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  • 1.
    Abbas, Päivi Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Stockholms stad.
    Kommunala riktlinjer för anhöriganställningar: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys med feministisk teoriansats2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet var att undersöka kommunala riktlinjer för anhöriganställningar tillgängliga på kommunernas hemsidor, dvs regeldokument gällande situationer där en anhörig anställs för att vårda en närstående. Det övergripande syftet har byggts upp utifrån följande tre frågeställningar angående hur kommunerna i Sverige beskriver: 1) vilka situationer som berättigar anhöriganställning, 2) hur det säkerställs att den äldre personen skall få sina behov tillgodosedda samt 3) hur säkerställs den anhöriganställdes rättigheter/välmående?

    Det saknas lagstöd för anhöriganställningar som rättighet, och det kommunala självstyret avgör om kommunen erbjuder denna omsorgsform. På senare tid har anhöriganställningar begränsats och förbjudits i flera svenska kommuner, och enligt uppgifter är det cirka 55–65 % av Sveriges kommuner som tillåter anhöriganställningar. Det är mestadels kvinnor med utländsk bakgrund som är anhöriganställda numera, och feministisk omsorgsforskning och media lyfter fram anhöriganställningar som en kvinnofälla och som en risk för integration av invandrare.

    I studien inkluderas riktlinjer från totalt 21 kommuner, vilka analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys enligt Elo & Kyngäs (2007). De undersökta riktlinjerna hittades från hemsidorna för Sveriges 121 medelstora och stora kommuner (mer än 20 000 invånare). Resultatet har bearbetats med hjälp av feministisk teori (Hirdman 2012).

    Resultatet visar att det överlag finns få riktlinjer tillgängliga i Sveriges kommuner och att regelverken skiljer sig åt i de olika kommunerna.  I de riktlinjer som finns är ofta innehållet allmänna eller oklara beskrivningar. En slutsats är därför att många kommuner säkerställer sitt eget handlingsutrymme och ett tolkningsföreträde genom otydliga och allmänt hållna regler i sina riktlinjer. Utifrån ett feministiskt perspektiv kan dessa tolkningsföreträden skapa orättvisa strukturer och skillnader i förutsättningar och villkor för de äldre och för deras anhörigvårdare avseende anhöriganställningar. Slutligen visar resultatet på att de få detaljerade beskrivningarna prioriterar de äldres rättigheter framför de anhöriganställdas. Säkerställandet av de anhöriganställdas rättigheter beskrivs huvudsakligen att ske genom att kontrollera och styra de anhöriganställda. De anhöriganställda är ofta osynliga i riktlinjerna, betraktas som pseudoanställda och hamnar därför mellan stolarna vad gäller stödbehovet (Sand 2010).

  • 2.
    Abellan, Antonio
    et al.
    Centre for Human and Social Sciences, Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain.
    Perez, Julio
    Centre for Human and Social Sciences, Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain.
    Pujol, Rogelio
    Centre for Human and Social Sciences, Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd).
    Jegermalm, Magnus
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Partner care, gender equality, and ageing in Spain and Sweden2017Inngår i: International Journal of Ageing and Later Life, ISSN 1652-8670, E-ISSN 1652-8670, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 69-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We used national surveys to study how older persons’ changing household patterns influence the gender balance of caregiving in two countries with distinct household structures and cultures, Spain and Sweden. In both countries, men and women provide care equally often for their partner in couple-only households. This has become the most common household type among older persons in Spain and prevails altogether in Sweden. This challenges the traditional dominance of young or middle-aged women as primary caregivers in Spain. In Sweden, many caregivers are old themselves. We focus attention to partners as caregivers and the consequences of changing household structures for caregiving, which may be on the way to gender equality in both countries, with implications for families and for the public services.

  • 3. Abellán, Antonio
    et al.
    Ayala, Alba
    Pérez, Julio
    Pujol, Rogelio
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Ramos, María
    The new carers2018Inngår i: Ageing and care: How will we live and care for ourselves when we get old?, Palma: Observatorio Sociale de "la caxia" , 2018, s. 25-31Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Usually it is women who take care of family members in the home, but with age, gender differences become less pronounced and, from 80 years onwards, there are more men caring for a family member – generally their partner – than women. Social and demographic changes are presenting new challenges for public services. In particular, in two-person households with elderly inhabitants, one of whom is dependent, it is necessary to tackle not only the needs of the dependent partner but also those of the carer partner. For this reason, carer support programmes are needed.

  • 4.
    Agahi, Neda
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kelfve, Susanne
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alcohol consumption in very old age and its association with survival: a matter of health and physical function2016Inngår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 159, s. 240-245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Alcohol consumption in very old age is increasing; yet, little is known about the personal and health-related characteristics associated with different levels of alcohol consumption and the association between alcohol consumption and survival among the oldest old.

    Methods

    Nationally representative data from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD, ages 76-101; n = 863) collected in 2010/2011 were used. Mortality was analyzed until 2014. Alcohol consumption was measured with questions about frequency and amount. Drinks per month were calculated and categorized as abstainer, light-to-moderate drinker (0.5–30 drinks/month) and heavy drinker (>30 drinks/month). Multinomial logistic regressions and Laplace regressions were performed.

    Results

    Compared to light-to-moderate drinkers, abstainers had lower levels of education and more functional health problems, while heavy drinkers were more often men, had higher levels of education, and no serious health or functional problems. In models adjusted only for age and sex, abstainers died earlier than drinkers. Among light-to-moderate drinkers, each additional drink/month was associated with longer survival, while among heavy drinkers, each additional drink/month was associated with shorter survival. However, after adjusting for personal and health-related factors, estimates were lower and no longer statistically significant.

    Conclusions

    The association between alcohol consumption and survival in very old age seems to have an inverse J-shape; abstention and heavy use is associated with shorter survival compared to light-to-moderate drinking. To a large extent, differences in survival are due to differences in baseline health and physical function.

    Graphical abstract

  • 5.
    Agahi, Neda
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Shaw, Benjamin A.
    School of Public Health, University at Albany, Rensselaer, NY, USA.
    Trajectories of social activities from middle age to old age and late-life disability: a 36-year follow-up2013Inngår i: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 790-793Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: to examine the association between 34-year trajectories of social activity, from middle age to old age and late-life disability.

    METHODS: data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Swedish Panel Study of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD) were used. LNU data from 1968, 1981, 1991 and 2000 were merged with SWEOLD data from 1992, 2002 and 2004 to create a longitudinal data set with five observation periods. Trajectories of social activities covered 1968-2002, and late-life disability was measured in 2004. The sample consisted of 729 individuals aged 33-61 at baseline (1968), who participated in at least four observation periods and who were free from mobility limitations at baseline. Four trajectories of social activity were identified and used as predictors of late-life disability.

    RESULTS: reporting low/medium levels of social activity from mid-life to old age was the most common trajectory group. Persons reporting continuously low/medium or decreasing levels of social activity had higher odds ratios for late-life disability (OR = 2.33 and OR = 2.15, respectively) compared with those having continuously high levels of activity, even when adjusting for age, sex and mobility limitations, and excluding persons with baseline mobility limitations.

    CONCLUSIONS: results suggest that the disability risk associated with social activities is related to recent levels of activity, but also that risk may accumulate over time, as indicated by the higher disability risk associated with the continuously low/medium level social activity trajectory.

  • 6.
    Almborg, Ann-Helene
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Perceived Participation in Discharge Planning and Health Related Quality of Life after Stroke2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the patients’ and their relatives’ perceived participation in discharge planning after stroke and the patients’ health-related quality of life, depressive symptoms, performance of personal daily activities and social activities in connection with discharge. Another aim was to evaluate the psychometric assumptions of the SF-36 for Swedish stroke patients.

    Prospective, descriptive and cross-sectional designs were used to study all patients with stroke admitted to the stroke unit at a hospital in southern Sweden from October 1, 2003 to November 30, 2005 each with one close relative. The total sample consisted of 188 patients (mean age=74.0 years) and 152 relatives (mean age=60.1 years). Data were collected during interviews, 2-3 weeks after discharge.

    The results showed that less depressive symptoms, more outdoor activities and performance of interests are important variables that related to higher HRQoL. SF-36 functions well as a measure of health related quality of life in Swedish stroke patients, but the two summary scales have shortcomings. Compared to a Swedish normal population, scores on all scales/components of the SF-36 were lower among stroke patients especially in the middle-aged group. Most of the patients perceived that they received information, but fewer perceived participation in the planning of medical treatment and needs of care/service/rehabilitation and goal setting. The relatives perceived that they need more information and they perceived low participation in goal setting and needs assessment. The professionals seem to lack effective practices for involving patients and their relatives to perceive participation in discharge planning. It is essential to develop and to implement methods for discharge planning, including sharing information, needs assessment with goal setting that facilitate patients’ and relatives’ perceived participation. The results suggest that ICF can be used in goal setting and needs assessment in discharge planning after acute stroke.

  • 7.
    Almborg, Ann-Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Ulander, Kerstin
    Thulin, Anders
    Berg, Stig
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi.
    Discharged after stroke - important factors for health-related quality of life.2010Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 19, nr 15-16, s. 2196-2206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: This study examines different correlates to health-related quality (HRQoL) of life after discharge in patients with stroke.

    BACKGROUND: HRQoL is an important aspect of life after suffering a stroke. Previous research has revealed several variables associated with poststroke quality of life, including age, gender, depression, fatigue, length of hospital stay, functional status and amount of social participation. However, the time span after stroke varies greatly in the different studies. Although the multiple factors that contribute to short-term postdischarge HRQoL have potential importance for discharge planning, to our knowledge, these factors have not been systematically investigated during the earlier days following discharge.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

    METHODS: The sample consisted of 188 consecutively included individuals (mean age 74 years, 56% men) from a stroke unit in southern Sweden. The interviews were performed two to three weeks after discharge and included use of the SF-36, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Barthel Index, the Frenchay Activities Index, performance of interests and survey of patients' perceived participation in discharge planning. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify variables associated with HRQoL.

    RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses with the eight scales of SF-36 as dependent variables revealed eight models, one for each scale, which were statistically significant. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower HRQoL. Ability to perform personal and social activities, interests, younger age, education (elementary school) and shorter hospital stay were related to higher HRQoL. Patients' perceived participation in discharge planning was both positively and negatively associated with HRQoL.

    CONCLUSIONS: Several variables were related to good HRQoL two to three weeks post-discharge, particularly fewer depressive symptoms, participation in social activities such as outdoor activities and performance of interests.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: These results can be used to design needs assessment forms of discharge planning to promote adaptation and recovery after stroke.

  • 8. Andel, Ross
    et al.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi.
    The role of midlife ocupational complexity and leisure time activity in cognitive performance later in life.2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Andel, Ross
    et al.
    School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.
    Silverstein, Merril
    Sociology Department and School of Social Work, Aging Studies Institute, Syracuse University, New York.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi.
    The role of midlife occupational complexity and leisure activity in late-life cognition2015Inngår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 70, nr 2, s. 314-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To examine whether occupational complexity of working with data or people, and cognitive or social leisure activity at midlife predicted cognition in advanced old age.

    METHODS:

    We used 810 eligible participants from Longitudinal Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old, a Swedish nationally representative study of individuals aged 77+ with cognitive assessments (an abridged version of the Mini-Mental State Exam) administered in 1992 and 2002 and linked to information about their midlife occupation and leisure activities collected in 1968 and 1981. A bootstrapping technique was applied to examine the direct and interactive associations of occupational complexity and leisure activity with late-life cognition.

    RESULTS:

    Controlling for demographic and health-related factors from childhood, midlife, and late life, we found that greater work complexity, both with people and with data, and greater participation in cognitive or social leisure activities independently related to better late-life cognitive scores. The complexity-cognition link was moderated by leisure activity such that the cognitive benefit related to the complexity of work-especially complexity of working with people-was rendered insignificant when participation in leisure activities-especially social activities-was above average.

    DISCUSSION:

    Results are discussed in terms of using work complexity to compensate for lack of leisure activity as well as in terms of promoting leisure engagement to compensate for long-term cognitive disadvantage imposed by working in less challenging occupations.

  • 10.
    Ayalon, Liat
    et al.
    Louis and Gabi Weisfeld School of Social Work, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.
    Dolberg, Pnina
    Ruppin Academic Center, Emek Hefer, Israel.
    Mikulionienė, Sarmitė
    Institute of Sociology, Lithuanian Social Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Perek-Białas, Jolanta
    Institute of Sociology and Center of Evaluation and Public Policy Analysis, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Cracow, Poland.
    Rapolienė, Gražina
    Institute of Sociology, Lithuanian Social Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Stypinska, Justyna
    Free University Berlin, Institute for East European Studies, Department of Sociology, Berlin, Germany.
    Wilińska, Monika
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    de la Fuente-Núñez, Vânia
    Department on Ageing and Life Course, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    A systematic review of existing ageism scales2019Inngår i: Ageing Research Reviews, ISSN 1568-1637, E-ISSN 1872-9649, Vol. 54, artikkel-id 100919Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageism has been shown to have a negative impact on older people's health and wellbeing. Though multiple scales are currently being used to measure this increasingly important issue, syntheses of the psychometric properties of these scales are unavailable. This means that existing estimates of ageism prevalence may not be accurate. We conducted a systematic review aimed at identifying available ageism scales and evaluating their scope and psychometric properties. A comprehensive search strategy was used across fourteen different databases, including PubMed and CINAHL. Independent reviewers extracted data and appraised risk of bias following the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines. Of the 29,664 records identified, 106 studies, assessing 11 explicit scales of ageism, were eligible for inclusion. Only one scale, the 'Expectations Regarding Aging' met minimum requirements for psychometric validation (i.e., adequate content validity, structural validity and internal consistency). Still, this scale only assesses the 'stereotype' dimension of ageism, thus failing to evaluate the other two ageism dimensions (prejudice and discrimination). This paper highlights the need to develop and validate a scale that accounts for the multidimensional nature of ageism. Having a scale that can accurately measure ageism prevalence is key in a time of increasing and rapid population ageing, where the magnitude of this phenomenon may be increasing.

  • 11.
    Bannon, Brittany L.
    et al.
    Univ Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Univ Calif Riverside, USA.
    Illness behaviors mediate the link between social support and functional decline in the Swedish Adoption Twin Study of Aging2018Inngår i: Annals of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 0883-6612, E-ISSN 1532-4796, Vol. 52, nr Suppl. 1, s. S314-S314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12. Baumann, I.
    et al.
    Sif Eyjólfsdóttir, H.
    Fritzell, J.
    Lennartsson, C.
    Darin-Mattsson, A.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Andel, R.
    Dratva, J.
    Agahi, N.
    Retirement age and cognitive functioning in old age: the role of stimulating occupational activities. The role of occupational activity in explaining the association between retirement timing and cognitive functioning in old age2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13. Baumann, I.
    et al.
    Sif Eyjólfsdóttir, H.
    Fritzell, J.
    Lennartsson, C.
    Darin-Mattsson, A.
    Nilsen, C.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Andel, R.
    Dratva, J.
    Agahi, N.
    Retirement age and cognitive functioning in old age: the role of stimulating occupational activities2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Bengnér, Malin
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Béziat, Vivien
    Department of Medicine, Center for Infectious Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Bengt-Olof
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Sture
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Wikby, Anders
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Malmberg, Karl Johan
    Department of Medicine, Center for Infectious Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strindhall, Jan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Biomedicinsk plattform.
    Independent skewing of the T cell and NK cell compartments associated with cytomegalovirus infection suggests division of labor between innate and adaptive immunity.2014Inngår i: Age (Omaha), ISSN 0161-9152, E-ISSN 1574-4647, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 571-582Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection induces profound changes in different subsets of the cellular immune system. We have previously identified an immune risk profile (IRP) where CMV-associated changes in the T cell compartment, defined as a CD4/CD8 ratio < 1, are associated with increased mortality in elderly people. Since natural killer (NK) cells have an important role in the defense against viral infections, we examined whether the expansion of CD8 + T cells seen in individuals with CD4/CD8 ratio < 1 is coupled to a parallel skewing of the NK cell compartment. A number of 151 subjects were examined with CMV serology and a flow cytometry panel for assessment of T cell and NK cell subsets. CMV-seropositive individuals had higher frequencies of CD57 + and NKG2C + NK cells and lower frequencies of NKG2A + NK cells, in line with a more differentiated NK cell compartment. Intriguingly, however, there was no correlation between CD4/CD8 ratio and NK cell repertoires among CMV-seropositive donors, despite the profound skewing of the T cell compartment in the group with CD4/CD8 ratio < 1. Conversely, donors with profound expansion of NK cells, defined as NKG2C + NK cells with high expression of CD57 and ILT-2, did not display more common changes in their T cell repertoire, suggesting that NK cell expansion is independent of the T cell-defined IRP. Altogether, these results indicate that the effect of CMV on CD8 T cells and NK cells is largely nonoverlapping and independent.

  • 15.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Growth through education: the narratives of older adults2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Sociology, ISSN 2297-7775, Vol. 4, artikkel-id 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of Narrative Gerontology is placed on stories about the aging process. In the present paper, the learning of older adults in a Senior University context is captured by means of stories written by the participants themselves. The examination of older adults' stories, as they look back on life or any narrative that connected to a specific area of life, can contribute to our understanding of growth later in life. The aim of the study is to examine how growth manifests itself later in life. Participants at Senior University were asked to share their experiences of education later in life. Participation was voluntary and the identity of each participant was kept anonymous for the purpose of the research project. Fifty-three stories written by Senior University participants (n = 38 women and 15 men) were analyzed according to: (i) an inductive analysis of the stories that resulted in a description of the main topics addressed in the stories, and (ii) a deductive analysis that invoked a theoretical framework concerning the existential aspects of older adults' learning, including “corporeality,” “relationality,” “spatiality,” “temporality,” and “materiality.” The two analyses were compared, and it was noted that “relationality” and “spatiality” corresponded to the educational experiences in the stories. “Relationality” was observed to be concerned with the social dimensions of life; but in the context of Senior University, “relationality” was strongly intertwined with the learning process. “Spatiality” addressed how older adults relate to physical- and mental space. Participation at Senior University entailed an expansion of both physical- and mental space for the participants. A number of tensions were identified in the stories. One the one hand, the stories can be interpreted as illustrations of moving forward and embracing continued growth and development. On the other hand, the stories can be interpreted as illustrations of resistance toward aging and decline. Since life is complex and contradictory, multiple, and even contradictory plots, co-exist in life stories.

  • 16.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Björklund, Anita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Sternäng, Ola
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change (SCOHOS).
    Education level explains participation in work and education later in life2017Inngår i: Educational gerontology, ISSN 0360-1277, E-ISSN 1521-0472, Vol. 43, nr 10, s. 511-521Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A prolonged working life is crucial for sustaining social welfare and fiscal stability for countries facing ageing populations. The group of older adults is not homogeneous; however, differences within the group may affect the propensity to continue working and to participate in continuing education. The aim of this paper is to explore how participation in work and education vary with gender, age, and education level in a sample of older adults. The study was performed in Sweden, a context characterized by high female labour-market-participation rates and a high average retirement age. The participants were 232 members of four of the major senior citizens? organizations. We found no differences in participation in work and education based on gender. People older than 75 years were found to be as active as people 65?75 years old in education, but the older group worked less. There were positive associations between education level and participation in both work and education. Hence, this study implies that socio-economic inequalities along these dimensions are widened later in life. This highlights the importance of engaging workers with lower education levels in educational efforts throughout life. It also emphasizes the need for true lifelong learning in society.

  • 17.
    Björklund Carlstedt, Anita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Bridge employment - ett fortsatt arbetsliv2018Inngår i: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, nr 2, s. 44-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora
    et al.
    Region Zealand.
    Wilinska, MonikaHögskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd). Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).Mosberg Iversen, SaraUniversity of Southern Denmark.
    Special issue: Growing old with and via media. MedieKultur: Journal of media and communication research, 33(63)2017Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Blane, A.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, H. C.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, M.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Parsons, R.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    The cognitive and socio-demographic influences on driving performance and driving cessation in post-stroke drivers2016Inngår i: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, nr 38, s. 75-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Driving is a complex activity requiring highly integrated cognitive and perceptual functions that can be negatively affected following a stroke. The decision to continue or cease with driving after a stroke may not be exclusively dependent on deficits in cognitive and motor abilities. Instead, it is possible that social supports, alternative means of transportation, education level, income, self-regulation ability and the awareness of personal health problems may also influence the decision.

    Aim: The aim of this research was to explore the influence of personal and socioeconomic factors, in addition to existing cognitive impairment, on the decision of post-stroke adults to return to driving.

    Method: A case control design was employed to compare driving performance of 48 individuals who had experienced a stroke and 22 volunteer healthy control participants. Half of the post-stroke cohort (N=24) had continued driving and the other half had ceased driving. Socio-demographic and driving-related cognitive performance data were collected to characterise the comparison groups before driving performance was assessed in a driving simulator.

    Results: Overall, the post-stroke groups did not perform as well as the control participants in the cognitive and driving assessments. The perceived ability to drive after a stroke was not significantly correlated with participants'€™ actual driving ability. Post-stroke adults were more likely to continue driving if they reported having a tertiary level education and a greater income.

    Conclusion: The decision to return to driving after a stroke is a complicated, multifactorial process. This study confirms previous research, which found that cognition and driving performance are impaired poststroke. The findings also suggest that post-stroke drivers'€™ decision to return to driving was not linked to their ability to drive, but more to socio-demographic and environmental factors. Further screening tools and assessments to identify those at risk when returning to the road post-stroke are required. 

  • 20.
    Blane, Alison
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Willstrand, Tania Dukic
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Human Factors, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Assessing Cognitive Ability and Simulator-Based Driving Performance in Poststroke Adults2017Inngår i: Behavioural Neurology, ISSN 0953-4180, E-ISSN 1875-8584, artikkel-id 1378308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is an important activity of daily living, which is increasingly relied upon as the population ages. It has been well-established that cognitive processes decline following a stroke and these processes may influence driving performance. There is much debate on the use of off-road neurological assessments and driving simulators as tools to predict driving performance; however, the majority of research uses unlicensed poststroke drivers, making the comparability of poststroke adults to that of a control group difficult. It stands to reason that in order to determine whether simulators and cognitive assessments can accurately assess driving performance, the baseline should be set by licenced drivers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess differences in cognitive ability and driving simulator performance in licensed community-dwelling poststroke drivers and controls. Two groups of licensed drivers (37 poststroke and 43 controls) were assessed using several cognitive tasks and using a driving simulator. The poststroke adults exhibited poorer cognitive ability; however, there were no differences in simulator performance between groups except that the poststroke drivers demonstrated less variability in driver headway. The application of these results as a prescreening toolbox for poststroke drivers is discussed.

  • 21.
    Bogl, Leonie H.
    et al.
    Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Finland and University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Finland and University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Does the sex of one’s co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood?: A study of dizygotic adult twins from 31 cohorts2017Inngår i: Biology of Sex Differences, ISSN 2042-6410, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikkel-id 14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of being overweight or obese between men and women from OS and SS dizygotic twin pairs.

    Methods: The data were derived from COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) database, and included 68,494 SS and 53,808 OS dizygotic twin individuals above the age of 20 years from 31 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. Zygosity was determined by questionnaires or DNA genotyping depending on the study. Multiple regression and logistic regression models adjusted for cohort, age and birth year with the twin type as a predictor were carried out to compare height and BMI in twins from OS pairs with those from SS pairs and to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for being overweight or obese.

    Results: OS females were, on average, 0.31 cm (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20, 0.41) taller than SS females. OS males were also, on average, taller than SS males, but this difference was only 0.14 cm (95% CI: 0.02, 0.27). Mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight or obesity did not differ between males and females from SS and OS twin pairs. The statistically significant differences between OS and SS twins for height were small and appeared to reflect our large sample size rather than meaningful differences of public health relevance.

    Conclusions: We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prenatal hormonal exposure or postnatal socialization (i.e., having grown up with a twin of the opposite sex) has a major impact on height and BMI in adulthood.

  • 22.
    Bokenberger, Kathleen
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Gatz, Margaret
    University of Southern California.
    Dahl, Anna
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi.
    The Type A behavior pattern and cardiovascular disease as predictors of dementia2014Inngår i: Health Psychology, ISSN 0278-6133, E-ISSN 1930-7810, Vol. 33, nr 12, s. 1593-1601Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Research has suggested that greater psychophysiological reactivity to stress increases risk of dementia and that those with the Type A behavior pattern (TABP) are predisposed to elevated stress reactivity and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but no study has evaluated the associations among TABP, CVD, and dementia, prospectively. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate dementia risk in relation to TABP and CVD.

    Methods: A population-based cohort of 1,069 persons with a baseline mean age of 64.81 years from the Swedish Twin Registry was followed consecutively for up to 23 years. Based on self-reported items, TABP was measured using 6 scales: Ambition, Stress, Hard-driving, Neuroticism, Cynicism, and Paranoia. CVD was self-reported and dementia was diagnosed adhering to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised (DSM-III-R) or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria.

    Results: TABP was generally not associated with dementia risk. However, significant interaction effects of stress, paranoia, and cynicism with CVD on dementia risk were observed. That is, for those with CVD, high scores on stress, paranoia, and cynicism were associated with increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95-2.15; HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.83-2.33; HR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.76-2.06, respectively), whereas for those who did not have CVD, high scores on these measures appeared to be protective (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.50-1.14; HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.34-0.89; HR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29-0.84, respectively).

    Conclusion: Some features of TABP confer an increased risk for dementia in those with CVD, whereas those without CVD are protected. When evaluating the risk of dementia, CVD and personality traits should be taken into consideration.

  • 23.
    Bokenberger, Kathleen
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ström, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Aslan, Anna K. Dahl
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, Anna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The effect of shift work on cognitive aging across the late adult life course2015Inngår i: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 55, artikkel-id 360Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24.
    Bokenberger, Kathleen
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ström, Peter
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anna L. V.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gatz, Margaret
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Association between sleep characteristics and incident dementia accounting for baseline cognitive status: A prospective population-based study2017Inngår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 72, nr 1, s. 134-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While research has shown that sleep disorders are prevalent among people with dementia, the temporal relationship is unclear. We investigated whether atypical sleep characteristics were associated with incident dementia while accounting for baseline cognitive functioning.

    Methods: Screening Across the Lifespan Twin Study (SALT) participants were 11,247 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry who were at least 65 years at baseline (1998-2002). Sleep and baseline cognitive functioning were assessed via the SALT telephone screening interview. Data on dementia diagnoses came from national health registers. Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for dementia.

    Results: After 17 years of follow-up, 1,850 dementia cases were identified. Short (≤ 6 hours) and extended (> 9 hours) time-in-bed (TIB) compared to the middle reference group (HR=1.40, 95% CI=1.06-1.85, HR=1.11, 95% CI=1.00-1.24, respectively) and rising at 8:00AM or later compared to earlier rising (HR=1.12, 95% CI=1.01-1.24) were associated with higher dementia incidence. Bedtime, sleep quality, restorative sleep, and heavy snoring were not significant predictors. Findings stratified by baseline cognitive status indicated that the association between short TIB and dementia remained in those cognitively intact at the start.

    Conclusions: Short and extended TIB as well as delayed rising among older adults predicted increased dementia incidence in the following 17 years. The pattern of findings suggests that extended TIB and late rising represent prodromal features whereas short TIB appeared to be a risk factor for dementia.

  • 25.
    Bokenberger, Kathleen
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ström, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden and Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden and University of Southern California, USA.
    Shift work and cognitive aging: A longitudinal study2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 43, nr 5, s. 485-493Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The few studies of shift work and late life cognitive functioning have yielded mixed findings. The aim of the present study is to estimate the association between shift-work experience and change in cognitive performance before and after retirement age among older adults who were gainfully employed.

    Methods Five hundred and ninety five participants with no dementia were followed up for a mean of 17.6 standard deviation (SD) 8.8 years from a Swedish population-based sample. Participants had self-reported information on any type of shift-work experience (ever/never) in 1984 and measures of cognitive performance (verbal, spatial, memory, processing speed, and general cognitive ability) from up to 9 waves of cognitive assessments during 1986–2012. Night work history (ever/never) from 1998–2002 was available from a subsample (N=320). Early adult cognitive test scores were available for 77 men.

    Results In latent growth curve modeling, there were no main effects of "any-type" or night shift work on the mean scores or rate of change in any of the cognitive domains. An interaction effect between any-type shift work and education on cognitive performance at retirement was noted. Lower-educated shift workers performed better on cognitive tests than lower-educated day workers at retirement. Sensitivity analyses, however, indicated that the interactions appeared to be driven by selection effects. Lower-educated day workers demonstrated poorer cognitive ability in early adulthood than lower-educated shift workers, who may have selected jobs entailing higher cognitive demand.

    Conclusion There was no difference in late-life cognitive aging between individuals with a history of working shifts compared to those who had typical day work schedules during midlife.

  • 26.
    Boström, Martina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Trygghet - på vems villkor? Uppfattningar om och erfarenheter av trygghet hos äldre personer med behov av omsorg2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med avhandlingen var att bidra till ökad förståelse av hur äldre personer med skiftande omsorgsbehov uppfattade och erfor trygghet, i ordinärt och särskilt boende.

    Avhandlingens två första studier baserades på material från fokusgruppintervjuer med totalt 45 äldre personer boende i seniorboende. Intervjuerna analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys (I, II). Den tredje studien bestod av en sekundäranalys av en brukarenkät till 350 äldre personer i ordinärt boende med hemtjänst och 145 äldre personer i särskilt boende. Materialet bearbetades med deskriptiv och analytisk statistik (III). I den fjärde studien följdes tre äldre personer, genom djupintervjuer och observationer under 12-16 veckor, vid flytt till särskilt boende och den första tiden på särskilt boende. Även detta material analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys (IV).

    Avhandlingens resultat visar bland annat att de trygghetslarm som de äldre hade erfarenhet av uppfattades som begränsande då larmets korta räckvidd gav orsak till minskad frihet, otrygghet, oro och rädsla (I). Övervakningsteknik, där den äldres person och position övervakas i större omfattning, ansågs inte som något problem att använda när omsorgsinsatserna ökade, så länge detta medförde ökad trygghet (II). Upplevd hälsa, relationstrygghet samt kunskap och kontroll var faktorer som var positivt relaterade till hur äldre personer med äldreomsorg uppfattade och erfor trygghet i vardagen, både i ordinärt och i särskilt boende (III). Flytt till särskilt boende som innebar att stegvis överlämna sitt livoch sin kontroll till omsorgspersonalen, ledde till en känsla av ökad säkerhet för de äldre personerna men inte nödvändigtvis till känsla av trygghet (IV).

    Resultatet tolkades i förhållande till Antonovskys salutogena teori där de tre koncepten meningsfullhet, hanterbarhet och begriplighet, tillsammans utgör grunden för känsla av sammanhang (KASAM).

    Sammanfattningsvis uppfattade och erfor äldre personer trygghet som så meningsfull att de kunde tänka sig att ge avkall på en del av sin frihet, integritet, självständighet och självbevarande för att uppnå den. De äldre personerna beskrev att resurser som personal och trygghetslarm stärkte tryggheten, men att hanterbarheten av dessa resurser kan stärkas ytterligare, i både ordinärt boende och särskilt boende. Resultaten visaratt äldre personers begriplighet av vardagen relaterar positivt till uppfattningar och erfarenheter av trygghet. Äldre personer saknar dock begriplighet avseende exempelvis trygghetslarm och nya rutiner, vilket får negativ inverkan på deras trygghet. Äldre personer bör ges större utrymme att själva beskriva trygghet utifrån sina unika villkor. För att stärka trygghet på äldre personers villkor, oavsett deras omsorgsbehov, bör således hanterbarheten, men framförallt begripligheten, stärkas.

  • 27.
    Bouillon, Kim
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Hamer, Mark
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Sabia, Severine
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Gale, Catharine R.
    MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Batty, G. David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Measures of frailty in population-based studies: An overview2013Inngår i: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 13, nr 64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although research productivity in the field of frailty has risen exponentially in recent years, there remains a lack of consensus regarding the measurement of this syndrome. This overview offers three services: first, we provide a comprehensive catalogue of current frailty measures; second, we evaluate their reliability and validity; third, we report on their popularity of use.

    Methods: In order to identify relevant publications, we searched MEDLINE (from its inception in 1948 to May 2011); scrutinized the reference sections of the retrieved articles; and consulted our own files. An indicator of the frequency of use of each frailty instrument was based on the number of times it had been utilized by investigators other than the originators.

    Results: Of the initially retrieved 2,166 papers, 27 original articles described separate frailty scales. The number (range: 1 to 38) and type of items (range of domains: physical functioning, disability, disease, sensory impairment, cognition, nutrition, mood, and social support) included in the frailty instruments varied widely. Reliability and validity had been examined in only 26% (7/27) of the instruments. The predictive validity of these scales for mortality varied: for instance, hazard ratios/odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for mortality risk for frail relative to non-frail people ranged from 1.21 (0.78; 1.87) to 6.03 (3.00; 12.08) for the Phenotype of Frailty and 1.57 (1.41; 1.74) to 10.53 (7.06; 15.70) for the Frailty Index. Among the 150 papers which we found to have used at least one of the 27 frailty instruments, 69% (n = 104) reported on the Phenotype of Frailty, 12% (n = 18) on the Frailty Index, and 19% (n = 28) on one of the remaining 25 instruments.

    Conclusions: Although there are numerous frailty scales currently in use, reliability and validity have rarely been examined. The most evaluated and frequently used measure is the Phenotype of Frailty.

  • 28.
    Brink, Satya
    Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
    Elder care: the nexus for family, work and health policy2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Brink, Satya
    Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    International policy trends in housing the elderly in developed countries1990Inngår i: Ageing International, ISSN 0163-5158, E-ISSN 1936-606X, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 13-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of elderly persons in the population is rising in the developed countries. Housing and related social policies are undergoing change to respond to this socio-demographic change within the context of wider changes in policy thinking with respect to housing and aging. International trends in housing policy for elderly people may be discerned despite national variations. The governments of developed countries are beginning to be more engaged in multi-sectoral planning, in decentralization of responsibilities for housing, health and support services and in cost-sharing arrangements for housing and related policies. The quality of life for elderly persons has benefitted through increased opportunities for aging in place in their own homes and through better designed residential facilities. The nineties have been called"the age of age." The aging of the population presents immense challenges to the way human settlements are designed and organized. The responses to the challenge will be determined, nevertheless, more by societal choices than by socio-demographic changes. 

  • 30.
    Brink, Satya
    International Consultant in Education and Human Capital, Chelsea, Canada.
    Learning in later years in the lifelong learning trajectory2017Inngår i: Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, ISSN 1535-0770, E-ISSN 1535-0932, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 14-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An examination of learning in later life in the context of lifelong learning shows that it is a phase on its own and not simply an extension of adult learning, particularly in the 21st century. It exhibits characteristics unlike earlier phases and has benefits that are more aligned with later life. The changes to the growing share of this demographic in the population has implications for the provision of learning opportunities. The life stage changes that are evolving are shown compared to previous generations. The needs and benefits of late life learning are described in contrast to adult learning and the adaptations for successful lifelong learning are listed based on life span theories and current research. 

  • 31.
    Brink, Satya
    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Government of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, and Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Social equity or distributive justice? The reliance on mainstream and targeted housing policies to serve the elderly in Canada, the United States, Sweden and France1989Inngår i: Scandinavian Housing and Planning Research, ISSN 0281-5737, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 103-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the application of the principles of social equity and distributive justice in practice by governments under economic and demographic pressures. The housing policies that benefit the elderly are identified in Canada, the United States, Sweden and France and a policy analysis of the mainstream and targeted policies is carried out. The objectives of this paper are to observe the use of mainstream and targeted policies to house the elderly, to examine how elements benefiting the elderly are incorporated into mainstream policies and to identify the object! ves of targeted elements of policies benefiting the elderly. Governments tend to use mainstream policies and also to use various strategies for adding targeted elements to them. Targeted policies for the elderly are used sparingly. In practice, government actions for social equity and distributive justice are limited to ensuring access to a minimum level of welfare and reducing inequalities.

  • 32.
    Bülow, Pia H.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd).
    Bülow, Per
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Department of Psychiatry, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Wilińska, Monika
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Torgé, Cristina Joy
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Ernsth-Bravell, Marie
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Jegermalm, Magnus
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    The meaning of illness, times and spaces: Stories about severe mental illness from a life course perspective2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Chang, Milan
    et al.
    Faculty of Health Promotion, Sports and Leisure Studies, School of Education, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Geirsdottir, Olof G.
    The Icelandic Gerontological Research Institute, National University Hospital of Iceland & Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sigurdarsdottir, Sigurveig H.
    School of Social Science, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Ramel, Alfons
    The Icelandic Gerontological Research Institute, National University Hospital of Iceland & Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Associations between education and need for care among community dwelling older adults in Iceland2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Older adults in Iceland have good access to social services that support them in maintaining an independent life, although receiving informal care is common for community living older adults in Iceland. The aim of this study was to examine whether the need for care as well as receiving formal and informal care is associated with education among older adults in Iceland.

    METHODS: Among a national sample of 782 Icelandic community dwelling old adults (mean age 76.9 ± 7.4 years, 55% women), a telephone survey was conducted. The survey included questions on: socioeconomic status, social network, health status, activities of daily living and formal/informal care.

    RESULTS: A full data set was available for 720 subjects and among these, 349 (48.5%) had no need for care, 197 (27.4%) received informal care only, 31 (4.3%) received formal care only, and 143 (19.9%) received both type of care. Participants with higher education were significantly less likely to need care (OR 0.67, 95% CI, 0.47-0.97, p = 0.031) when compared with those who had primary education. Categorisation by age showed that this difference was only significant in participants younger than 80 years. Education was not related to formal care, but adults with higher education were less likely to receive informal care compared with older adults who had primary education (OR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.46, 0.93, p = 0.018).

    CONCLUSIONS: People with higher education were significantly less likely to need care and this association was mainly present among those aged below 80 years. Further, in participants that needed care, the likelihood of receiving informal care was lower in highly educated participants, but no differences in formal care were observed between educational levels.

  • 34.
    Dahl, Anna
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Kan man undvika demens genom en sund och aktiv livsstil?2008Inngår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 3, s. 22-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En vanlig föreställning om åldrandet är att de flesta äldre för eller senare blir glömska. Även om hög ålder är en av de största riskfaktorerna för sämre minnesfunktioner, så har merparten av den åldrande befolkningen väl fungerande minne och andra intellektuella funktioner. Faktum kvarstår dock att det finns stora individuella skillnader, en del äldre har mycket gott minne, medan andra inte minns namnen på sina barn eller ens att de har barn. Hur kommer det sig? Beror det på gener, livsstil, eller är det slumpen som avgör vem som drabbas av glömska på ålderns höst?

  • 35.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi.
    Hassing, Linda
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Obesity and cognitive aging2013Inngår i: Epidemiologic reviews, ISSN 0193-936X, E-ISSN 1478-6729, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 22-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is a health problem that has reached epidemic proportions. Given the high prevalence of obesity, even a small adverse impact of obesity on cognitive aging might have a serious effect on public health. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relation between obesity and cognitive function in late life among persons not diagnosed with dementia and to evaluate the evidence for a causal association. Medline was used to search for the following terms: obesity, overweight, cognition, cognitive, age, and aged. To be included, studies must have had a population-based, dementia-free sample and a 5-year minimum interval between measurement of the predictor and the outcome. Only 11 studies met the criteria. Of these, 7 studies assessed obesity in midlife and cognitive function in later life, and 4 studies assessed obesity and cognitive function in late life. The reviewed studies showed clear evidence that midlife obesity was associated with cognitive aging, whereas this association was weaker in late life; thus, no firm conclusions could be drawn. The findings of this review suggest that, although there is evidence for an association between midlife obesity and low cognitive abilities in late life, the direction of the association and the causality remain to be clarified.

  • 36.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Hassing, Linda
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Margaret, Gatz
    Reynolds, Chandra
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Body mass index across midlife and cognitive change in late life2013Inngår i: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 296-302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High midlife body mass index (BMI) has been linked to a greater risk of dementia in late life, but few have studied the effect of BMI across midlife on cognitive abilities and cognitive change in a dementia-free sample.

    Methods: We investigated the association between BMI, measured twice across midlife (mean age 40 and 61 years, respectively), and cognitive change in four domains across two decades in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging.

    Results: Latent growth curve models fitted to data from 657 non-demented participants showed that persons who were overweight/obese in early midlife had significantly lower cognitive performance across domains in late life and significantly steeper decline in perceptual speed, adjusting for cardio-metabolic factors. Both underweight and overweight/obesity in late midlife were associated with lower cognitive abilities in late life. However, the association between underweight and low cognitive abilities did not remain significant when weight decline between early and late midlife was controlled for.

    Conclusion: There is a negative effect on cognitive abilities later in life related to being overweight/obese across midlife. Moreover, weight decline across midlife rather than low weight in late midlife per se was associated with low cognitive abilities. Weight patterns across midlife may be prodromal markers of late life cognitive health.

  • 37.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Hassing, Linda
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Reynolds, Chandra
    Gatz, Margaret
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Body Mass Index across midlife and cognitive change in late life: delayed and cumulative effects2011Inngår i: 64th Annual Scientific Meeting of Gerontological Society of America, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Dahl, Anna K.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Starr, J. M.
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Allerhand, M.
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Deary, I. J.
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Acceptance of bodily appearance in young-old and old age - Prevalence and predictors2015Inngår i: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 55, s. 355-355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Starr, John M.
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.
    Pattie, Alison
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.
    Deary, Ian
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.
    Cognitive consequences of overweight and obesity in the ninth decade of life?2015Inngår i: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 59-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: the association between late-life obesity and late-life cognitive abilities is poorly understood. We studied the association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive change in longitudinal population-based study spanning over the ninth decade of life.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: in total, 475 participants free of dementia at baseline from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (mean age: 79.1 years, SD: 0.6) were included. Height and weight were assessed at baseline. BMI was calculated as kg/m(2). Cognitive abilities were assessed at age ∼11 years and at age ∼79, ∼83, ∼87 and ∼90 years.

    RESULTS: latent growth models showed that men being overweight and obese had a 0.65 (SD: 0.3) and 1.10 (SD: 0.5) points less steep decline in general cognitive ability (as measured by the Moray House Test) for each year than people of normal weight. These associations were to some extent confounded by childhood intelligence. No other association between BMI and cognition was significant, either for men or women. People who were obese in old age had significantly lower childhood intelligence (m = 43.6, SD: 1.3) than people who were normal in weight (m = 47.0, SD: 0.8) and persons being overweight (m = 47.5, SD: 0.8), F (472, 3) = 3.2, P = 0.043.

    CONCLUSIONS: the current study shows weak or no evidence for an association between BMI in old age and cognitive function, especially not when childhood intelligence is controlled for. Lower intelligence at the age of 11 years predicted obesity at the age of 79 years.

  • 40. Darin-Mattsson, A.
    et al.
    Andel, R.
    Keller-Celeste, R.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Linking financial hardship and psychological distress from childhood to old age: testing the sensitive period, chain of risks, and accumulation of risks hypotheses2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41. Darin-Mattsson, A.
    et al.
    Fors, S.
    Nilsen, C.
    Fritzell, J.
    Andel, R.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Occupational complexity in relation to late life physical functioning in Sweden2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Darin-Mattsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andel, Ross
    University of South Florida and International Clinical Research Center, Tampa, USA.
    Celeste, Roger Keller
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Odontologia, Department Preventive and Social Dentistry, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Linking financial hardship throughout the life-course with psychological distress in old age: Sensitive period, accumulation of risks, and chain of risks hypotheses.2018Inngår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Elsevier, Vol. 201, s. 111-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary objective was to investigate the life course hypotheses - sensitive period, chain of risks, and accumulation of risks - in relation to financial hardship and psychological distress in old age. We used two Swedish longitudinal surveys based on nationally representative samples. The first survey includes people 18-75 years old with multiple waves, the second survey is a longitudinal continuation, including people 76 + years old. The analytical sample included 2990 people at baseline. Financial hardship was assessed in childhood (retrospectively), at the mean ages of 54, 61, 70, and 81 years. Psychological distress (self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms) was assessed at the same ages. Path analysis with WLSMV estimation was used. There was a direct path from financial hardship in childhood to psychological distress at age 70 (0.26, p = 0.002). Financial hardship in childhood was associated with increased risk of psychological distress and financial hardship both at baseline (age 54), and later. Financial hardship, beyond childhood, was not independently associated with psychological distress at age 81. Higher levels of education and employment decreased the negative effects of financial hardship in childhood on the risk of psychological distress and financial hardship later on. There was a bi-directional relationship between psychological distress and financial hardship; support for health selection was slightly higher than for social causation. We found that psychological distress in old age was affected by financial hardship in childhood through a chain of risks that included psychological distress earlier in life. In addition, financial hardship in childhood seemed to directly affect psychological distress in old age, independent of other measured circumstances (i.e., chains of risks). Education and employment could decrease the effect of an adverse financial situation in childhood on later-life psychological distress. We did not find support for accumulation of risks when including tests of all hypotheses in the same model.

  • 43.
    Darin-Mattsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Andel, Ross
    School af Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA; International Clinical Research Center, St. Anne’s University Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Fors, Stefan
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Are Occupational Complexity and Socioeconomic Position Related to Psychological Distress 20 Years Later?2015Inngår i: Journal of Aging and Health, ISSN 0898-2643, E-ISSN 1552-6887, Vol. 27, nr 7, s. 1266-1285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess occupational complexity in midlife in relation to psychological distress in older adulthood (69+ years) and explore the role of socioeconomic position.

    Method: Baseline data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey and follow-up data from the Swedish Longitudinal Study ofLiving Conditions of the Oldest Old were combined, resulting in 20+ years of follow-up. Data were analyzed using ordered logistic regressions.

    Results: Higher occupational complexity was associated with less psychological distress 20 years later adjusted for age, sex, follow-up year, hours worked the year before baseline, and psychological distress at baseline. Higher socioeconomic position yielded the same pattern of results. Socioeconomic position partially accounted for the association between occupational complexity and psychological distress.

    Discussion: With social gradient not easily amenable to modification, efforts to increase engagement at work may offer a viable option to attenuate the influence of work environment on psychological distress later in life.

  • 44.
    Darin-Mattsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Aging Research Centre (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fors, Stefan
    Aging Research Centre (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Aging Research Centre (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Different indicators of socioeconomic status and their relative importance as determinants of health in old age2017Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, nr 1, artikkel-id 173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Socioeconomic status has been operationalised in a variety of ways, most commonly as education, social class, or income. In this study, we also use occupational complexity and a SES-index as alternative measures of socioeconomic status. Studies show that in analyses of health inequalities in the general population, the choice of indicators influence the magnitude of the observed inequalities. Less is known about the influence of indicator choice in studies of older adults. The aim of this study is twofold: i) to analyse the impact of the choice of socioeconomic status indicator on the observed health inequalities among older adults, ii) to explore whether different indicators of socioeconomic status are independently associated with health in old age.

    Methods: We combined data from two nationally representative Swedish surveys, providing more than 20 years of follow-up. Average marginal effects were estimated to compare the association between the five indicators of SES, and three late-life health outcomes: mobility limitations, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL), and psychological distress.

    Results: All socioeconomic status indicators were associated with late-life health; there were only minor differences in the effect sizes. Income was most strongly associated to all indicators of late-life health, the associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for the other indicators. In the fully adjusted models, education contributed to the model fits with 0-3% (depending on the outcome), social class with 0-1%, occupational complexity with 1-8%, and income with 3-18%.

    Conclusions: Our results indicate overlapping properties between socioeconomic status indicators in relation to late-life health. However, income is associated to late-life health independently of all other variables. Moreover, income did not perform substantially worse than the composite SES-index in capturing health variation. Thus, if the primary objective of including an indicator of socioeconomic status is to adjust the model for socioeconomic differences in late-life health rather than to analyse these inequalities per se, income may be the preferable indicator. If, on the other hand, the primary objective of a study is to analyse specific aspects of health inequalities, or the mechanisms that drive health inequalities, then the choice of indicator should be theoretically guided. 

  • 45.
    Darin-Mattsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Andel, Ross
    University of South Florida, Tampa, USA.
    Economic hardship and income before retirement in relation to anxiety and depression in older adulthood. (2015) Work-related stress in midlife and all-cause mortality: the role of sense of coherence.2015Inngår i: Life Courses in Cross-­National Comparison: Similarities and Differences: Abstract book, 2015, s. 69-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Davey, Adam
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Aging in Sweden: Local variation, local control2014Inngår i: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 525-532Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history—most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures.

  • 47. Duggan, Emily C.
    et al.
    Piccinin, Andrea M.
    Clouston, Sean
    Koval, Andriy V.
    Robitaille, Annie
    Zammit, Andrea R.
    Wu, Chenkai
    Brown, Cassandra L.
    Lee, Lewina O.
    Finkel, Deborah
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, IN, USA.
    Beasley, William H.
    Kaye, Jeffrey
    Muniz-Terrera, Graciela
    Katz, Mindy
    Lipton, Richard B.
    Deeg, Dorly
    Bennett, David A.
    Björk, Marcus Praetorius
    Johansson, Boo
    Spiro, Avron
    Weuve, Jennifer
    Hofer, Scott M.
    A multi-study coordinated meta-analysis of pulmonary function and cognition in aging2019Inngår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Substantial research is dedicated to understanding the aging-related dynamics among individual differences in level, change, and variation across physical and cognitive abilities. Evaluating replicability and synthesizing these findings has been limited by differences in measurements and samples, and by study design and statistical analyses confounding between-person differences with within-person changes. In this paper, we conducted a coordinated analysis and summary meta-analysis of new results on the aging-related dynamics linking pulmonary function and cognitive performance.

    METHODS: We performed coordinated analysis of bivariate growth models in data from 20,586 participants across eight longitudinal studies to examine individual differences in baseline level, rate of change, and occasion-specific variability in pulmonary and cognitive functioning. Results were summarized using meta-analysis.

    RESULTS: We found consistent but weak baseline and longitudinal associations in levels of pulmonary and cognitive functioning, but no associations in occasion-specific variability.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results provide limited evidence for a consistent link between simultaneous changes in pulmonary and cognitive function in a normal aging population. Further research is required to understand patterns of onset of decline and differences in rates of change within and across physical and cognitive functioning domains, both within-individuals and across countries and birth cohorts. Coordinated analysis provides an efficient and rigorous approach for replicating and comparing results across independent longitudinal studies.

  • 48. Dybjer, E.
    et al.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Nilsson, P.
    Hassing, L.
    Trajectories of survival in men with type 1 diabetesfFollowed for 56 years after conscript testing at 18 years of age2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Eide, Leslie S. P.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Ranhoff, Anette H.
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT.
    Haaverstad, Rune
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Hufthammer, Karl Ove
    Centre for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Kuiper, Karel K. J.
    Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Nordrehaug, Jan E.
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Norekvål, Tone M.
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Delirium as a predictor of physical and cognitive function in individuals aged 80 and older after transcatheter aortic valve implantation or surgical aortic valve replacement2016Inngår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 64, nr 6, s. 1178-1186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To determine how development of delirium after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) could predict activity of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADLs (IADL) disability, cognitive function, and self-reported health in individuals aged 80 and older.

    Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary university hospital.

    Participants: Individuals aged 80 and older undergoing elective SAVR or TAVI (N = 136).

    Measurements: Delirium was assessed for 5 days using the Confusion Assessment Method. The Barthel Index, Nottingham Extended ADL Scale, and SF-12 were used to determine ADL and IADL ability and self-reported health at baseline and 1- and 6-month follow-up. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and 6-month follow-up.

    Results: Participants had lower IADL scores 1 month after SAVR than at baseline (baseline 58, 1 month: delirium 42, no delirium 50, P ≤.02), but scores had returned to baseline levels at 6 months. The Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) Physical Component Summary (PCS) score was higher at 6-month follow-up (48) than at baseline (39), especially in participants who did not develop delirium (P <.001). No differences in other outcomes were found. Regression models suggest that delirium may help predict IADL disability 1 month after baseline (P ≤.07) but does not predict large differences in ADL disability, cognitive function, or SF-12-scores. Individuals who underwent TAVI and developed delirium had lower ADL (baseline 19, 1-month 16, P <.001) and IADL (baseline 49, 1-month 40, P =.003) scores at 1-month follow-up. SF-12 PCS score (baseline 30) increased from baseline to 1- (35, P =.04) and 6- (35, P =.02) month follow-up in individuals who underwent TAVI and did not develop delirium. Delirium after TAVI predicted greater ADL and IADL disability at 1-month but not at 6-month follow-up.

    Conclusion: Individuals who develop delirium after SAVR and TAVI have poorer short-term IADL function but do not seem to have long-term reductions in physical, mental, or self-reported health.

  • 50.
    Eide, Leslie S. P.
    et al.
    Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway.
    Ranhoff, Anette H.
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT.
    Haaverstad, Rune
    Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Hufthammer, Karl Ove
    Centre for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Kuiper, Karel K. J.
    Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Nordrehaug, Jan Erik
    Department of Cardiology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway.
    Norekval, Tone M.
    Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway .
    Readmissions and mortality in delirious versus non-delirious octogenarian patients after aortic valve therapy: A prospective cohort study2016Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, nr 10, artikkel-id e012683Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To determine whether postoperative delirium predicts first-time readmissions and mortality in octogenarian patients within 180 days after aortic valve therapy with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and to determine the most common diagnoses at readmission.

    Design: Prospective cohort study of patients undergoing elective SAVR or TAVI.

    Setting: Tertiary university hospital that performs all SAVRs and TAVIs in Western Norway.

    Participants: Patients 80+ years scheduled for SAVR or TAVI and willing to participate in the study were eligible. Those unable to speak Norwegian were excluded. Overall, 143 patients were included, and data from 136 are presented. Primary and secondary outcome measures: The primary outcome was a composite variable of time from discharge to first all-cause readmission or death. Secondary outcomes were all-cause first readmission alone and mortality within 180 days after discharge, and the primary diagnosis at discharge from first-time readmission. Delirium was assessed with the confusion assessment method. First-time readmissions, diagnoses and mortality were identified in hospital information registries.

    Results: Delirium was identified in 56% of patients. The effect of delirium on readmissions and mortality was greatest during the first 2 months after discharge (adjusted HR 2.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 5.7)). Of 30 first-time readmissions occurring within 30 days, 24 (80%) were patients who experienced delirium. 1 patient (nondelirium group) died within 30 days after therapy. Delirious patients comprised 35 (64%) of 55 first-time readmissions occurring within 180 days. Circulatory system diseases and injuries were common causes of first-time readmissions within 180 days in delirious patients. 8 patients died 180 days after the procedure; 6 (75%) of them experienced delirium. Conclusions: Delirium in octogenarians after aortic valve therapy might be a serious risk factor for postoperative morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular disorders and injuries were associated with first-time readmissions in these patients.

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