, fulfil these requirements. Footballers should therefore be considered as workers within the meaning of Article 39 EC and the prohibition of discrimination contained in that article which catches non-discriminatory private collective measures, such as the transfer system, invented by regulatory bodies like FIFA and UEFA.

    When considering the FIFA “windows system” it is clear that it is liable of restricting the ability of players to seek alternative employment in another Member State and should therefore be regarded as a violation of Article 39 EC. Nevertheless, restricted transfer periods have been found by the ECJ to be objectively justified as having sporting benefits in the Belgian Basketball league. It is, however, likely that the “window system”, as it operates in European football, goes beyond what is necessary to achieve team and player contract stability since it is too restrictive and somewhat redundant. Consequently, the FIFA transfer windows do not comply with the requirements of the principle of proportionality and should therefore, if challenged, be regarded as a violation of Article 39 EC.

    The use of transfer windows in European football can also be considered to be an issue for competition law and in particular Article 81 EC. The article prohibits all agreements between undertakings that restrict competition and affect trade between Member States and has the objective to protect consumers, enhance their welfare and to facilitate the creation of a single European market. The ECJ has, however, acknowledged a certain type of sporting rule that, even though it restricts competition, will be granted immunity from Article 81 EC. The FIFA “windows system” should not be regarded as such a rule since it does not fulfil the required conditions.

    The transfer windows do little for the competitive balance within the European football. It may be argued that it preserves the appeal and the unpredictability of the finishing stages of a championship. However, they also prevent clubs from developing their economic activity and restrict the free play of the market forces of supply and demand. Furthermore, the “windows system” hinders certain clubs from raising the quality of their sporting performance since clubs in minor leagues with a closed window are losing their best players to clubs in a better league with an open window, without being able to replace them. All of this affects the small and economically weak clubs and strengthens the position of the financially strong clubs. As a result a few strong clubs will, contrary to the best interest of consumers, continue to dominate European football. The FIFA regulation of transfer windows is therefore likely to fall under Article 81(1) EC.

    It is unlikely that the pro-competitive benefits of the FIFA transfer windows outweigh its restrictive effects since it is improbable that they would be considered the least restrictive means of creating these benefits. Subsequently, the FIFA “windows system” would not qualify for an exemption under Article 81(3) EC and should, if challenged, be void under Article 81(2) EC.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Elin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Developing a transfer pricing system: A case study of a company in the marine foodservice industry2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Marine Food group is active within the marine foodservice industry and is established in Finland, Sweden, USA and Singapore. The group both sells galley equipment and spare parts as well as carrying out installation of the marine foodservice areas in both new build vessels and in vessels where an old galley is changed into a new one. The group also provides its customers with turnkey deliveries, which are when the supplier has the overall responsibility for the delivery of a marine foodservice area. Marine Food group transfers goods and services between the enterprises situated in Finland, Sweden and the US and has not established a transfer pricing system for these transactions. The company located in Singapore was recently established and any intra-group transactions have not been conducted yet. This master’s thesis aims at developing a transfer pricing system that could be applicable on these transactions and acceptable to the tax authorities in Finland, Sweden and the US.

    The elements that should be included when developing a transfer pricing system is functional analysis, economic analysis, an analysis of transactions, selection of transfer pricing method and comparables. The Marine Food group is therefore analyzed based on these elements in order to be successful in developing a transfer pricing system. Furthermore, the transfer pricing rules in Finland, Sweden and USA is examined in order to develop a transfer pricing system that is acceptable to the tax authority in respective country. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has issued Transfer Pricing Guidelines, which are another significant source that are examined when establishing a transfer pricing system for Marine Food group.

    Spare parts are transferred between the Swedish company, Marine Food AB and the US based company, Marine Food LLC. The transfer pricing method that should be applied in Sweden is the resale price method since Marine Food LLC operates like a reseller for the spare parts. Internal comparables exist and comparability for the purposes of resale price method can be established with reference to both internal and external data. In the US, the comparable profit method should be applied given that it meets the best method rule.

    The transactions from the Finnish Company, Marine Food Oy and the Swedish company, Marine Food AB consist of installation works and stainless steel furniture. Hence, the transactions both involve goods and services and should be looked at separately. The transfer price for the installation works should be set by using the transactional net margin method. In order to determine the transfer price under the transactional net margin method both internal and external comparables can be used in this case. The transfer price for the stainless steel furniture should on the other hand be established using the resale price method. In order to determine comparability external comparables are used due to lack of internal data.

    Marine Food AB sells galley equipment and spare parts to Marine Food Oy. The transfer pricing method that should be applied on these transactions is the resale price method since the least complex party in the transaction, Marine Food Oy, act like a reseller of the galley equipment and spare parts. Comparability is to be established with reference to external comparables since internal comparables do not exist.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Ida
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Internetauktioner och lagval2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När något lagval inte gjorts gällande köpeavtal vid auktionsförsäljning av lösa saker är det lagen i det land där auktionen äger rum som ur svenskt perspektiv ska tillämpas, 4 § 3 st. lag (1964:528) om tillämplig lag beträffande internationella köp av lösa saker (IKL). Därmed krävs att internetauktioners fysiska plats fastställs, vilket leder till svårigheter eftersom det inte finns en geografisk plats för hemsidor.

    På området finns även Europaparlamentets och rådets förordning (EG) nr 593/2008 av den 17 juni 2008 om tillämplig lag för avtalsförpliktelser (Rom I-förordningen), vilken dock lämnar företräde för IKL. Rom I-förordningen har en bestämmelse lik den i IKL men med en väsentlig skillnad, nämligen att auktionsregleringen endast är tillämplig om en fysisk plats kan fastställas. I annat fall tillämpas först och främst säljarens lag och det finns även möjlighet till avvikelse när köpeavtalet har en uppenbart närmare anknytning till ett annat land än det som utpekats.

    Var en internetauktion har sin fysiska plats är långtifrån klart även om olika förslag till en sådan har framförts. En strikt tillämpning av IKL ger till skillnad från Rom I-förordningen inte någon möjlighet till beaktande av köpeavtalets anknytningar till olika länder, vilket är anledningen till att en tillämpning av Rom I-förordningen skulle vara eftersträvansvärd. Dock är det IKL som ska tillämpas och då det är mycket osäkert var och om fysisk plats för internetauktioner överhuvudtaget kan fastställas, är det möjligt att huvudregeln för köp av varor i IKL måste tillämpas. Det skulle innebära en tillämpning av säljarens lag, vilket dock inte är eftersträvansvärt vid auktionsförsäljning. Med hänsyn till att konsumentköp vid internetauktioner blivit allt vanligare kan även konsumentskyddsregler påverka den tillämpliga lagen.

    

  • 13.
    Andersson, Kristin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Den anglosaxiska trusten: En analys av en förmånstagares beskattningskonsekvenser av trustegendom som utgörs av aktier2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Anglo-Saxon trust is not a new phenomenon, but existed as early as in the Middle Ages. The concept is customary among common-law countries, such as England the US,

    but unfamiliar to civil-law countries like Sweden. The person who creates the trust is called a settlor, the one who holds and administer the property is a trustee and the person who benefits from the settlement is called a beneficiary.

    In Sweden there is no legislation of how the trust ought to be assessed, but the need to understand it has probably increased with the internationalization.

    The Swedish Supreme Administrative Court has had a few opportunities to elucidate some of the uncertainties regarding trusts, but chose to abstain. With this The Swedish Tax Panel has very limited guidance from the court when they receive an application of an advance notice.

    A trust is not a legal entity nor a tax subject. This differs the trust from a foundation and they can not be placed on an equality from a Swedish tax perspective.

    In an advance notice, 2010-03-23 (dnr 103-09/D) om Inkomstskatt: Inkomst av tjänst – värdepappersförmån, the Swedish Tax Panel equalizes the trust property with shares when determining how to tax the assets. The general rule ought to be that a beneficiary shall be taxed

    for the property when he or she has the full right of disposition, RÅ 2000 ref 28 indicates that this is correct.

    If the property consists of shares a judgement from another case must be considered. RÅ 2009 ref 86 implies that if the trust property consists of shares, the time of the full right of disposition presents itself immediately, regardless if the shares can be lost when employment is discontinued. The shares ought to be taxed immediately according to the Swedish Income Tax Act 10:11. Tax property is what it is and ought to be taxed accordingly.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Lisa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Expertskattens förutsägbarhet2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1984 the Swedish government introduced a special law which gave tax benefits to foreign researchers who for a limited time was engaged in research or development work in Sweden. The purpose was to facilitate for companies to recruit skilled employees from outside of Sweden and to make Sweden more attractive to this important group of researchers and to strengthen the Swedish competitiveness. In 2001 the law for foreign researchers was reformed to include foreign experts, researchers, managers and other key personnel. In Sweden called “expert tax”.

    As a result of this; problem with the predictability of who may have the potential to apply for the expert tax benefits was developed. This thesis deal with the tax rules for foreign expert, focusing on the predictability in order to apply for the expert tax. The focus has been on analyse the case law in this area to see if the case law has expanded the tax purposes or if the problem lies in the tax basic design in terms of predictability. Problems today are found in the preambles, case law and doctrine.

    The law and preambles for the expert tax rules have a vague formulation. Hence, this is why so many interpretations have been done by Foskarskattenämnden and the Swedish courts. This has led to the purpose of the tax being enlarged and do not exclude any business or employees today. This is why it is so difficult to predict who would become suitable for the expert tax, which indicates that the tax is vague formulated and not precise enough. The complexity has lead to interpreting the law in each case which may produce results that can differ among cases of similar nature. We need stronger legislation and a more clear picture of what the tax rules for foreign expert stand for, in order to obtain a tax functioning and avoid predictability problems.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    CFC rules and double tax treaties: The OECD an UN model tax conventions2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Appenborg, Simon
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Law.
    Lindström, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Law.
    Ett skenbart anställningsskydd?: En arbetsrättslig studie av förutsättningarna för otillbörligt kringgående av reglerna om företrädesrätt tillåteranställning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Employment Protection Act (1982:80) provides provisions regarding priority of re-employment. A few cases where these provisions have been subject to examination, have been discussed thoroughly in SOU 2014:55. In these cases the Labour Court has identified the question whether the provisions regarding priority of re-employment can be subject to circumvention in an illegal manner. The Labour Court has stated that it would be incompatible with the sense of justice if the provisions could be circumvented to the detriment of employees entitled to priority of re-employment. However, the Labour Court stated that certain conditions have to be imposed for the assessment.

    After analysis of the conditions, it is established that they are deemed to cause major difficulties for employees, why it is held that the purpose and the function of the conditions are not achieved. The purpose of the essay is therefore to investigate whether the application of the conditions imposed by the Labour Court, need to undergo modifications to meet the underlying purpose of the creation of the conditions.

    By reason of the difficulty with the conditions, the essay provides three different amendments in which two of the amendments are ascertained to not contribute to such an improvement that they should actually be applied. The third amendment implies that the burden of proof to some degree is reversed from the employee to the employer, whereby the difficulties following the second condition are limited.

    To preserve the balance between the interests of both parties the standard of proof is modified for the employer. Except from the fact that the underlying purpose of the provisions can be met with this modification, the amendment also ensures that the procedural premises conform to what generally is considered valid. Additionally, the rules regain their effectiveness and predictability.

  • 17.
    Ayse, Uzun
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Dokumentationsskyldigheten och dess förenlighet med den fria etableringen i EU -Behövs en harmonisering?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Babil, Nermin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Lissabonfördraget: Effektivare EU efter reformen?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Europeiska unionen har en lång historisk bakgrund. Syftet med ett integrationssträvande var till stor del att säkerställa att en upprepning av de stora krigen inte skulle ske. Ändringar av EU fördragen har tidigare skett genom Maastricht-, Amsterdam- och Nice-fördragen. Lissabonfördraget ratificerades den 1 december 2009 av samtliga 27 medlemsstater inom EU för ett enat överstatligt samarbete. Därmed antogs en serie ändringar i Europeiska unionens fördrag. Avsikten med reformen är att göra EU mer demokratiskt, effektivt och öppen för insyn. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva om ratificeringen av Lissabonfördraget medför en effektivisering i EU:s institutioner samt huruvida de ändrade beslutsprocesserna effektiviserar EU:s institutionella arbete. Blir EU en mer välfungerande organisation? Ratificeringen av Lissabonfördraget medför att Europeiska unionen innehar en uttrycklig status som juridisk person vilket ersätter den tidigare pelarstrukturen.

  • 19.
    Becirbegovic, Selma
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    In house-situationer: Möjligheter i relationen mellan upphandlande systerbolag att undantas från reglerna om offentlig upphandling2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Offentlig upphandling har till syfte att undvika snedvriden konkurrens och ge anbudsgivare likvärdiga möjligheter att tilldelas ett offentligt kontrakt. Däremot krävs det ingen offentlig upphandling när en offentlig myndighet utför ett uppdrag i egen regi. Det finns även möjligheter för myndigheter att utföra verksamhet genom fristående enheter, som då jämställs med verksamhet i egen regi. För att sådan verksamhet ska undantas från upphandlingsskyldighet ställs särskilda kriterier upp för relationen mellan myndigheten och den fristående enheten. Kontrollkriteriet kräver att den upphandlande myndigheten har kontroll över den fristående enheten som den har över sin egen förvaltning och verksamhetskriteriet att den fristående enheten bedriver huvuddelen av sin verksamhet tillsammans med den eller de myndigheter som innehar den.

    Situationer där myndigheter samarbetar med andra myndigheter genom avtal har också på senare tid ansetts omfattas av undantag från upphandlingsskyldighet. Genom två särskilda mål har EU-domstolen satt upp kumulativa kriterier som måste uppfyllas för att sådana samarbetsavtal mellan myndigheter ska kunna anses vara undantagna från upphandlingsskyldighet. Avtalet mellan myndigheterna ska syfta till att vara ett allmännyttigt uppdrag som ska styras av krav och överväganden för att uppnå mål av allmänintresse. Uppdraget och målet måste vara gemensamt för de båda myndigheterna. Avtalet får inte på något sätt ge fördel åt en privat aktör och inte heller får privata aktörer vara inblandade i avtalet.

    Det uppkommer frågor om dessa undantag kan omfatta relationer mellan systerbolag som vill undgå upphandlingsskyldighet. Om relationen mellan systerbolag omfattas är frågan på vilket sätt och till vilken omfattning kan systerbolag undantas från upphandlingsskyldighet i enlighet med upphandlingsdirektiven.

  • 20.
    Bengtsson, Christine
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Fundamental Rights in the European Community and their effect on the principle of supremacy: with special reflection on the new Constitution for Europe2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Bergkvist, Joakim
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Skatteflyktslagens tillämplighet vid generationsskifte i fåmansföretag: Gränsdragningen av samma eller likartad verksamhet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The financial result of a transfer of ownership or external sale is to a great extent depend-ent on how the transfer is implemented and how the tax rules apply. The applicability of the Swedish tax rules regarding transfer of ownership in closely held companies largely de-pends on the interpretation of the prerequisite, equal or similar activity, which can be found in section 57, clause 4 of the Swedish Income Tax Act.

    The ruling made by the Supreme Administrative Court in RÅ 2010 ref. 11 changed the concept of equal or similar activity. The ruling lead to that the shares in a closely held com-pany was qualified due to that the capital from the original company had been transferred to the operating company. According to the ruling the original company had been split into several companies, thus was the companies considered to carry out equal or similar activity. In 2011 the Supreme Administrative Court announced two rulings that expanded the con-cept of equal or similar activity. According to the rulings no transfer of assets is needed since the purchase price is enough for companies to be considered to carry out equal or similar activity, thus was the shares considered qualified. The decisive factor is that the pur-chase price has been generated by the owner or a family member.

    A transfer of ownership implies that a new generation will be handling the business. Fur-thermore, shares in closely held companies are qualified if the owners are active in signifi-cant quantities. That fact in relation to that the decisive factor is that the purchase price has been generated by the owner implies that any purchase price will be generated by the own-er. Therefore, the companies will carry out equal or similar activity which means that no tax benefit is achieved, thus will not the Tax evasion Act be applicable.

  • 22.
    Bergström, Johanna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Pharmaceutical Patent Strategies: The Competition between Originator and Generic Companies within the European Union2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pharmaceutical market is a billon euro industry and the competition on the market is highly intensive. Primarily there are two competitors on the market, partly the originators which provide the market with new drugs, and partly the generics which produce copies of the originators‟ drugs. The originators are able to be granted patent protection of the drug under the European patent system, provided that the drug fulfils the requirements for patentability. During the period of patent protection the generics are not able to produce copies of the drug, but once the duration of the patent has expired the generics are able start the production. Thus, in order to hinder the generics to make copies of the drug, the originators apply various patent strategies. This has been noted by the European Commission, which conducted a sector inquiry of the pharmaceutical market in 2009. The presentation of the competition within the market focused on the applied strategies by the originator and concluded that all measures will be taken to hinder restrictions on the competition.

    In conjunction, the General Court judged in a recent case that the originator AstraZeneca constituted an infringement of the competition law when their strategies were applied. The complexity of determine whether a strategy is lawful or not, is due to the interface between the intellectual property law and the EC competition law. This implies that the strategy can be lawful under the IP law but unlawful under the competition law. The Court has established that any strategy, regardless of its legality under the IP law, constitutes an infringement of the competition law if it might restrict the competition. The Courts do not provide sufficient guidelines of the conditions that constitute the infringement. Consequently, the strategies‟ legality is at present time uncertain.

  • 23.
    Björk, My
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Sander, Nina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    IL 48a:6a och dess förenlighet med EG-rätten: Om skatteflyktsklausulen för vinst på kvalificerade andelar i samband med andelsbyte2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För ägare av fåmansföretag finns särskilda beskattningsregler. Dessa syftar till att undvika situationer då delägare i fåmansföretag erhåller ej avsedda skattefördelar. I Sverige finns en skatteflyktsklausul i IL 48a:6a vars syfte är att förhindra att delägare av kvalificerade andelar i samband med ett andelsbyte erhåller av lagstiftaren ej avsedda skattefördelar.

    Tyngdpunkten i uppsatsen har varit att granska den svenska bestämmelsen mot skatteflykt vid vinst på kvalificerade andelar i samband med andelsbyte. Härigenom vill vi belysa den tvivelaktighet som finns beträffande bestämmelsens överensstämmelse med EG-rätten och Fusionsdirektivet.

    Kvalificerade andelar i fåmansföretag berörs av speciella beskattningsregler. Anledningen är att delägare av sådana andelar har ett större intresse än bara ägande av företaget. Kravet för att en andel ska vara kvalificerad är att delägaren varit verksam i företaget i betydande omfattning. Delägaren ska alltså arbeta i företaget. När en delägare arbetar i sitt företag kan det verka lockande för honom att ta ut ersättning för utfört arbete genom utdelning eller kapitalvinst istället för lön eftersom skattebelastningen för delägaren då sjunker. Det är dock möjligt att inneha kvalificerade andelar i ett fåmansföretag även om man inte själv arbetar där. Så är fallet om en kvalificerad andel avyttras genom ett andelsbyte. Att avyttring sker genom andelsbyte innebär att andelar säljs och ersättning ges i form av andelar i ett annat företag. Härigenom blir icke-kvalificerade andelar kvalificerade och således kan delägare vilja utnyttja möjligheter till lägre beskattning.

    I EU:s Fusionsdirektiv finns bestämmelser som säkerställer att gränsöverskridande omstruktureringar inom EU inte utlöser beskattningskonsekvenser för berörda företag. Fusionsdirektivet ska ses som ett led i uppbyggnaden av en gemensam marknad inom EU. Fusionsdirektivets bestämmelser har implementerats i den svenska Inkomstskattelagen i bland annat kapitel 48a, som medger en rätt till framskjuten beskattning vid andelsbyten om vissa villkor är uppfyllda.

    I Inkomstskattelagens kapitel 48a finns ett villkor som enbart tillämpas då det är fråga om andelsbyte av en kvalificerad andel. Villkoret återfinns i 6a § och ställer krav på att rörelse ska bedrivas av det förvärvande företaget för att framskjuten beskattning ska medges. Bestämmelsen har till syfte att motverka skatteflykt, skydda den svenska skattebasen samt upprätthålla systemet för beskattning av fåmansföretag. Bestämmelsen har införts mot bakgrund av att den svenska lagstiftaren har utnyttjat en rätt som återfinns i Fusionsdirektivets Artikel 11. I Artikel 11 erbjuds medlemsländerna i EU en möjlighet att vägra tillämpa bestämmelserna i Fusionsdirektivet på vissa omstruktureringar om avsikten är att förhindra skatteflykt eller skatteundandragande.

    Problemet med skatteflyktsklausulen i IL 48a:6a är att den är generellt utformad och således tillämpas på alla former av andelsbyten av kvalificerade andelar utan att någon individuell prövning sker. Klausulen verkar oberoende av om det verkligen föreligger ett skatteflyktssyfte. En liknande nationell bestämmelse har prövats av EG-domstolen i målet Leur-Bloem. Där kom EG-domstolen fram till att en generell bestämmelse som inte ger utrymme för individuell prövning strider mot syftet med Fusionsdirektivet och går utöver vad som är nödvändigt för att förhindra skatteflykt.

    Mot bakgrund av EG-domstolens resonemang i Leur-Bloem har vi, efter att ha granskat den svenska skatteflyktsbestämmelsen i IL 48a:6a, kommit fram till att bestämmelsen strider mot EG-rätten. Anledningen är bestämmelsens generella utformning. Eftersom bestämmelsen står i strid med EG-rätten bör något göras och vi har därför kommit fram till att det finns tre möjliga vägar att gå. Det första alternativet innebär att bestämmelsen lämnas oförändrad. Om så sker kommer bestämmelsen fortfarande att strida mot EG-rätten. Det andra alternativet är att upphäva bestämmelsen och således förlita sig på generalklausulen i Skatteflyktslagen. Det tredje och mest önskvärda alternativet vore naturligtvis att förändra bestämmelsen så att den uppfyller det EG-rättsliga kravet på proportionalitet. För att så ska vara fallet måste bestämmelsen ge utrymme för en individuell prövning som även kan vara föremål för domstolskontroll. Hur en sådan bestämmelse ska kunna se ut är i nuläget svårt att säga, men i praktiken skulle troligen en förändrad IL 48a:6a ha stora likheter med Skatteflyktslagens generalklausul. Av den anledningen frågar vi oss om det inte är bättre att då genomföra alternativ två, det vill säga ta bort IL 48a:6a och låta generalklausulen ta hand om skatteflykt när det gäller andelsbyten av kvalificerade andelar.

     

  • 24.
    Blomqvist Zampi, Martina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Avbrott i elöverföringen: en analys av rättsförhållandet mellan elhandelsbolaget och konsumenten mot bakgrund av bestämmelserna avseende konsumentens avtalsbrott2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Electricity supply is one of society's most vital functions and electricity is daily consumed by consumers. To be supplied with electricity the consumer must enter into a contract agreement with the electricity trading company. The contract imposes the consumer to pay for the consumed electricity. If the consumer neglects to pay the electricity trading compa-ny may be, in accordance with chapter 11 The Electricy Act and the contract, entitled to discontinue the electricity transmission. Before the company terminates the electricity transmission certain conditions must be met. These conditions are part of the consumer protection on the electricity market and consequently the electricity trading company is hindered from taking unfound disconnection. This protection consists of a set of condi-tions and for the disconnection to be justified all of those conditions must be met. An ex-ample of a condition that hinders the electricity company from pursuing disconnection is if the Social Welfare Board agrees to take on the liability for the electricity debt. In reality on-ly some economically vulnerable consumers are going to be affected by the provisions re-garding disconnection of transmission of electricity. In such cases the Social Welfare Boards’ commitment to pay is crucial for the consumers’ right to continuing consuming electricity. The Social Welfare Board grants the financial assistance as a last possible resort. Therefore only some of the most financially vulnerable consumers will be able to retain electricity, while others are deprived of this right.

    The Electricity Trading Company’s right to disconnect the transmission of electricity is en-sured already by law which means that the contract is superfluous. The Contracts’ basic function is to ensure that the consumer pays. Therefore the consumers’ obligation to pay should in an explicit manner be legislated.

  • 25.
    Blomqvist Zampi, Martina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Law.
    Bör regeln om anvisad leverantör revideras eller rent av avskaffas?: - Om avtalsslutet, kravet på garanterad elleverans och den s.k. supplier centric-modellen på elmarknaden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Bondeson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Generations- och ägarskifte i ett fåmansföretag: Hur påverkar de nya lagändringarna ett generations- eller ägarskifte?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From 1st of January 2014 new rules regarding closely held corporations and its owners

    were put into place. The changes were carried out because the rules were claimed to overcompensate

    large closely held corporations with many employees. The purpose of the thesis

    is to analyse if and in what way the new 3:12 rules affects a shift of generation or owners.

    The new 3:12 rules introduced rules regarding an increase of the salary-based amount, a

    lowering of the limit to be able to use the salary-based amount and a definition of the term

    subsidiary. To execute a shift of generation or owners different types of methods are used.

    The methods that are described within the thesis is a shift through a pure gift, gift in combination

    with dividend, a direct sale of the company or a sale of the company through a

    limited liability company to a price below the market value or at the market value.

    The new 3:12 rules affect a shift of generation or owners mainly through the change of the

    increase of the salary-based amount. This change improves the possibility for an owner in a

    closely held corporation to create a high-unused salary amount. This has positive effects

    regardless of which method that are used in the shift of the company. Through the expected

    higher unused salary amount of the owner, a larger share of dividends or capital

    gains are taxed at a low rate.

    The new rules has not addressed the problem that there are differences regarding a shift of

    generation and a shift of owners when it comes to the possibility to get the qualifying period

    of five years to start running. The new 3:12 rules have affected a shift of generation or

    owners with mainly a positive effect. It is existing owners of closely held corporations who

    have benefits from the new rules, because more money is left after the execution of the

    shift.

  • 27.
    Borin, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    En studie av regleringsteknik i amerikansk och svensk bolagsrätt: Särskilt om LLC, inc och AB2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are a number of different types of business entities in Swedish company law. The Swedish “aktiebolag” is the sole type of business entity which provides limited liability for the owners. That is a likely reason for its popularity. The Swedish Companies Act has received a lot of criticism for not being suited for smaller companies, which comprise the majority of companies in Sweden. The criticism is based on the fact that the law imposes administrative burdens especially on privately held companies, and that the law is complicated. There is significant value for Sweden to have different forms of business entities with varying regulation technology. Instead of making massive changes to the existing enteties and Company Act and potentially complicating the entity even more, it would be easier to introduce alternatives to the existing forms of business entities.

    This thesis studies the regulation technology behind the U.S. business associations known as LLC’s (Limited Liablity Companies) and Corporations in comparison to Swedish private limited liability companies (aktiebolag). Three basic theories of law are available to the legislature: permissive, presumptive and mandatory rules. Alongside them, there are also some basic legislative techniques and interpretation techniques that needs to be taken into consideration. The legislature should also consider certain desirable features to prevent deficiencies in the law.

    Corporations and “aktiebolag” are designed to suit the larger companies. Both laws contain more standardized and mandatory rules than an LLC does. The U.S. statute for LLC’s is primarily designed for smaller companies. Given that an LLC does not need standardization and that the owners can easily make changes to it, the contract can be tailored to suit the specific company’s needs. Based on this, the conclusion of this thesis is that the LLC-style business entity is an attractive alternative as a new option for Swedish businesses. Sweden’s business acts should be inspired by regulation technology of the legislation for LLC’s and Corporations.

  • 28.
    Borin, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Gynnar Sverige missbruk av visstidsanställning?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Union and in Swedish labor law, permanent employment is the main goal for employment of workers. An exception to that rule is temporary employment. The Swedish rules relating to temporary employment have undergone several changes since the Employment Protection Act was implemented in 1974. The last reform in 2007 has received criticism by respondents for not following the Union directive on fixed-term work, which went into effect in 2001. In 2010 the European Commission opened an infringement case against Sweden, after a complaint from a Swedish employees’ organization. The Commission argues that Sweden has not taken the directive on fixed-term work into account sufficiently in its last reform. Therefore, in the spring of 2011, the Swedish government published a department investigation regarding further modification, taking the provisions for temporary employment in the Employment Protection Act into consideration. The department investigation stated that the purpose of the legislative changes is not to change the legal situation, but to clarify the legal position with respect to the fixed-term work directive. The proposal for legislative change is in regards to the directive’s requirements to prevent abuse of successive fixed term contracts. An employer will not be able to combine fixed-term contracts for 5 and 6 § § in a manner that is abusive.

     

    This paper aims to examine how well the legislative changes live up to the requirements for the fixed-term in the directive. The author concludes that there is a need to extend the protection of the prohibition of abuse of fixed term contracts. However, the author considers the government’s proposal to be inferior, because it is doubtful whether it can solve the problems in question, because, for example, the directive lacks clarity and the term “abuse” is not well defined.

  • 29.
    Brorsson, Rebecca
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Generell tredjemansrevision: I ljuset av legalitetsprincipen och föreskriftskravet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I en demokratiskt rättsstat som Sverige ska inte myndigheterna ges godtyckliga befogenheter utan detta ska klart och tydligt framgå av lag. Legalitetsprincipen och föreskriftskravet sätter gränser för detta då de måste ha lagstöd i sin myndighetsutövning. Då myndigheter fattar integritetskränkande beslut mot enskild måste det föregås av en noggrann proportionalitetsavvägning mellan myndighetens kontrollintresse och den enskildes skyddsintresse. Åtgärden måste således stå i proportion till ändamålet. Skatteförfarandet avseende tredjemansrevision är ett omdiskuterat förfarande. Själva beslutet om revision utförs av Skatteverket och kan inte överklagas. Detta är intressant ur en rättssäkerhetssynpunkt då ändamålet beskrivs i revisionsbeslutet. Är ändamålet vagt eller otydligt beskrivet kan detta leda till att Skatteverket får obegränsade befogenheter då inga föreskrifter om vad som är tillåtet finns beskriva i lag. Här sätts legalitetsprincipen på sin spets då myndigheter, så som Skatteverket, i sin myndighetsutövning måste ha stöd i lag, det så kallade föreskriftskravet enligt 1 kap 1 §  RF. Skatteverket får utelämna uppgift om vem revisionen avser och vilka handlingar som eftersöks om det handlar om en generell tredjemansrevision. Ett revisionsbeslut som är vagt utformat och ej kan överklagas leder således till att stora befogenheter ges Skatteverket. Rekvisitet särskilda skäl ges ingen närmare definition i lagtext. Vanligen ges ett rekvisit viss ledning av dess innebörd genom utvecklad praxis. En väl utvecklad rättspraxis på området finns inte och det är således ett faktum att en närmare definition av rekvisitets innebörd bör finnas i lagtext för att göra det mer förutsebart. Detta skulle också innebära att legalitetsprincipen upprätthålls då det får stöd i lag.

  • 30.
    Buder, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Andelar som lagertillgång i fastighetsförvaltande bolag2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag paketerar fastigheter i bolag inför externa försäljningar i syfte att undgå beskattning på den kapitalvinst som annars uppkommer då fastigheten avyttras. En typisk paketering går till på så vis att ett företag som innehar fastigheter inför en försäljning av dessa startar ett dotterbolag vartill fastigheterna överlåts till sitt skattemässiga värde. Därefter avyttras andelarna i dotterbolaget till ett pris motsvarande fastighetens marknadsvärde.

     

    En förutsättning för att någon skatt inte ska utgå är att andelarna är näringsbetingade. Ett andelsinnehav är i regel att se som kapitaltillgång, men kan i samband med avyttringen ändra karaktär till lagertillgångar. Då endast kapitaltillgångar kan vara näringsbetingade är det av stor vikt att utreda när en andel i ett fastighetsförvaltande bolag är av lagerkaraktär.

     

    Genom en tolkning av 17 kap. 3 § IL och 27 kap. 6 § IL kan sägas att andelar i fastighetsförvaltande företag utgör lagertillgångar om företagets fastigheter skulle utgjort lagertillgångar i ägarföretagets byggnadsrörelse. De kan annars ses som lagertillgångar om andelsinnehavet gör att innehavarföretaget anses driva värdepappersrörelse.

     

    I två nya avgöranden har av olika anledningar andelarna setts som lagertillgångar och därmed beskattades andelsförsäljningen. Avgörandena visar att andelar kan utgöra lagertillgångar på grund av omsättningssyftet när en relativt omfattande försäljning av andelar i samband med frånvaron av annan verksamhet i såväl ägarföretaget som det fastighetsförvaltande företaget finns. Andelarna kan även utgöra lagertillgångar om en handel med fastigheter hade uppstått om fastigheterna ägdes direkt av innehavarföretaget.

  • 31.
    Burström, Christoffer
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Law.
    Oönskad föräldraförvaltning avaktier i familjeägt bolag.: Var ligger den reella beslutandemakten?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vid ett oplanerat generationsskifte när arvingen är omyndig är risken stor att den reella beslutande makten tillfaller en oönskad person. Anledningen till detta är den betydande förmyndarförvaltning en efterlevande förmyndare kan utöva över tillgångar den omyndige fått via legalt arv/testamente eller gåva. De möjligheter som ett borttestamenterande av förvaltningsrätten ger, kan tyvärr ge en falsk känsla av trygghet för testator. I flertalet av fallen finns möjlighet för den efterlevande förmyndaren att utnyttja laglottsmöjligheten föra att tillskansa sig beslutande makt över företaget och på så sätt motverka testators vilja. Trots att lagstiftaren på olika sätt försökt att trygga den omyndiges situation genom regler för hur förmyndare och överförmyndare skall handla anser jag dessa regler vara otillräckliga. Den utvidgning av förmyndaransvaret som omarbetningen av föräldrabalken i mitten på 90-talet innebar, gav tyvärr oärliga förmyndare större möjligheter att sko sig på den omyndige. Resterande skyddsregler rörande omyndigs aktieägande väger ej upp de brister som den frisläppta föräldraförvaltningen innebär.

  • 32.
    Bäckström, Hanna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Definitionen av öppen och dold diskriminering: Med urgångspunkt i Commerzbank-målet2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Europeiska Unionen (EU) arbetar bland annat med att förebygga diskriminering mellan medlemsstaterna. Diskriminering kan förekomma när en person från en medlemsstat väljer att etablera sig i en annan medlemsstat. Diskriminering föreligger när två liknande situationer behandlas olika, vilket även är innebörden av likhetsprincipen som tillämpas när dessa situationer ska fastställas. En särbehandling kan bero på nationalitet eller hemvist. Diskriminering på grund av nationalitet benämns som öppen diskriminering och en särbehandling som grundas på hemvist kallas för dold diskriminering. Trots att dessa två diskrimineringsformer grundar sig på olika saker leder de fram till samma sak, att diskriminering föreligger.

    När en person etablerar sig i en annan medlemsstat behövs ett fastställande av vilken medlemsstats rättsordning personen tillhör. I Commerzbank-målet ansågs bolagets säte finnas i ursprungsstaten, det vill säga Tyskland. I målet likställs ett bolags säte med en fysisk persons nationalitet. När en sådan jämförelse görs är det svårt att se skillnaden på om det föreligger öppen eller dold diskriminering. Det är viktigt att kunna avgöra vilket form av diskriminering som föreligger för att kunna bestämma vilka rättfärdigandegrunder som kan tillämpas.

    Författaren anser att det behövs en klarare definition av kriterierna för öppen och dold diskriminering för att tydliggöra vad som är diskriminerande. Författaren uppfattar att det först utreds om det föreligger en öppen diskriminering, om det inte föreligger öppen diskriminering utreds om det föreligger en dold diskriminering. Det ger ett starkt skydd mot diskriminering men författaren anser att det behövs en tydligare definition av kriterierna nationalitet och hemvist, därav skulle diskriminering kunna förebyggas i ett tidigare skede.

  • 33.
    Carlsson, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Laglottsskyddet: Går det att förändra för att öka testationsfriheten för arvlåtare?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 34.
    Danilovic, Branko
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Råder det diskrepans mellan 8 kap. 4 § UB och vissa EU-rättsliga förordningar som reglerar gränsöverskridande verkställighet av domar?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade two EC Regulations have been adopted in order to regulate and introduce uniform standards for procedures regarding recognition and enforcement of judgements in civil and commercial matters within the EU.

    The first regulation to be adopted was the Brussels I Regulation. According to its provisions a judgement delivered in one Member State can be enforced in an other Member State. Previously the judgement must be declared enforceable in the Member State where the judgement is to be enforced.

    A few years later the second regulation called the EEO Regulation was adopted. According to the EEO Regulation a declaration of enforceability is not required anymore. Instead a judgement can be certified as a European Enforcement Order for uncontested claims by the court or a competent authority in the Member State where the judgement was delivered.

    The enforcement procedure itself shall however be governed by the law of the Member State of enforcement. In accordance with Swedish law a judgement concerning payment claims should be enforced by distraint.

    According to Swedish law a Debtor’s property is allowed to be seized but not retailed until time for an appeal has expired. The EEO Regulation on the other hand allows the enforcement procedure to be finalized immediately.

    There is a high probability that the time for an appeal against a foreign judgement may expire before such time in which an appeal against the declaration of enforceability can be lodged expires. In that case the Swedish law would permit the executor to finalize the enforcement procedure while in according to the Brussels I Regulation, the enforcement procedure in such case should still be limited to protective measures.

    It is also quite possible that the Swedish provision infringes the non-discrimination rule in the Treaty of Amsterdam or The General Principle of Equality.

  • 35.
    Ehn, Lynn
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Den rådande tolkningen av samma eller likartad verksamhet: Konsekvenser vid generationsskiften i fåmansföretag2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On the 26th of January 2010, the Supreme Administrative Court in Sweden gave five rulings which greatly affect the possibility to keep a close company within a family by transferring the ownership of the company to the next generation. The five rulings concern the interpretation of the prerequisite, same or similar activity, which can be found in section 57, clause 4 of the Swedish Income Tax Act.    

    The prerequisite is fulfilled when an entire or parts of a business is transferred to another close company and the receiving company’s business activity is within the framework of the transferring company’s business activity or when the companies have a similar connection. Depending on which shares that are being evaluated, the prerequisite can refer to both the shares in the receiving or the transferring company. When the prerequisite is fulfilled, a standardized amount of the business income will be taxed as capital gains and the surplus will be taxed as earned income. This tax treatment will continue as long as the original shareholder or a family member is active in either of the companies. 

    The present interpretation of the prerequisite results in problems when shareholders want to transfer ownership of the company to the next generation and at the same time place some of the business income in a passive asset management company. The current interpretation of the prerequisite shows that the shares in the asset management company are affected and will continue to be affected by the previous business activity, when it is controlled by the next generation. Therefore, the special tax treatment will continue to affect the original shareholder.  

    The current interpretation of the prerequisite results in a more favorable tax treatment when the original shareholder sells the company to a third party instead of transferring ownership to the next generation.

  • 36.
    Ehn, Lynn
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Gränsöverskridande underprisöverlåtelser: Är villkoret om skattskyldighet i Sverige förenligt med EU-rätten?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Företag med koncernbidragsrätt har en möjlighet att överföra enstaka till-gångar till underpris utan att tillgångens övervärde uttagsbeskattas. För att få genomföra en kvalificerad underprisöverlåtelse som leder till undantag från uttagsbeskattning finns ett villkor i 23:16, 1 st. IL. Villkoret stadgar att för-värvaren måste vara skattskyldig för tillgången i Sverige. Det innebär att moderbolag inte kan genomföra gränsöverskridande underprisöverlåtelser till ett dotterbolag utan att transaktionen leder till uttagsbeskattning. Syftet med uppsatsen är att utreda om det nämnda villkoret strider mot EU-rätten.

    Villkoret i 23:16, 1 st. IL, utgör en inskränkning av etableringsfriheten då transaktioner till ett bolag som har hemvist i en annan medlemsstat särbe-handlas i relation till en intern transaktion. Då inskränkningen utgör en sär-behandling på grund av bolagens skattemässiga hemvist kan inskränkningen rättfärdigas med hänsyn till ett tvingande allmänintresse. Det tvingande all-mänintresse som villkoret i 23:16, 1 st. IL, söker att uppnå är att upprätthålla fördelningen av medlemsstaternas beskattningsrätt.

    Det är inte möjligt att upprätthålla fördelningen av medlemsstaternas be-skattningsrätt vid gränsöverskridande underprisöverlåtelser till ett dotterbo-lag genom att tillämpa mindre ingripande åtgärder än det villkor Sverige har uppställt. Bestämmelsen i 23:16, 1 st. IL, står således i proportion till syftet att upprätthålla fördelningen av medlemsstaternas beskattningsrätt.

    Inskränkningen i etableringsfriheten som det svenska villkoret utgör kan så-ledes rättfärdigas med hänsyn till ett tvingande allmänintresse som dessutom är proportionerligt till syftet villkoret söker att uppnå.

  • 37.
    Elfström, Sandra
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Generationsskifte i familjeägda aktiebolag: Särskilt arv och testamente2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For natural reasons, an alternation of generation and owners happen several times during the lifetime of a company. The realization of such distribution is a large and demanding procedure. One has to do careful and advance planning. A change of generations involves large sums of money and in most cases invaluable knowledge that the next generation can administer. In order to facilitate the alternation, the younger generation should at an early stage familiarize themselves with the business.

    The main focus in this thesis is non-planned successions and especially the right of inheritance for the surviving wife regarding inheritance of shares in family businesses. The purpose is to show both the advantages and the disadvantages when using this method in a change of generations, and to show the weaknesses in the existing legislation.

    A planned succession during the lifetime of the company owner is recommendable and there are a few different methods one can apply, such as gift and exchanges of shares, internal transfer of shares, sale of shares for a price below market value and a will. All of them have their advantages and disadvantages. However, it is not a matter of course that someone in the younger generation is willing to take over the family business during the lifetime of the company owner. An alternative in that situation is to sell the company to an external buyer, something that should be planned as carefully as a succession of generation within the family. Nevertheless, for different reasons a change of generation may not happen while the company owner is alive and in those cases the law system regarding legal inheritance will occur.

    A non planned succession puts the whole business in an insecure situation full of risks. Suppliers, creditors and employees are all affected by the situation. By drawing up a will, the company owner can control and decide who will inherit shares from the family business. Other properties, such as a summer house or profit from the business, can also be brought up in the will. By doing that a fair economic devision can be done. In other words, the use of a will can remedy the consequences of inheritance.

    The law system regarding legal inheritance says that the surviving wife inherits, both martial property and private property, before joint children. It is of no importance that the children are more suitable to take over the business. When no alternations of generations have taken place during the lifetime of the company owner, the rules of legal inheritance will occur, irrespective of the circumstances in each case. However, children to the deceased outside the marriage can cause internal conflicts when it comes to the power over the company.

  • 38.
    Eriksson, Matilda
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Ränta på lån från moderbolag till dotterbolag: Ett naturligt steg i rättsutvecklingen2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På grund av de gångna årens finansiella utveckling har företag valt att allt mer vända sig till koncernintern finansiering. På grund av transaktionernas komplexa karaktär och avsaknaden av tydliga riktlinjer har finansiella transaktioner kommit att bli ett omtvistat internprissättningsområde. Koncerninterna lån mellan bolag i intressegemenskap är ett internprissättningsområde där det i dagsläget råder stor skillnad i uppfattningen om huruvida implicit support ska tas i beaktande vid fastställandet av räntenivån på koncerninterna lån. Detta är en avgörande fråga då implicit support påverkar ett bolags kreditvärdering och därmed räntenivån.

    Den svenska rättsutvecklingen kom att bli omdiskuterad i samband med att Diligentiamålet avkunnades. I Diligentiamålet behandlade HFD frågan om en ränta som ett svenskt dotterbolag betalat på ett lån från sitt svenska moderbolag var avdragsgillt fullt ut. Av Diligentiamålet följer att ett lån från ett moderbolag till ett dotterbolag har väsentliga särdrag som påverkar kreditrisken och därmed räntan vilket saknas när parterna är oberoende. Den allmänna tesen i Diligentiamålet är visserligen korrekt men det innebär dock inte att det generellt kan sägas att alla koncerninterna lån alltid har en lägre räntesats än externa lån. SKV har dock i rättsutvecklingen efter Diligentiamålets avkunnande fått gehör för detta. Även om SKV hittills haft framgång i förvaltningsrätten finns det dock anledning till viss osäkerhet om hur bedömningen kommer att bli i högre instans.

  • 39.
    Fayad, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Svensk ordre public: Mål om makars förmögenhetsförhållanden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Public policy means that the Swedish court has the right to refuse the application of foreignlaw, recognize or enforce a foreign judgment if it would lead to a result which ismanifestly incompatible with public policy in Sweden. The result that is manifestly incompatiblewith public policy has not been specified by the legislature. The questionhas been left to the application of the law, primarily the court, to decide. A public policy-provisioncan be found in the proposal from the European Commission on jurisdiction,applicable law and the recognition and enforcement of decisions in matters of matrimonialproperty regimes. Any law determined in accordance with the provisions of theconflict-of-law rule shall apply even if it is not the law of a Member State. As a result ofthe universal nature of the conflict-of-law rule it is crucial to determine the resultswhich are compatible with public policy in Sweden. The probability that the foreign lawleads to a result which is manifestly incompatible with Swedish law is greater when thematters of matrimonial property regimes are settled according to a law whose statutoryprovisions are based on ancient tradition and culture. The countries included here areneither the Nordic countries nor the Member States of the European Union because thelegal system of these countries is very similar to the Swedish legal system. According toSwedish conception of legality it is important that the fundamental rights, ensured foreveryone, is not overrode because of a person´s gender, race, colour, sexual orientation,religion or other views. Of importance is also that the ”weaker” spouse is ensured a sufficientfinancial protection, either through matrimonial rights or inheritance rights, inparticular when foreign law lacks rules about division of the matrimonial property.

  • 40.
    Gankin, Dimitri
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Gränsöverskridande förlustutjämning: En analys av EU-domstolens domar2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I de flesta medlemsstater kan vinster och förluster som uppkommer i samma koncern utjämnas om bolagen i koncernen är belägna i samma medlemsstat. Den typen av utjämning utsträcker sig inte i allmänhet till en koncern etablerad i flera medlemsstater. Eftersom en EU-harmonisering vid gränsöverskridande förlustutjämning saknas, riskerar vinster och förluster inom en koncern att hamna mellan olika skattelagstiftningar. Det medför i sin tur att förlustutjämning inom en koncern inskränks till den medlemsstat där vinsten eller förlusten uppstår. En koncern etablerad i flera medlemsstater riskerar härmed att beskattas högre än deras sammanlagda resultat på EU-nivå.

    Problemet med gränsöverskridande förlustutjämning är inte begränsat till att endast avse koncerner belägna i flera medlemsstater utan omfattar även företag med ett fast driftsställe i en annan medlemsstat än sin hemviststat. Precis som för inhemska koncerner tillåter medlemstater förlustutjämning för nationella företag med ett inhemskt fast driftsställe. När ett företag bedriver verksamhet från ett fast driftställe i en annan medlemsstat är det den avräkningsmetod som valts i de dubbelbeskattningsavtal som ingåtts mellan medlemsstaterna, som avgör om det fasta driftsställets förluster ska beaktas vid beräkningen av hela företagets resultat.

    I Marks & Spencer tillät domstolen för första gången en gränsöverskridande förlustutjämning. Enligt Marks & Spencer-målet kan ett moderbolag ta emot ett dotterbolags förlust vid det fall dotterbolaget har uttömt alla möjligheter till att beakta förlusten i sin hemviststat. Vad som anses med att dotterbolaget har uttömt möjligheterna till att beakta förlusten i sin hemviststat är oklart. Att ett dotterbolag ska likvideras eller tas över av en tredje part får i nuläget anses innebära att förlusterna är definitiva och en medlemsstats lagstiftning inte kan hindra att en sådan förlust beaktas i moderbolagets hemviststat.

    Precis som för koncerner är det, genom Lidl-målet, fastställt att domen i Marks & Spencer utsträcker sig till att även avse fasta driftställen. En gränsöverskridande förlustutjämning kan få företas med ett bolags fasta driftställe beläget i en annan medlemsstat, men bara om det rör sig om definitiva förluster och det fasta driftstället har uttömt möjligheterna till att beakta förlusten i etableringsstaten. I ett sådant fall är inte nationell lagstiftning proportionell och går längre än vad som är nödvändigt för att uppnå de eftersträvade ändamålen.

  • 41.
    Genfors, Marcus
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Förmånsbeskattning av dispositionsrätter till tillgångar i fåmansföretag2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis discusses taxation of benefits, which shareholders and company leaders can enjoy from close corporations. The Government said in the government bill lead- ing to the amendments regarding taxation of benefits, that it should be the possibility alone to enjoy benefits that should be the reason to impose taxes on company lead- ers. The Swedish tax agency (Skatteverket) has agreed to that statement. In other words, it isn’t necessary that someone actually enjoys the company’s assets for pri- vate use, it is enough that they have the right of disposal of them in order to be taxed. The question that arises is how a benefit can be defined as something you can enjoy rather then something you actually enjoy.

    The objective of this thesis is to straighten out if there are legal grounds for imposing taxes on company leaders just because they have the right of disposal to the compa- ny’s assets, and in that case which those legal grounds are.

    Different courts have interpreted the law in different ways in a number of cases, which this thesis gives an account of. In summery, the conclusion is that there are a legal grounds for imposing these taxes on company leaders because of their right of disposal to the company’s assets. The case law has interpreted the law and the gov- ernment bill, and from that interpretation developed a rule that declares that owners and leaders in close corporations shall be taxed based on their right of disposal.

    The reason for this is that the vision for the enactor is to reach neutrality between people who run and own companies and people who are employed in a regular way. The rule that assess company leaders in close corporations because of their right of disposals preventing people from letting their company pay their private cost of living. 

  • 42.
    Genfors, Marcus
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Verksamhetsrekvisitet i relation till förvaltande fåmansföretag: När anses delägare vara verksamma i betydande omfattning?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Gerson, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Compensation of Losses in Foreign Subsidiaries within the EU: A Comparative Study of the Unilateral Loss-Compensation Mechanisms in Austria and Denmark2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study commences in the problems related to the restricted possibilities for cross-border groups to take losses incurred in foreign subsidiaries into account upon taxation. These difficulties lead to the situation where the overall tax burden of the group, seen as an economic unit, might exceed its economic capacity. Such over taxation is likely to cause the cross-border group cash-flow disadvantages, liquidity problems, reduced expansion possibilities and it might also effect the organisation and location of the group’s business activities.

    This study has two research aims; firstly to analyse unilateral compensation of losses in foreign subsidiaries de lege lata, and secondly to analyse the consequences of different alternatives, as well as refraining from taking specific measures, upon opening up a unilateral system to cover also foreign losses de lege ferenda. In these respects, the experiences from the Austrian and Danish unilateral loss-compensation systems, under which losses incurred in foreign subsidiaries are acknowledged, serve as valuable sources of information.

    The findings in the study are evaluated based on the fundamental objectives that ought to be balanced from the perspective of the group as well as the loss-granting state. These objectives are; the recognition of the ability of the cross-border group, seen as an economic unit, to pay taxes; the prevention of double dip of losses, and the prevention of arbitrary as well as permanent income shifting between MS.

  • 44.
    Gerson, Anna
    Jönköping University. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Om ränteavdrag i EG-domstolens praxis2009In: Skattenytt, ISSN 0346-1254, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 93-102Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Ghajar, Homa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Ett europeiskt småmålsförfarande2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On the first of August 2007, the regulation of a European small claim procedure (EU) No. 861/2007 entered into force. The regulation is however fully administered from the first of January 2009, and shall be used in all member states, besides Denmark. The small claim procedure composes only an alternative procedure to the member states existing small claim provisions. In Sweden the regulation composes an alternative to the provisions in the Act (1942:740) of procedure.

    The aims of the regulation are to simplify, precipitate and to make the handling of small claims inexpensive. It also aims to make it easier for the parties to get recognition and enforcement of judgments in the European Union. The regulation is to be used in civil law and has to be a cross-border contention. The claim cannot exceed the limit of 2 000 euro and it has to be a tribunal that carries jurisdiction.

    From a Swedish point of view, the regulation carries both advantages as well as disadvantages, a disadvantage would be the increased civil action to the common courts and it will be resource-demanding. The quantity of exequatur contention in Swedish court of appeal will most believably also increase. The main advantage of the regulation is the abolishment of the exequatur when the Brussels I, on the other hand, only set out to simplify it.

  • 46.
    Glaad, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    The Hardcore Restrictions on Internet Distribution under the Regulation 330/2010: The scope of Objective Justifications and the Double Negative Presumption2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the approach and attitude towards restrictions on internet distribution in distribution systems under EU competition law. When the Regulation 330/2010 and the Vertical Guidelines entered into force in 2010 a new level of guidance was given by the Commission on internet distribution. The Vertical Guidelines made an important contribution with its detailed rules but did also leave some questions. In the case C-439/09, Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique which came in the late 2011 the COJ gave its first preliminary ruling concerning internet distribution and two of those questions are addressed and examined in this thesis.

    The Vertical Guidelines state that distributors are generally free to use internet for sale and marketing purposes and the first question regards the scope of objective justifications for restricting internet distribution. The thesis shows that the Commission has taken a quite restrictive approach on restrictions on internet distribution which has, at least partly, been confirmed by the COJ. It is however possible to objectively justify restrictions with reference to foremost health and safety but also due to technically advanced and high quality products.

    The second question concerns the double presumption rule mentioned in the Vertical Guidelines stating that an agreement containing a hardcore restriction is presumed to infringe Art 101(1) in the TFEU by not being exempted by Regulation 330/2010 and to not fulfill the criteria in Art 101(3) in the TFEU for being individually exempted. The examination of the rule and the analyze of case law gives that the COJ does not seem to take the presumption rule into consideration in regard of internet distribution. The conclusion is however that; restrictions together with any other directly or indirectly outright bans on internet distribution must be carefully constructed and performed.

  • 47.
    Godring, Björn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Wåhlin, Lisa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Business Restructurings and Transfer Pricing in Germany and Sweden: The concepts of profit/loss potential and indemnification2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Business restructurings within multinational enterprises (MNEs) are regular occurrences. Such restructurings are often carried out in order to increase the MNE‟s competitiveness on the market by making the supply chain and management more efficient in order to ac-quire benefits due to economies of scale. There is a risk that such cross-border business re-structurings will transfer the profit/loss potential that is associated with the assets, risks and/or functions that are transferred, to low-tax jurisdictions in order to minimize the MNEs tax burden. Germany amended its tax act in order to prevent such profit potential from being transferred out of the country. This amendment came into effect on the 1st of January 2008. The OECD, which is the normative body on the international tax arena, re-leased a Discussion Draft for the public in September 2008 with the purpose to highlight the transfer pricing aspects of business restructurings and to serve as an interpretation of the application of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines on business restructurings. In this thesis, the concepts of profit/loss potential and indemnification, as they are pre-sented in the Discussion Draft, will be analyzed. The interpretation of the OECD will then be contrasted with the German and Swedish regulation of these concepts. The OECD defines a business restructuring as a transfer including a bundle of assets, risks and/or functions which are transferred across borders within a MNE. If this transfer in-volves the shift of profit/loss potential it shall be included in the valuation of the transfer price of the transactions. The profit/loss potential shall only be included if it can be identi-fied as belonging to a specific asset, risk or function of the bundle. In Swedish legislation there is only one rule which tax authorities can use in order to adjust the income of related parties. This regulation is not a specific rule for business restructurings as such but a gener-al rule for all transfer pricing matters. Sweden has traditionally followed the OECD guide-lines and the Swedish courts and tax authorities will most likely apply the guidance set out by the OECD on business restructurings as well.

    Germany views a business restructuring as a transfer package which consist of assets, risks and/or functions which are transferred a cross borders within a MNE. The concept of business opportunities, i.e. the profit potential of the combined assets, risks and/or func-tions of the transfer package, shall be included in the valuation of the transfer package. In the valuation of the transfer package synergy effects for the MNE and location savings as a whole shall be included. This concept deviates from the view of the OECD. The OECD states that only local synergy effects and location savings shall be included in the valuation of the transfer package. The German approach leads to an inherent risk of overvaluation of the transfer package. The way of valuing the transfer package in Germany could lead to

    taxation without realization, i.e. profits that would never have been or never could be rea-lized in Germany will be taxed. This contradicts the principle of realization. The OECD, in the Discussion Draft, gives an account for the possibilities for an indemni-fication for the transferor. A business restructuring can sometimes be compared with the breach of a contractual relationship. In such a situation, associated parties would be entitled to an indemnity if independent parties would be indemnified. Such an approach will be dif-ficult to apply in practice since indemnification is closely linked to nations national com-mercial legislation. The matter of indemnifying a party shall be decided on the merits of each case, and it can thereby be complicated to formulate a general regulation. The ques-tion regarding which authority shall be competent to govern such a matter must thereby al-so be resolved.

  • 48.
    Grahn, Josefine
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    HFDs hantering av regelkollision mellan intern rätt och skatteavtal: En analys av RÅ 2010 ref. 1122012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The OMX-case entailed considerable uncertainty about the relationship between tax treaties and Swedish domestic law. Previous approaches to handle rule conflict between them was put out of action for the first time when an internal rule took precedence over tax treaties. The Greece-case came a few years later where there were hopes that it would be decided in plenary session to return to the view that prevailed before the OMX-case, which did not happen. Instead the Supreme Administrative Court ruled that the tax treaties shall in principle be given preference, but that in exceptional situations tax treaties can be infringed to an internal rule's benefit, so called tax treaty override. Such procedure is acceptable if the legislature gives "clear expression" of the intention of a certain type of income is to be taxed in Sweden, or that a particular new rule applies regardless of the provisions in tax treaties.

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the supreme administrative courts management of rule collision between domestic law and tax treaties in the Greece-case. Further analysis of the requirement "clear expression" shall take place and the basis of why the supreme administrative court justifies tax treaty override shall also be analyzed.

    The conclusion presented in this thesis initially includes problems that arise to conclude the meaning of the term "clear expression" and that application difficulties arise because the supreme administrative court did not provide further guidance of its meaning. Secondly, that the supreme administrative court justify tax treaty override occasionally since there is no constitutional or procedural obstacles for a newer internal law to expand the Swedish taxation when an already implemented taxation agreement restricts it.

  • 49.
    Granlund, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Feka, Hake
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Ne bis in idem: Tillämplig på förhållandet mellan skattetillägg och skattebrott samt på förhållandet mellan skattetillägg och bokföringsbrott?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Convention and the EU charter the principle ne bis in idem is provided, which implies that a person can not be tried or punished twice for the same offense. Since the European Convention was incorporated into Swedish law in 1995 the principles application has been discussed in tax law. Several cases have been examined by the European Court and the Supreme Court (HD) in order to determine whether dual punishment has occurred in the national rules concerning tax surcharge, tax crime and accounting fraud. The judicial trials have brought different assessments concerning the matter, which have resulted in a lack of clarity on the application of the principle in Swedish law.

    The thesis purpose is to clarify whether the principle ne bis in idem is applicable on the relationship between tax surcharge and tax crime, and the relationship between tax surcharge and accounting fraud.

    The authors' conclusion is that the principle ne bis in idem is applicable on the relationship between tax surcharge and tax crime because both sanctions are considered criminal in nature and concern the same crime, since they are based on substantially the same circumstances. Furthermore, the principle ne bis in idem is considered applicable on the relationship tax surcharge and accounting fraud, because both sanctions are criminal in nature and their circumstances have a connection, therefore they are considered as the same crime.

  • 50.
    Granlund, Annelie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Law.
    Karlsson, Ida
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Law.
    Avdragsförbudet för valutakursförluster på näringsbetingade andelar i 25 a kap. 5 § IL: I strid med etableringsfriheten och den fria rörligheten för kaptial?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En valutakursförlust som uppstår till följd av att ett bolag avyttrar näringsbetingade andelar i ett utländskt dotterbolag är enligt svensk gällande rätt inte avdragsgill, vilket följer av 25 a kap. 5 § IL. Det råder oklarhet om huruvida det svenska avdragsförbudet för valutakursförluster på näringsbetingade andelar i utländska dotterbolag strider mot EU-rättens etableringsfrihet och fria rörlighet för kapital. Oklarheterna uppstår på grund av att det inte är tydligt vad som anses hindrande mot en EU-frihet och hur detta bedöms. Det har anförts att hinder anses föreligga om en medlemsstats nationella regler negativt särbehandlar en gränsöverskridande situation om denne belastas med en större skattebörda än vad motsvarande inhemska situation utsätts för. Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen har på grund av ett överklagat förhandsbesked från Skatterättsnämnden begärt förhandsavgörande från EU-domstolen i just denna fråga. Domstolen har att avgöra om den svenska regeln anses hindrande och om så är fallet, bedöma om regelns tillämpning trots detta kan motiveras genom en rättfärdigandeprövning.

    I skrivande stund har förhandsavgörandet inte meddelats än varför uppsatsen ämnar till att utreda hur utfallet torde bli. Analysen i uppsatsen leder fram till att målet torde pröva den svenska regelns stridighet mot etableringsfriheten och att det, på grund av dess negativa särbehandling av utländska situationer i relation till behandlingen av motsvarande inhemska situationer, strider mot friheten. En rättfärdigandeprövning med hänvisning till upprätthållandet av skattesystemets inre sammanhang leder dock fram till att regelns tillämpning torde kunna motiveras då den avser att undanröja kedjebeskattning och upprätthålla beskattningssymmetri.

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