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  • 1.
    Abbas, Hassan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Huzeirovic, Melisa
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    En jämförelse mellan två sjukdomsgrupper med PET/CT som undersökningsmetod: Beräkning av den totala effektiva dosen från PET- och CT-undersökning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lung cancer and malignant melanoma are diseases investigated by the dual-modality positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). There are radiation risks with the examination that can appear as stochastic effects such as cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the radiation doses between the lung cancer group (suspected or verified) and the malignant melanoma group by calculating the total effective radiation dose and to declare the risk with the PET/CT examination. Material and method: The material contained parameters regarding the examination and the sample contained 20 patients from the two groups. The method was retrospective with a quantitative approach. Results: There was a significant difference (p <0,001) between these two groups, were the lung cancer group received 11,95 milliSievert (mSv) and the malignant melanoma group 6,03 mSv and the percentage risk for lethal cancer increased by 0,06% and 0,03%, respectively. Conclusions: The lung cancer group received twice as much effective dose than the malignant melanoma group. However, the effective dose is so low that the risk increase of the lethal cancer is marginal, and the benefit of the examination outweighs the risks.

  • 2.
    Abuaita, Areej
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    El Saleh, Asmaa
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Utvärdering av analysmetod för bestämning av anti-FXa aktivitet i plasma hos patienter behandlade med apixaban eller LMH2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Apixaban and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), are anticoagulants that prevent clot formation by inhibiting factor Xa. Increasingly more patients use apixaban and LMWH, for this reason the laboratory medicine at the county hospital Ryhov needs to evaluate methods of analysis for apixaban and LMWH to be able to implement the analyzes in clinical routine. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the assay method for determining anti-FXa activity in plasma in patients treated with apixaban or LMWH using chromogenic substrate method. Method: The method evaluation consisted of four steps: repeatability, intermediate precision measures, compliance with validated method and analysis of normal population. The evaluation was performed using Sysmex CS-2100 where 20 respective 40 patient samples were analyzed for apixaban and LMWH as well as 10 normal population samples. Factor Xa activity was quantitatively determined using light absorption at 405 nm.Result and discussion: Repeatability and intermediate precision showed low CV. Patient samples showed consistent results with reference values from other laboratories where r2 for apixaban and LMWH were 0.95. Deviant results may be due to measurement errors or confusion between samples. Analysis of normal population showed that values were below the lowest reliable value. Conclusion: Evaluation of the analysis method apixaban and LMWH at Ryhov's laboratory showed good results, which confirms that the assay method can be used in clinical routine.

  • 3.
    Agid, Nyroz
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Sjöqvist, Evelina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Prevalence of hookworm infection evaluated with Willis flotation and Formal Ethyl Acetate concentration: A field study in Da Nang, Vietnam2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hookworm infection can cause nausea, stomach pain and anemia, with the most harmful effect being found among women of reproductive age and children. The infection rates is high in poor parts of the world with a high number of infected in Asia. The infection is many times neglected since it rarely causes mortality, however the morbidity can be destructive. In Vietnam the prevalence of hookworm is largely unknown, but there is believed to be a 29-80 % infection rate in the country. Through a field study in Da Nang, Vietnam, the prevalence of hookworm was identified using two methods, Willis flotation and formal ethyl acetate concentration. Any correlation between hookworm infection and individuals’ gender, age and geographic area was evaluated. A total of 101 consecutive selected samples from hospitals and communities in rural and urban parts of the city were obtained from both gender ranging between 1-72 years in age. No quantitative differences were found between the two methods nor any correlation between genders (p-value 0,143). The overall prevalence was 16,8%. The rural part of the city showed a higher infection rate in contrast to the urban districts (p-value 0,001). Individuals in the age group 25-48 showed a higher infection rate in contrast to the other age groups (p-value 0,035). 

  • 4.
    Andersson Nyberg, Sarah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Lesjak, Martina
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Jämförelse mellan ekokardiografiska metoder vid bedömning av vänsterkammarfunktion hos kvinnliga bröstcancerpatienter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Echocardiography is a useful technique which can value the function of the left chamber of the heart by using ejection fraction (EF) and global longitudinal strain (GLS). Today EF is the most common method in assessments of the left chamber function and is calculated by Simpson´s biplanemethod. GLS is a new method that measures the myocardial deformation. It has been proved to be a sensitive method and can detect changes in the myocardium earlier than EF.

     

    The purpose of this study is to compare two echocardiographic methods among 20 female breast cancer patients. Comparisons have been made between EF calculated with Simpson´s biplanemethod (EFbi) and GLS, and between EFbi and EF calculated by GLS (EFGLS). This is a quantitative retrospective study. The data used in this study was collected between October – December 2014 at the Department of Clinical Physiology at the Hospital Ryhov in Jönköping. The method used to analyse the results was McNemar´s test and Kappa value. The results of the study showed that EFbi and GLS gave a modest correspondence between the methods. A reasonable correspondence were observed between EFbi and EFGLS. The conclusion has been drawn from the kappa value.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Lidman, Emma
    Underdiagnostisering av tarmparasiter hos patienter med diarrébesvär2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Underdiagnosis of intestinal parasites in patients with diarrhea

    A compilation from the Swedish public health authority indicates that infections caused by Cryptosporidium spp. increased in Sweden from 47 cases in 2004 to 594 cases in 2016 and Giardia intestinalis causes around 1300 infections per year. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of parasites in patients with diarrhea. Furthermore, the study investigated whether samples taken with E-swab could be analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and G. intestinalis rather than Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formaline fixative (SAF-fixative). Prevalence of parasites in fecal samples was collected from 200 samples from patients with bacterial issue ordered. For evaluation of E-swab, 22 frozen, unfixed samples that were positive for intestinal parasites was used. Twelve positive E-swab samples was used as comparative positive controls. This was analyzed using real-time PCR. Bacteria was counted for 9.5% of the infections whilst parasites counted for 14% of the infections. The conclusion was that E-swab could replace SAF-fixative in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and that there is that an underdiagnosis of intestinal parasites.

    Keywords: Cryptosporidium spp, Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia intestinalis, real-time PCR, E-swab, prevalence.

  • 6.
    Arvidsson, Malin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Li, Sabina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Prevalens av Anaplasma phagocytophilum i fästingar avlägsnade från flyttfåglar vid Ottenby fågelstation, Öland2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that uses ticks as vectors to infect new hosts. It causes tick-borne fever in animals and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Since the bacteria affects immune cells it contributes to infected individuals being susceptible to secondary infections, with consequences in e.g. sheep farming. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the bacterium A. phagocytophilum in ixodid ticks collected from migratory birds at Ottenby Bird Observatory, Öland. 1115 ticks from 4778 birds were screened for the gene Anaplasma citrate synthase (gltA) using real-time PCR. Ten ticks were positive for A. phagocytophilum, a prevalence of 0,9 %. Seven of the ticks were nymphs, two were larvae and one was of unknown developmental stage. The larvae had probably obtained the pathogen from the birds they were collected from since these were the ticks’ first hosts. The positive ticks were collected from common blackbird, European robin, willow warbler and tree pipit. Common blackbirds showed a significantly higher prevalence of A. phagocytophilum (4,8 %) than the predominant tick carrying bird species, European robin. The results of the study support earlier observations that birds carry a role in the dispersal of tick- borne pathogens.

  • 7.
    Baker, Sinan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Alcharif, Odai
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Ekokardiografi: jämförelse av erfarenhetens betydelse vid mätningar av strain och strain rate i vänster kammare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Echocardiography has a major role for assessment of the left ventricle. By using segmental and global longitudinal strain and strain rate both regional and global kinetics can be assessed. Segmental strain measures deformation of the myocardium as strain rate measures the velocity of the deformation. By summing the average from all segments, global longitudinal strain is obtained.

    Purpose:  To compare heart ultrasound-based segmental and global strain and strain rate in the left ventricle. Comparisons have been made between experienced biomedical laboratory scientist and less experienced biomedical laboratory scientist’s students.

    Method: Quantitative study were 10 test subjects have been examined echocardiographically. Imaging and measurements were collected with Siemens Acuson SC2000. Compilation of collected measurements were made on Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word in charts and tables. For comparison of segmental and global strain and strain rate the analysis method Related-Samples Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test were used.

    Result: The result shows only one statistically significant difference (p <0.05) of segmental strain in the basal segments of apical projections between experienced biomedical laboratory scientist and student 1. 

    Conclusion: The data material is not enough to generalize the result to a larger population. Further studies are needed to draw a more secure conclusion.

  • 8.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, Medicinsk teknik.
    New ultrasonographic approaches to monitoring cardiac and vascular function2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. To decrease mortality and morbidity in cardiovascular disease, the development of accurate, non-invasive methods for early diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiac and vascular engagement is of considerable clinical interest. Cardiovascular ultrasound imaging is today the cornerstone in the routine evaluation of cardiovascular function and recent development has resulted in two new techniques, tissue velocity imaging (TVI) and speckle tracking, which allow objective quantification of cardiovascular function. TVI and speckle tracking are the basis for three new approaches to cardiac and vascular monitoring presented in this thesis: wave intensity wall analysis (WIWA), two-dimensional strain imaging in the common carotid artery, and the state diagram of the heart.

     

    WIWA uses longitudinal and radial strain rate as input for calculations of wave intensity in the arterial wall. In this thesis, WIWA was validated against a commercially available wave intensity system, showing that speckle tracking-derived strain variables can be useful in wave intensity analysis. WIWA was further tested in patients with end stage renal disease and documented high mortality in cardiovascular disease. The latter study evaluated the effects of a single session of hemodialysis using WIWA and TVI variables and showed improved systolic function after hemodialysis. The results also indicated that preload-adjusted early systolic wave intensity obtained by the WIWA system may contribute in the assessment of left ventricular contractility in this patient category. Two-dimensional strain imaging in the common carotid artery is a new approach showing great potential to detect age-dependent differences in mechanical properties of the common carotid artery. Among the measured strain variables, global circumferential strain had the best discriminating performance and appeared to be superior to conventional measures of arterial stiffness such as elastic modulus and β stiffness index. The state diagram is a visualisation tool that provides a quantitative overview of the temporal interrelationship of mechanical events in the left and right ventricles. Case examples and a small clinical study showed that state diagrams clearly visualize cardiac function and can be useful in the detection of non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).

     

    Even though WIWA, two-dimensional strain imaging in the common carotid artery and the state diagram show potential to be useful in the evaluation of cardiovascular function, there still remains a considerable amount of work to be done before they can be used in the daily clinical practice.

  • 9.
    Chahrour, Yasmin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Ishak, Helen
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Fyllnadsnivåers påverkan, tidsförlängning innan analys och blodprovers stabilitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ionized calcium concentrations decrease when samples are exposed to air. Due to pre-analytical factors, the 4 hour time limit for analysis of standard bicarbonate, can sometimes be exceeded. There is limited documentation about additional analyses on post-analytic decapped serum samples stored at room temperature. Aim: The aim was to examine how lower sample volumes affect the concentration of ionized calcium, if the time limit for analysis of standard bicarbonate on whole blood can be prolonged and how long decapped serum samples can be stored at room temperature for eventual additional analyses. Methods: The concentration of ionized calcium was analyzed on serum samples filled with 1 mL and 2 mL and were compared to maximally filled samples. Refrigerated whole blood samples were analyzed for standard bicarbonate after 4-7 hours. Ten biochemical analytes were measured in decapped serum samples after 2-8 hours of storage at room temperature. The mean percentage deviation was compared to an analytical and biological imprecision limit to determine analyte stability. Results and conclusions: Ionized calcium concentrations in lower sample volumes were reliable. The stability of standard bicarbonate could not be determined, therefore a longer possible time limit could not be recommended. The biochemical analytes were stable for 8 hours.

  • 10.
    Dawod, Salima
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Eliassi, Lana
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    En jämförelse mellan auskultatoriska och oscillometriska blodtrycksvärden i vila och efter ansträngning.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Blood pressure measurement is an important and fundamental method for correct diagnosis and management of high blood pressure, in healthcare. For several years, research has shown that different components affect the accuracy of blood pressure measurement. There is a risk that the blood pressure value may vary between auscultatory and oscillometric measurements because they are performed in two different ways. Purpose: The purpose was to investigate whether there is any difference between auscultatory and oscillometric blood pressure values performed in both rest and after stress. Material and method: The study consists of 20 randomly selected students from the School of Health and Welfare of Jönköping. The measurement was performed using auscultatory blood pressure cuff, sphygmomanometer with stethoscope and oscillometric modality (OMRON M7). Result: Statistically significant difference was observed between auscultatory and oscillometric values, both in rest and stress. The difference is greater after stress for both methods, in systolic and diastolic values. Discussion: In healthcare, use of oscillometric modality has increased thus there is a risk of reduced reliability and validity of the blood pressure value. Conclusion: Statistically significant difference was observed between auscultatory and oscillometric values, both in rest and after stress.  

  • 11.
    Dimberg, Jan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Skarstedt, Marita
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Sture
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Zar, Niklas
    Department of Surgery, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Department of Laboratory Services, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Protein expression and gene polymorphism of CXCL10 in patients with colorectal cancer2014In: Biomedical Reports, ISSN 2049-9442, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 340-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) promote leukocyte attraction to sites of inflammation and cancer. Certain chemokines promote and regulate neoplastic progression, including metastasis and angiogenesis. One such chemokine, CXCL10, was found to be expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue. To gain insight into the prognostic significance of CXCL10, we investigated whether the levels of this chemokine were altered in the colorectal tissue or plasma of CRC patients. Using Luminex technology for protein analyses, we observed a significantly higher CXCL10 protein level in cancer tissue compared to that in paired normal tissue. Moreover, significantly higher plasma levels of CXCL10 were detected in patients compared to those in control subjects and the plasma levels of CXCL10 in disseminated disease were found to be significantly higher compared to those in localized disease. The single‑nucleotide polymorphism rs8878, which has been described in exon 4 in the 3'‑untranslated region of the CXCL10 gene, was investigated using a TaqMan system. There were significant differences in genotype distribution and allelic frequencies between CRC patients and control subjects. In conclusion, altered CXCL10 protein concentrations in CRC tissues or plasma and the rs8878 genotype variant of CXCL10 may contribute to the prediction of clinical outcome.

  • 12.
    Ekstrand, Annie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Pop, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Placenta growth factor som biomarkör vid screening av preeklampsi: Litteraturfördjupning och verifiering av metodologi2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Between 2003-2009 hypertensive disorders as eclampsia and preeclampsia constituted 14.0% of the world’s maternal mortality. Preeclampsia characterize as clinical observations of hypertension and significant proteinuria in the second trimester of pregnancy. In diagnostics a risk assessment software is normally used to estimate the probability of developing the disorder. Besides calculating the blood pressure and proteinuria, the placenta growth factor 1 (PlGF-1) has proven to possess a high predictive value. The study’s aim was to chart the different methods used to quantify the biomarker and verify the method for PlGF on Brahms Kryptor compact plus. The recess was based on review of scientific articles and resulted in the findings of two manual and three automated methods. The method Quantikine was used in 47% of the articles and was seen as the golden standard of the study. When comparing the methods a lower signal to noise-ratio, a higher sensitivity and a shorter assay time was observed in the automated methods. The verification contained determination of compliance with an external laboratory, calculation of carry over and quantification of inter-assay and intra-assay precision. The verification resulted in a good compliance (r=0.953, p=0,327) with the external laboratory, a carry over at 0,04% and a good precision within the providers indication.

  • 13.
    Erlandsson, Gabrielle
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Johansson, Karin
    Jönköping University.
    En jämförelse mellan transthorakal och transesofageal ekokardiografi: Metod att föredra vid undersökning av Staphylococcus aureus-endokardit2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to compare how transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) complement each other in the diagnosis of Staphylococcus Aureus (S. aureus)-Endocarditis (SAE). S. aureus is one of the leading bacteria in health-related infections. SAE becomes more common, which researchers associate with more invasive interventions. TTE is a first step to confirm or rule out endocarditis and often followed by TEE-examination. At Skaraborg Hospital in Skövde (SkaS), the TEE-survey is considered unnecessary many times when not finding enough endocarditis. The study was a comparative study with quantitative approach, where the material was collected at clinical physiological laboratory at SkaS, Skövde, which resulted in eleven participants. Both sexes were included, patients below 18 years were excluded. Results showed that four endocarditis was diagnosed. Streptococcus Sanguinus was the bacterium that caused most endocarditis while S. aureus did not cause endocarditis. Five of eleven patients had some form of risk factor for endocarditis. Five of eleven patients were positive for S. aureus. Hygiene at the examinations, especially TEE is important because 80 % of healthcare professionals could be carriers of S. aureus. The TTE and TEE survey complement each other. Carrying out the surveys together is what makes the diagnosis safe.

  • 14.
    Estberg, Evelina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Dulic, Mirela
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Jämförelse av Fluidigm-PCR och realtids-PCR vid detektion av Rickettsia spp.: Samt undersökning av risken att drabbas av infektion efter bett av rickettsiainfekterad fästing2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tick-borne infections are increasing, including infections caused by Rickettsia spp. The aim of this study was to examine the risk of developing an infection after being bitten by a tick infected with Rickettsia spp. Specificity and sensitivity of a Fluidigm-PCR assay were compared to real time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) assay when detecting Rickettsia spp. in ticks that had bitten humans. Possible correlation between the tick's feeding time and seroconversion against Rickettsia spp. was also investigated. A total of 753 ticks from 104 participants in Sweden and the Åland Islands (Finland) were analyzed with real-time PCR to detect the gltA gene specific for Rickettsia spp. 3.5 % of the samples were positive for Rickettsia spp. with real-time PCR, while only 1.3 % of the samples were positive with Fluidigm-PCR. Calculations showed that Fluidigm-PCR assay has lower specificity and sensitivity than the real-time PCR assay. Unfortunately, no conclusions could be drawn considering correlation between the tick's feeding time and seroconversion of the bitten humans since no participants who had seroconverted had also submitted ticks containing Rickettsia spp. Therefore, no conclusions could be drawn considering the risk of developing an infection after being bitten by a tick infected with Rickettsia spp.

  • 15.
    Folkesson, Carl
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Christensson, Ola
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Genotypning av laktostolerans (LCT-13910C>T) direkt på blod med realtids-PCR: Utvärdering av Kapa Probe Force2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Among adults two phenotypes are found with regards to production of lactase, these are termed lactase persistence and lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance is characterized by a low production of lactase, which leads to symptoms such as stomach ache and flatulence after the consumption of dairy products. A single nucleotide polymorphism (LCT-13910C>T) has been correlated with the occurrence of lactase persistence in northwestern Europeans. Genotyping of LCT-13910C>T is possible with melting curve analysis in real time PCR. The currently used method for genotyping of LCT-13910C>T at Ryhov County Hospital requires the extraction of DNA template from blood, due to the fact that the DNA-polymerase in the kit LightCycler® FastStart DNA Master HybProbe requires pure DNA template for analysis. With another DNA-polymerase, included in the kit Kapa Probe Force, analysis on crude samples such as pure blood should be possible. Evaluation of Kapa Probe Force included comparison of the results from both methods with regards to identification of genotypes LCT-13910C/C, C/T and T/T and with regard to imprecision. The results from Kapa Probe Force were 100 % consistent with the results from existing method and acquired melting temperatures (Tm) were all within the accepted ranges specified in the kit of primers and probes. The fluorescence of melting curves acquired with Kapa Probe Force was significantly lower, however this had no effect when it came to interpreting the results. A lower variation could also be seen between samples with Kapa Probe Force compared to existing method.

  • 16.
    Frisk, Johanna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Utvärdering av resistensbestämning med diskdiffusionstest från selektiva agarmedier för MRSA, ESBL och VRE i jämförelse med från blodagar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Multiresistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been a problem for decades with an increasing rate. Today, at mikrobiologen, Unilabs Skövde, bacterial strains are isolated from selective media for MRSA, ESBL and VRE onto blood agar before the susceptibility testing. The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of disk diffusion susceptibility testing directly from the selective media and thus be able to reply the findings earlier. The zones of inhibition were examined for a total of 64 isolates after disk diffusion testing from both the selective and blood agar plates in order to evaluate if the zone sizes were affected. The results showed what was considered a normal variation of ±2 mm for all pairwise zones except for a difference in 3 mm. The majority of all zones tested for MRSA, ESBL and VRE had equally large zones, 62%, 89% and 98% respectively. Based on the good results, the material was considered enough to make the conclusion that the method is feasible. Considering the positive effects of making susceptibility testing directly from selective agar, a change to this method is recommended to mikrobiologen, Unilabs Skövde.

  • 17.
    Gohil, Krina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Keinvall, Johanna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Fenotypning av trombocytantigen HPA1a med flödescytometri: screening för att finna blodgivare som saknar HPA1a2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    HPA1a is an antigen on the platelet surface that can cause alloimmunization, such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and post transfusion purpura, which can cause severe bleeding symptoms. In case of antibodies against HPA1a, compatible platelets must be available. The purpose of the study was to establish a flow cytometric screening method for phenotyping HPA1a antigen on platelets and to find HPA1a negative donors. Before the flow cytometric analysis, two to five blood samples were pooled into one sample and in the presence of HPA1a negative platelets in the pool, the samples were analyzed individually. Fluorochrome –labeled anti-human antibodies to CD42a and CD61 were used to distinguish HPA1a negative platelets from HPA1a positive. A total of 177 blood samples were phenotyped, of which 7 (4%) were HPA1a negative. Of the seven findings, four samples were genotyped at an external laboratory confirming that they were HPA1a negative. Flow cytometric screening of HPA1a is fast, reliable and suitable for large scale screening. In order to determine the prevalence of HPA1a negative individuals, more extensive studies need to be performed involving a larger population. By having many registered HPA1a negative donors, it can provide opportunities to help patients in other regions.

  • 18.
    Hermansson, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Ståhl, Anton
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Skydd till trevägskran för medicinskt bruk: Stopcock protection2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har genomförts i samarbete med ALMI Företagspartner AB

    som arbetar med att främja utveckling av företag och nyföretagande. Tillsammans med Landstinget i Jönköpings län driver de projektet P.U.M.A, Produktutveckling med Medicinsk Anknytning

    Examensarbetet omfattar utveckling av ett skydd till en trevägskran.

    Skyddets syfte är att förhindra ofrivillig justering av de kranar som används vid intravenös infusion av cytostatika, då patienten behandlas i hemmet.

    Vid behandling flödar cytostatikan genom en trevägskran. Kranen monteras på patienten, som har hudkontakt med denna under hela behandlingen.

    I den teoretiska bakgrunden beskrivs metoder för produktutveckling och en rad återkommande begrepp i rapporten.

    Vid genomförandet gjordes inledningsvis en marknadsundersökning, vilken utgjorde underlag för produktkraven.

    Efter idégenerering genomfördes sållning i två faser för att sortera bort koncept som ej uppfyllde ställda krav.

    Sållningen följdes upp med tillverkning av enkla prototyper, vilka utvärderades och låg till grund för val av slutgiltigt koncept.

    Examensarbetet resulterade i ett färdigt koncept som uppfyller de krav som ställdes med avseende på funktion, säkerhet, pris och miljö. Vid eventuell massproduktion av produkten kommer ytterligare tester och finjustering av konstruktionen krävas.

  • 19.
    Håkansson, Ida
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Lundquist, Hans
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Bestämning och jämförelse av lägsta detektionsintervall för odling och qPCR vid analys av Staphylococcus aureus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) are an increasing problem in health care facilities. In the neonatal intensive care unit at Länssjukhuset Ryhov in Jönköping, inconsistent cultivation results have been observed for suspected HAI caused by Staphylococcus aureus. To prevent HAI and to maintain patient safety, sensitive and reliable laboratory tests are essential. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the lowest range of detection for cultivation and qPCR with and without enrichment in MAMSA broth, for S. aureus. Serial dilutions of S. aureus were made, and the original concentration was determined through viable count. Cultivation on blood agar and qPCR with and without enrichment in MAMSA broth was performed. The results were used to determine a minimum detection range. For cultivation, a minimum detection range of 0,5–62 CFU/ml was determined and for qPCR a range of 6400–140 000 CFU/ml. For qPCR after enrichment in MAMSA broth, a lowest detection range of 0,6–140 CFU/ml was determined. For detection with cultivation single to tenths of CFU/ml were needed in the sample. For qPCR thousands to tenths of thousands of CFU/ml were needed. For qPCR with enrichment in MAMSA broth the detection range could be lowered to levels comparable with cultivation. For clinical application, further studies are needed with more bacterial species and replicates.

  • 20.
    Högberg, Gustav
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Karlsson, Pontus
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Detektion och kvantifiering av två olika isoformer av PDIA3 i prostatacancerceller2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for more specific biomarkers related to prostate cancer, which would increase treatment options. Different isoforms of protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3) are associated with prostate cancer and can potentially be used as biomarkers. The aims of this study were to detect, quantify and examine the gene expression of the protein coding isoform PDIA3-201 and a newly discovered isoform of PDIA3 (PDIA3-Novel) in prostate cancer cells in varying stages. The expression was analysed using droplet digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (ddPCR) in normal prostate cells and in prostate cancer cell lines (PNT2, DU145, PC3 and LNCaP). Variation within replicates and between different dilutions were observed. The ratio of concentrations between PDIA3-Novel and PDIA3-201 differed both within and between the cell lines. The expression of PDIA3-Novel was higher in PNT2 and PC3 compared to DU145. The expression of PDIA3-Novel was higher in the metastatic stage of prostate cancer (LNCaP), but the flaws in the study reduces the reliability of the results. The results of this study indicate that PDIA3-Novel can be used as a biomarker for prostate cancer and provide information beneficial for treatment. More experiments on a larger scale needs to be performed.

  • 21.
    Jansson, Hanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Jawad, Fereshteh
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Det kromogena odlingsmediet UriSelectTM4 kan inkuberas i 5 % koldioxid2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common infections among humans. For diagnostics, the chromogenic media UriSelectTM4 can be used to visualize the urinary tract pathogens. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate if the chromogenic media UriSelectTM4 could be incubated in 5% carbon dioxide instead of aerobic environment without impacting total growth and morphology. Furthermore, total growth and number of free colonies was evaluated when cultivating on a half UriSelectTM4 agar media with two streak patterns to examine if further diagnostics is possible. Urine samples were incubated in aerobic environment and in 5% carbon dioxide and visually compared for total growth, number of free colonies, morphology and color change of bacterial colonies and the agar media. The results showed that total growth and free colonies only had slight differences between the incubation environments. On the other hand, morphology and color of the colonies may vary. Further a half agar media could be used for cultivation and further diagnostics. Consequently, the study shows that UriSelectTM4 can be incubated in 5% carbon dioxide without any impact on total growth, free colonies or of the chromogenic media.

  • 22.
    Jansson, Therése
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Källmyr, Nicole
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Jämförelse mellan total lungkapacitetberäknat utifrån single-breath metangasspädningrespektive kroppspletysmografi2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Total lung capacity (TLC) is the gas volume in the lungs after maximal inspiration. It can be calculated using whole-body plethysmography, pressure changes and Boyle’s law, or using gas dilution with methane or helium as inert gas. Agreement between the methods is of interest to make substitution of the more commonly used whole-body plethysmography with methane dilution possible.

    This retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to compare TLC from single-breath methane dilution with TLC from whole-body plethysmography. Data concerning patients who underwent these two standard procedure examinations in one visit was collected. The population of 48 had an even gender distribution, included ages 10 to 87 and patients with or without known respiratory diseases.

    TLC from whole-body plethysmography ranged between 2,6 and 8,4 liters. TLC from methane dilution ranged between 2,5 and 7,7 liters. TLC from gas dilution averaged 0,59 liters less than TLC from whole-body plethysmography and underestimated TLC by 11,3%. Paired samples t-test determined the difference between methods to be significant.

    Due to the nature of this population, further studies of larger populations are needed. Methane dilution TLC amounted to 88,7% of TLC from whole-body plethysmography which therefore cannot be substituted with methane dilution without increased risk of underestimating TLC.

  • 23.
    Johansson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Isaksson, Malin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Prevalens av Trichomonas vaginalis i STI-prover från Västra Götalands län med Aptima™ TV Assay på Panther™ System: Samt utvärdering av Aptima™ TV Assay på Panther™ System med jämförelse mot Xpert® TV Kit på GeneXpert®2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in STI-samples from Västra Götaland county with Aptima™ TV Assay on Panther™ System

    Also, evaluation of Aptima™ TV Assay on Panther™ System with comparison with Xpert® TV Kit on GeneXpert®

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite that is spread by sexual contact, it is also the biggest sexually transmitted infection in both the United States and Europe. The prevalence in Sweden today is unknown as no national basic data exist. The routine procedure of identification is Wet-Smear although nucleic acid amplification enable a higher level of specificity and sensitivity. Panther™ System and GeneXpert® are two systems using RNA respectively DNA for analysis. The objective of the study was primarily to investigate the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in STI-samples from Västra Götaland county with Aptima™ TV Assay on Panther™ System and secondarily to evaluate Aptima™ TV Assay with comparison to Xpert® TV Kit on GeneXpert®. The evaluation and prevalence study took place at Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skaraborgs Hospital Skövde during the period of April-May 2017. The results of the evaluation indicate that Aptima™ TV Assay is specific for Trichomonas vaginalis and that the sensitivity falls within the detection limits for the kit. Therefore, the kit is suitable for use in the prevalence study. The prevalence study displayed a positive outcome on two out of 606 analyzed patient samples, corresponding to 0.3%. The conclusion is that the prevalence is enough for further studies.

  • 24.
    Jonsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Said, Mena
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Metodutveckling av en vätskebaserad cytologisk metod vid preparering av exsudat: En jämförelse med konventionell cytologi2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two main principles is used within cytology in order to diagnose cytological abnormalities; conventional and liquid-based cytology. Both methods can be applied on both gynaecological and non-gynaecological samples of which the later includes samples categorized as exudate. The aim of this study was to develop the method for liquid-based cytology so that exudate fixated with ethanol could be prepared and also achieve better results compared to conventional method. In order to do so, 61 unique samples were prepared of which 61 with conventional method, 54 with liquid-based method and 22 with liquid-based method with added acetic acid. The slides was then examined in microscope and was given score values within four parameters: amount of cells; cell morphology; amount of inflammatory component and amount of background. The results indicated no difference between the slides prepared with conventional or liquid-based method. However, the slides prepared with addition of acetic acid indicated more opportunistic score values when compared.

    The conclusion was that liquid-based method with the addition of acetic acid did satisfy the aim of this study as it reduces the amount of background, reduces “ring formation” on the slides and preserve the cells morphology well, which makes the samples easier to diagnose.

  • 25.
    Karlsson, Christina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Fredriksson, Liza
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Prevalensen av HPA1a-negativa blodgivare i Jönköpings- och Östergötlands län med flödescytometrisk fenotypning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Humana trombocytantigen (Human Platelet Antigens, HPA) är genetiska polymorfismer som uttrycks på trombocyters membranglykoproteiner. Om icke-kompatibla trombocytantigen införs i blodcirkulationen kan alloimmunisering uppstå där antikroppar produceras mot främmande antigen, det kan därför vara av betydelse att registrera blodgivares antigen. Studiens syfte var att utvärdera prevalensen av HPA1a-negativa blodgivare i Jönköpings- och Östergötlands län med hjälp av flödescytometrisk fenotypning. Studien inkluderade totalt 300 blodgivare, varav 150 från Jönköpings län och 150 från Östergötlands län. Fluorokrommärkta antikroppar riktade mot CD42a och CD61 användes för att detektera HPA1a-negativitet med flödescytometrisk metod. I Jönköpings län detekterades fyra (2,7 %) HPA1a-negativa blodgivare och i Östergötlands län detekterades sex (4,0 %) HPA1a-negativa blodgivare. Statistisk analys visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan antal HPA1a-negativa blodgivare i de undersökta länen. Länens prevalens av HPA1a-negativitet motsvarade den genomsnittliga prevalensen i Sverige och nya HPA1a-negativa blodgivare har registrerats vilket är en viktig tillgång då patienter är i behov av trombocytkoncentrat. Då studien begränsades av dess ringa storlek samt att kvinnor exkluderats bör vidare studier med större populationer och fler län i Sverige utföras.

  • 26.
    Karlsson, Samuel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Palma Jansson, Nelly
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Jämförelse av kommersiella och InHouse kontroller för realtids-PCR vid diagnostik av Herpes simplexvirus 1 och 22018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 which usually cause benign diseases but can even cause mortality. The diagnostics of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 are performed with real-time Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the real-time PCR method, specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences are amplified into millions of copies which are then detected with fluorescein. Positive and negative controls are used in real-time PCR. The positive controls can be InHouse or commercial. The interpretation of the results includes inspection of the controls. DNA is subject to degradation processes of different kinds and can be stored in different ways to maintain stability. The purpose of the study was to compare the laboratory's InHouse controls with two commercial controls, to evaluate which of these were more stable over time. The evaluation was performed by analyzing the three controls with real-time PCR after they were stored in temperatures at -20° C, at 5° C and at 20° C, and were diluted in TE-buffer or in water. The commercial and InHouse controls proved to be equitable. Further studies carried out for a longer period of time, to a greater extent and where concentrations are the same for each control are suggested.  

  • 27.
    Kumbaric, Sana
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Odobasic, Lejla
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Verifiering av EliA-metoden för analys av reumatoid faktor IgM och anti-CCP IgG2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common autoimmune disease and the prevalence is 0.5-1.0% among the population in industrial countries. Diagnosis of RA is based partially on detection of the autoantibodies rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP). Nephelometry and CMIA have been the main methods for detection of the antibodies at Laboratoriemedicin at the County Hospital Ryhov in Jönköping. The purpose of this study was to verify the EliA-method for anti-CCP and RF on Phadia 250 in order to replace the current methods with the EliA-method. Determination of cut-off, intermediate precision, within-run precision and consistency with the previous method was performed on a total of 115 samples (70 blood-donors, 30 patient samples and 15 consecutive samples). A correlation between CMIA and the nephelometric method with EliA-method was performed and a cathegorical correspondance was done to assess the accordance between the previous methods with the EliA-method. A good correlation was obtained for anti-CCP between CMIA and the EliA-method (r=0.953, p=0.001) and RF obtained good correlation between the nephelometric method and the EliA-method (r=0.835, p=0.048). Analysis of both markers simultaneously has been recommended and the verification enabled the transition to the EliA-method on Phadia 250 for Laboratoriemedicin in Jönköping. 

  • 28.
    Kurt, Nour
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Sohlé, Jonna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Jämförelse mellan Grocotts manuella och automatiserade färgningsmetod2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Grocott method is the most sensitive staining method for fungal structures in histological tissues in comparison to for example Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS). Usage of the cancerogenic chromic acid and the time aspect for Grocott are significant problems. The aim of this study was to examine if the automated staining method for Grocott provides equivalent results in comparison to the manual staining method. Twelve tissue sections were stained with both the automated and the manual method. The automated method contains a kit with all solutions. Visual evaluation was conducted with authorized biomedical scientists and a pathologist. Fungi structures in eight of eleven tissue sections and a control were evaluated as more distinct in the automated method in comparison to the manual method. Fungal structures in one of the tissue sections were evaluated more distinct in the manual method. In the remaining two tissue sections, no fungal structures were identified. Results from this study indicates that the automated staining method for Grocott provides equally, alternatively more distinct fungal staining in comparison to the manual method.

  • 29.
    Lindor, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Pettersson, Evelina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    The prevalence of hypertension in young medical students in Vietnam2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Lynge, Alexandra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Petersson, Rebecka
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Prevalens av Anaplasma phagocytophilum och Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis i Ixodes ricinus fästingar insamlade i Nordnorge2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing spread of tick-borne diseases is a growing problem in Europe. The Ixodes ricinus tick is the vector of two human pathogens: Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Due to climate changes the I. ricinus tick is expanding further north and with it, the tick-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum and Ca. N. mikurensis in I. ricinus ticks collected in the northern part of Norway, using real-time PCR. The material was previously analyzed for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Rickettsia spp. A total of 557 ticks were analyzed where 354 were questing ticks and 203 were collected from pets. Positive result was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The result showed a prevalence of 2.3% for A. phagocytophilum and 0.4% for Ca. N. mikurensis. Compared to previous studies in the same area both A. phagocytophilum and Ca. N. mikurensis showed lower prevalence. Co-infection with Borrelia afzelii was detected for both bacteria species. Further studies of the prevalence for both bacteria needs to be done continuously, not only in questing ticks but also in ticks collected from domestic and wild animals, to get a deeper understanding of how these tick-borne bacteria are spreading.

  • 31.
    Maksuti, Elira
    et al.
    KTH, Medicinsk bildteknik.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, Medicinsk bildteknik.
    Broomé, Michael
    KTH, Medicinsk bildteknik.
    Modelling the heart with the atrioventricular plane as a piston unit2015In: Medical Engineering and Physics, ISSN 1350-4533, E-ISSN 1873-4030, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 87-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical imaging and clinical studies have proven that the heart pumps by means of minor outer volume changes and back-and-forth longitudinal movements in the atrioventricular (AV) region. The magnitude of AV-plane displacement has also shown to be a reliable index for diagnosis of heart failure. Despite this, AV-plane displacement is usually omitted from cardiovascular modelling. We present a lumped-parameter cardiac model in which the heart is described as a displacement pump with the AV plane functioning as a piston unit (AV piston). This unit is constructed of different upper and lower areas analogous with the difference in the atrial and ventricular cross-sections. The model output reproduces normal physiology, with a left ventricular pressure in the range of 8-130 mmHg, an atrial pressure of approximatly 9 mmHg, and an arterial pressure change between 75 mmHg and 130 mmHg. In addition, the model reproduces the direction of the main systolic and diastolic movements of the AV piston with realistic velocity magnitude (similar to 10 cm/s). Moreover, changes in the simulated systolic ventricular-contraction force influence diastolic filling, emphasizing the coupling between cardiac systolic and diastolic functions. The agreement between the simulation and normal physiology highlights the importance of myocardial longitudinal movements and of atrioventricular interactions in cardiac pumping.

  • 32.
    Millberg, Adelina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Vingård, Johanna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Helkroppsdos till personal vid PET/CT- undersökningar och doshastighet från patienter undersökta med 18F-FDG2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33. Mårtenson, Simon
    et al.
    Andreasson, Oscar
    Reproducerbarheten av viridansstreptokocker med MALDI-TOF MS2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 34.
    Möller, Matilda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Niklasson, Hanna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Detektion med realtids-PCR av Rickettsia spp. i Ixodes ricinus fästingar insamlade i Nordnorge2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tick-borne infections have become a growing problem in the Northern hemisphere. In Europe Ixodes ricinus is the most abundant tick species. The tick acts as vector for many microorganisms including Rickettsia spp. which can cause rickettsiosis in humans and animals. The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of Rickettsia spp. in I. ricinus collected at Brønnøy and in the Northern Norway, using real-time PCR. A total of 557 I. ricinus ticks were analyzed for the presence of Rickettsia spp. Seven out of the 557 ticks (1.3%) were positive for Rickettsia spp. and a significant difference between developmental stages was detected.  The study is the first to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. in I. ricinus ticks in Northern of Norway. The pathogenic distribution is most likely to expand to new northern areas. The results of the study could be used as a starting-point for further studies of the bacterial spread and the potential risk of transmission to humans and animals. The public should be informed of possible infection risks.

  • 35.
    Naser, Rafal
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Jacob, Amir
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    En jämförande studie mellan tre selektiva agarplattors förmåga att detektera β-laktamas producerande bakterier2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria that produce enzymes with extended spectrum, Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBLs), have a major role in a clinical perspective since they became resistant to most antibiotics, leading to limited treatment options. In order to detect the bacteria, chromogenic agar plates were used for culture in order to inhibit growth of yeast and gram positive bacteria and enables the detection of ESBL-positive strains. The aim of this study was to compare three chromogenic agar plates CHROMagar ESBL, ChromID ESBL and CHROMagar C3GR regarding their specificity and sensitivity. A total of 130 different samples from faeces, blood, wounds and urine were randomly selected for the routine diagnosis. The samples were grown on the three chromogenic agar plates and were species identified by IVD Maldi biotypes and resistance determined with VITEK. The overall sensitivity for ESBLs with 95% confidence interval, after 16 hours of aerobic incubation at 37° C was 96.7 % (CI 81.0-99.9 %) for the three agar plates. The specificity showed 94.0 % (CI 86.9-97.5 %) for CHROMagar ESBL, 93.1 % (CI 85,6- 96.9 %) for ChromID ESBL and 73.0 % (CI 63, 0- 81 , 2 %) for CHROMagar C3GR. All three chromogenic agar plates were equally sensitive but the specificity differed. CHROMagar ESBL and ESBL ChromID were considered equivalent.

  • 36.
    Nilsson, Malin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Jämförelse av CIN-agar och CHROMagar Y. enterocolitica vid identifiering av humanpatogena Yersinia enterocolitica2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica can cause acute gastroenteritis in humans. To identify the bacterium, cultivation of stool samples on CIN-agar are performed. A chromogenic medium has been developed that differentiate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. The purpose is to compare and evaluate two CIN-agar, with agar bases and supplements from two companies (Liofilchem and Oxoid), and CHROMagar Y. enterocolitica (CHROMagar). Growth of stool samples and serial dilutions of six Y. enterocolitica strains and one strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis were performed. Comparisons of the growth and inhibition of other bacteria were done for the stool samples. Colonies for each dilution were counted and appearance of the colonies was evaluated. The result indicates that a difference in inhibitory effect on Y. enterocolitica and appearance of colonies exist between the two CIN-agar. All strains grew with larger colonies on Oxoid CIN-agar than on Liofilchem’s. Oxoid CIN-agar and CHROMagar have a lower inhibitory effect on Y. enterocolitica than Liofilchem’s. On CHROMagar, the pathogenic strains grew with mauve colonies, whilst the nonpathogenic strains grew with blue colonies. Thus, the conclusion is that CHROMagar and Oxoid CIN-agar have less inhibitory effect on Y. enterocolitica than Liofilchem’s. CHROMagar can differentiate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. 

  • 37.
    Paulina, Månsson
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Rita, Jbeilly
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Positronemissonstomografi som diagnostik vid Huntingtons sjukdom: - en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Huntingtons sjukdom (HD) är en genetiskt autosomal neurodegenerativ sjukdom där orsaken beror på ökade glutamin (CAG)-sekvenser. HD karaktäriserar sig kliniskt med motoriska symtom som ofrivilliga rörelser, samt psykologiska och kognitiva symtom. Positron emission tomografi har länge används inom olika forskningsområden för att ge en bättre förståelse kring patologin hos neurodegenerativa sjukdomar. Metoden möjliggör en tre-dimensionell visualisering över de metaboliska processerna som sker i hjärnan. De nutida experimentella behandlingarna är att bevara de basala gangliernas funktion samt att sakta ner progressionen av HD. Syfte: Syftet med examensarbetet är att reda på hur man kan använda positronemissionstomografi (PET) som diagnostik vid HD. Metod: Detta examensarbete utformades som en litteraturstudie baserad på femton kvantitativa vetenskapliga artiklar som behandlade HD och PET för att skapa en översikt inom forskningsområdet. Resultat: Resultatet presenteras enligt följande teman: Radiofarmaka vid HD samt Sjukdomspåverkade områden i hjärnan vid HD. Samtliga elva analyserade artiklar har påvisat att man med hjälp av PET kan diagnostisera HD, vilket bekräftade examensarbetets syfte. Diskussion: PET som forskningsområde vid HD är begränsat. Forskning kring den molekylära funktionen vid HD inriktas på djur. Slutsats: Detta examensarbete har svarat på att man med hjälp av PET kan diagnostisera HD och visualisera sjukdomsförloppet.

  • 38.
    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Nilsson, Kjell-Åke
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Validation of a patient activity monitor to quantify ambulatory activity in an amputee population2007In: Prosthetics and orthotics international, ISSN 0309-3646, E-ISSN 1746-1553, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 157-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to objectively measure an amputee's walking activity over prolonged periods can provide clinicins with a useful means of evaluating their patients' outcomes. The present study aimed to validate the temporospatial data output from a commercially available ambulatory activity monitor (PAM, Össur) fitted to trans-tibial and trans-femoral amputees, against data that was simultansously captured from a three dimensional motion analysis system (Qualisys Medical AB, Gothenburg, Sweden). Results indicate that the PAM monitor provides accurate measures of temporospatial aspects of amputee gait for walking speeds above 0.75m/s.

  • 39.
    Rehnstedt, Malin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Aspartat aminotransferas enzymaktivitet mätt i Advia 1800 och Sigma Aldrich AST AAK: En jämförande analys2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When liver cells become subject to disease or disintegration intracellular substances will leak into the blood. These substances can be measured in different ways. For physicians to make adequate decisions based upon laboratory results, among others, it is important to evaluate instruments for both reliability and equivalence. The aim was to compare Advia 1800 with Sigma Aldrich´s Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity assay kit (AAK) concerning enzyme activity. In Advia 1800, 40 samples of patient serum where analyzed and then frozen at -20° C to prevent further enzyme degradation. Analysis was then performed with AST AAK on thawed samples. Results show a correlation coefficient of 0,104 and the two methods are not comparable. The p-value was <0,05

  • 40.
    Smlatic, Alma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Quijano Östangård, Anna-Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Stående vs. sittande position vid dynamisk spirometri: En jämförelse av lungvolymer för att värdesätta standardisering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forcerad exspiratorisk volym på en sekund (FEV1) och vitalkapacitet (VC) utgör grunden för spirometri som är ett diagnostiskt hjälpmedel vid lungsjukdomar. Spirometri utförs vanligtvis i sittande position, men kan utföras i stående position. Syftet med studien var att jämföra om det finns en signifikant skillnad för FEV1 och VC vid dynamisk spirometri mellan sittande och stående position hos studenter utan känd lungsjukdom. Datainsamlingen utfördes på Klinisk Fysiologi, Länssjukhuset Ryhov i Jönköping av legitimerad biomedicinsk analytiker. 13 frivilliga studenter i åldrarna 22-33 deltog i studien, fyra var män och nio var kvinnor. Genomsnittligt BMI var 21,9 kg/m2 . Manövrarna utfördes minst tre gånger i sittande och sedan stående position. Deltagare med längd över 175 cm fick stå på knä. Medianen för VC i sittande position var 4,5 liter respektive 4,4 liter i stående position. Medianen för FEV1 var 3,6 liter i samtliga kroppspositioner. Wilcoxon-rangsummetest påvisade ingen statistiskt signifikant skillnad för varken VC eller FEV1 mellan sittande och stående position. På grund av litet urval kan ingen generell slutsats dras av denna studie men kan utgöra underlag för fortsatta studier. Ytterligare studier med en större och mer spridd population krävs för att kunna dra generella slutsatser om kroppspositionens påverkan på FEV1 och VC.

  • 41.
    Suba, Madeleine
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Lundgren, Mattias
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Utvärdering av sensitivitet och specificitet för Acro Biotech Multitest 15 vid drogscreening2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The emergency and psychiatric wards on the county hospital Ryhov in Jönköping utilize onsite drug testing with varying quality during evenings and night-time when no staff are operating the chemistry analyzer Konelab Prime 30i. The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of sensitivity and specificity of Acro Biotech Multitest 15 and comparing results from two different reading-times. The number of urine samples collected for analysis was 272. Positive and negative urine samples with drug concentrations within ± 50% from cut-off were collected. Later, concentrations outside of this range was included. The samples were tested with Multitest 15 at the laboratory for clinical chemistry at Ryhov after analysis with Konelab Prime 30i providing reference results. The drugs tested were amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, cocaine, methadone, morphine, THC, oxycodone and tramadol. All drugs included, the sensitivity was 86.7% - 100%, the specificity 33% - 100% and the accuracy 71.4% - 94.7%. The sample selection within the range ±50% from the cut-off value was limited, which significantly affected these calculations, and Konelab Prime 30i uses a semi-quantitative method only providing approximate concentration values for reference.

  • 42.
    Sörnmo, Maria
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Lind, Julia
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Fixerade elektroders betydelse för mängden uppkomna artefakter vid 24-timmars långtids-elektrokardiografi-registrering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Artefacts complicate the analysis of long-term electrocardiography-registration (LTER) and result in a worsened diagnostic accuracy. Thus, minimization of the amount of artefacts plays a vital role in the making of a correct diagnosis.

    The aim of this study was to compare if the amount of artefacts that occurred during 24-hour LTER on patients, differed with and without electrode fixation. 

    Thirty patients who underwent a 24-hour LTER, at Länssjukhuset Ryhov in Jönköping, were included in the study and divided into two groups. In group A; a tubular net bandage was used to keep the electrocardiography (ECG) cables in place. In group B, the electrodes and ECG cables were fixated with Mefix. A comparison was made, between the groups, regarding the amount of artefacts that occurred during the registration period. 

    To analyze if there was a significant difference between the groups, Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied. The result proved to be within the range limits of the critical value, which implies that the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Hence, there was no significant difference regarding the amount of artefacts that occurred. However, because of a small sample volume and shortfalls in the study procedure, no founded statistical conclusions could be drawn. 

  • 43.
    Thideman, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Carlsdotter, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Värdet av SPECT-CT som tillägg vid skelettscintigrafi: Möjligheten att öka specificiteten vid metastasfrågeställning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 44.
    Tynkkynen, Susann
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Pinheiro, Oskar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Kan planar skelettscintigrafi ersättas av helkroppstomografi vid screening av prostatacancer?: Ökar därmed det diagnostiska värdet ?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Värme, Caroline
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Wirström, Johanna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Temperaturpåverkan på lymfocyters stabilitet i helblod taget i TransFix/EDTA-rör2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subset is performed on whole blood, collected in EDTA vacutainer, requires analysis to be performed within 48 h, to prevent cellular degradation and to achieve reliable results. The short preservation of whole blood in EDTA vacutainer makes them not suitable as a laboratory quality control, because they are expensive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if frozen and thawed blood samples, collected in TransFix/EDTA, can be analysed with flow cytometry without affecting the lymphocyte profile. The purpose of this study was also to evaluate which concentration of TransFix/EDTA vacutainer tube is most suitable for analysis. Blood samples were collected in two vacutainer tubes, concentration 1:5 and 1:10, from twelve blood donors and then stored in -80°C. The samples were then thawed ten times during a six-week period and analysed with flow cytometry. The result was compared to the result from the first analysis on room temperature samples that was performed within 6 h of veinpuncture collection. Some differences were observed in the concentration of CD45+ lymphocytes, but the percentage of lymphocyte subpopulations maintained stable in blood samples that was stored in -80°C when analysed with flow cytometry. The study showed that TransFix/EDTA vaccutainer tube with the low concentration 1:10 of cell preservative solutions shows better results on samples stored in -80°C.

  • 46.
    Ögren, Jessica
    et al.
    Division of Medical Diagnostics, Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, County Hospital Ryhov, Region Jönköping County, Sweden.
    Van Nguyen, Song
    Department of Medical Laboratory, Da Nang University of Medical Technology and Pharmacy, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Dimberg, Jan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Division of Medical Diagnostics, Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, County Hospital Ryhov, Region Jönköping County, Sweden.
    Prevalence of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, and Cryptosporidium spp inDa Nang, Vietnam, detected by a multiplex real-time PCR2016In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 124, no 6, p. 529-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We surveyed the prevalence of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium spp in individuals with and without gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms residing in and around Da Nang city, Vietnam. Fecal samples were collected from children (n = 100) and adults (n = 80) with GI symptoms and from healthy individuals (n = 88) reporting no GI symptoms. Parasite detection was performed by multiplex real-time PCR. Overall, except for G. duodenalis, we found a low prevalence (<5%) of D. fragilis and E. dispar and no detection of E. histolytica and C. spp in all participants with GI symptoms. Specifically for D. fragilis this contrasts with findings in European populations of children with GI symptoms showing prevalence up to 73%. Moreover, our results indicate that the prevalence of G. duodenalis is higher in patients with GI symptoms compared to asymptomatic individuals and this difference is most obvious in young patients.

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