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  • 1.
    Agahi, Neda
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kelfve, Susanne
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alcohol consumption in very old age and its association with survival: a matter of health and physical function2016In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 159, p. 240-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Alcohol consumption in very old age is increasing; yet, little is known about the personal and health-related characteristics associated with different levels of alcohol consumption and the association between alcohol consumption and survival among the oldest old.

    Methods

    Nationally representative data from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD, ages 76-101; n = 863) collected in 2010/2011 were used. Mortality was analyzed until 2014. Alcohol consumption was measured with questions about frequency and amount. Drinks per month were calculated and categorized as abstainer, light-to-moderate drinker (0.5–30 drinks/month) and heavy drinker (>30 drinks/month). Multinomial logistic regressions and Laplace regressions were performed.

    Results

    Compared to light-to-moderate drinkers, abstainers had lower levels of education and more functional health problems, while heavy drinkers were more often men, had higher levels of education, and no serious health or functional problems. In models adjusted only for age and sex, abstainers died earlier than drinkers. Among light-to-moderate drinkers, each additional drink/month was associated with longer survival, while among heavy drinkers, each additional drink/month was associated with shorter survival. However, after adjusting for personal and health-related factors, estimates were lower and no longer statistically significant.

    Conclusions

    The association between alcohol consumption and survival in very old age seems to have an inverse J-shape; abstention and heavy use is associated with shorter survival compared to light-to-moderate drinking. To a large extent, differences in survival are due to differences in baseline health and physical function.

    Graphical abstract

  • 2.
    Beckhusen, Benedict
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Mobile Apps and the ultimate addiction to the Smartphone: A comprehensive study on the consequences of society’s mobile needs2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The smartphone is omnipresent and is cherished and held close by people. It allows for constant connection within a digitally connected society, as well as for many other purposes such as leisure activity or informational purpose. Within the Information Systems studies deeper investigation is required as to what impact this “taken – for – granted” mobile access to information and mobile apps has for individuals and society and if a “technological addiction”can be developed when using the smartphone for everything during the day on such a constant basis.

    The aim of this study was to understand the role of the smartphone in society and to shed light on this unclear relationship between the constant use of a smartphone and its development towards an addictive quality. To reach a conclusion, in depth – interviews were conducted with participants about their relationship to the smartphone and their smartphone use based on questions derived from literature on mobile communication technologies and the types of digital addictions existing.

    The results are that the smartphone is a device that seamlessly integrates into our daily lives in that we unconsciously use it as a tool to make our daily tasks more manageable, and enjoyable. It also supports us in getting better organized, to be in constant touch with family and friends remotely, and to be more mobile which is a useful ability in today’s mobility driven society.

    Smartphones have been found to inhabit a relatively low potential to addiction. Traits of voluntary behaviour, habitual behaviour, and mandatory behaviour of smartphone use have been found. All of these behaviours are not considered a true addiction. In the end, it seems that the increase of smartphone use is mainly due to the way we communicate nowadays digitally,and the shift in how we relate to our social peers using digital means.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Kristina J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Balldin, Jan
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry of the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg .
    Berggren, Ulf
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry of the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg .
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Fahlke, Claudia
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg .
    Childhood Maltreatment Affects the Serotonergic System in Male Alcohol-Dependent Individuals2013In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 757-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reduced central serotonergic neurotransmission has been demonstrated in individuals with excessive alcohol consumption and/or alcohol dependence. Childhood maltreatment has also been found to have a negative impact on central serotonergic neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of childhood maltreatment on central serotonergic dysfunction in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Methods: Adult men with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence (n=18) were recruited from outpatient treatment units for alcoholism. Central serotonergic neurotransmission was assessed by a neuroendocrine method, that is, the prolactin (PRL) response to the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.

    Results: Alcohol-dependent individuals with childhood experience of emotional abuse had significantly lower PRL response compared with those without such abuse (3 +/- 5 and 64 +/- 24mU/l, respectively; t=6.51, p<0.001). Among those who reported childhood emotional abuse, 4 of 7 individuals had flat PRL responses in comparison with none in those with no report of such abuse (p<0.01).

    Conclusions: This is the first study to show that self-reported childhood maltreatment, in particular emotional abuse, in male alcohol-dependent individuals is associated with a quite dramatic (more than 90%) reduction in central serotonergic neurotransmission. It should, however, be noted that the number of individuals is relatively small, and the results should therefore be considered as preliminary.

  • 4.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Diagnosinstrument för beroende och missbruk - Granskning av ADDIS validitet och interna konsistens gällande alkoholproblem2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 265-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Board on Health and Welfare recommends that structured assessment instruments should be used in medical as well as in social treatment of substance misusers. These should be validated in a Swedish context. Instruments for diagnoses of dependence/abuse (DSM-IV) and dependence/harmful use (ICD-10) have been used in Sweden for many years, although not yet validated in Swedish. ADDIS, the Swedish version of the American SUDDS, is used in four Nordic countries and the most often used diagnostic instrument in Sweden. This article investigates the psychometric properties of ADDIS alcohol module, including discriminant and construct validity and internal consistency. The two main constructs in DSM - dependence and abuse - as well as the seven criteria for dependence and the four criteria for abuse are studied. Further, the value of each of the 44 specific items in ADDIS for capturing these criteria is studied.

    Two samples are explored: 1) a clinical sample (n = 349; incl. 129 women) and 2) a sample of 400 men convicted for driving while intoxicated. Mean age was the same (41 ys.). Using discriminant analyses on lifetime prevalence, the items correctly classify 94% of the cases in the two samples. Using one-factor principal component analysis to explore homogeneity of the combined samples, all 28 items on dependence and 15 of 18 items on abuse have loadings above 0,40 (R2 dependence = 0,46; abuse = 0,40). Separate analyses of the two samples, as well as on women, show similar results. Cronbach's alpha is excellent for dependence and satisfactory for abuse in all analyses. Analyses of specific criteria show satisfactory results on dependence and acceptable on abuse. Minor revisions are proposed to make ADDIS more user-friendly and to improve some specific items.

    In conclusion: ADDIS has acceptable to excellent discriminant and construct validity as well as internal consistency and captures the specific criteria of DSM-IV. It has the preconditions for sensitive assessment of alcohol use disorders in men and women.

  • 5.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Diagnosinstrument för substansberoende - MINI, SCID-I, eller ADDIS?2015In: Best Practice, ISSN 1329-1874, Vol. 6, no 23, p. 28-31Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Framgångsfaktorer i vården vid tungt missbruk: Inviterad föreläsning vid konferensen "På jakt efter den kraft som utvecklar", FSS studiedagar i Åre 27-29 september, Föreningen Sveriges Socialchefer (FSS)2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Från "tvångologins" horisont: Forskning om tvångsvård vid tungt missbruk2008In: Från teori och randomisering till klinik: Festskrift till Mats Berglund / [ed] Jan Arlebrink, Lund: Lunds Universitet, Medicinska fakulteten , 2008, p. 233-252Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    LVM-vårdens genomförande, utfall och efekt - En kontrollerad registerstudie i Jämtland2004In: Bilagedel till LVM-utredningens betänkande "Tvång och förändring": SOU 2004:3, Stockholm: Socialdepartementet & Fritzes Förlag , 2004, p. 415-476Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Missbrukarvårdens mål - framgångsfaktorer och hinder.2005In: Personer med tungt missbruk - Stimulans till bättre vård och behandling: SOU 2005:82, Stockholm: Socialdepartementet , 2005, p. 91-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Perspektiv på tvångsvård för alkohol- och drogproblem:  2007In: Inviterad föreläsning vid konferensen "Tvangsinleggelser i Rusbehandling - erfaringer, dilemmaer og muligheter.: i arrangemang av Borgestadklinikken, Helse Sør og RESA (Regional for samordning og analyse av rusebehandling) Sandefjord 11 april 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Tvångsvårdens utfall och effekt2005In: Tvångsvård vid missbruk: LVM i teori och praktik / [ed] Jan Arlebrink, Marianne Larsson Kronberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2005, p. 217-254Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Utfall av LVM-vård - Översikt och syntes av hittillsvarande studier2004In: Bilagedel till LVM-utredningens betänkande "Tvång och förändring": SOU 2004:3, Stockholm: Socialdepartementet & Fritzes Förlag , 2004, p. 303-414Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Vård av personer med samtidigt missbruk och annan psykisk störning - samordning eller integration av insatser: Inviterad föreläsning vid konferensen Framgångsrik missbruks- och beroendevård, Institutet För Kompetensutveckling 26-27 april, 20072007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö, Lunds Universitet.
    Berglund, Mats
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö.
    Mortality of treated alcoholics after eight years in relation to  short-term outcome1997In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 573-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns the relation between mortality and the short-term outcome of inpatient treatment for alcoholism. A total of 121 patients (87 men, 34 women) were included, of whom 89 were voluntary and 32 compulsorily committed. They had a mean age of 41±7 (SD) years and attended a 5-week programme at Runnagården, Örebro, Sweden. Most patients were socially unstable and severely alcohol-dependent. Ten months (mean) after discharge, 96% of the patients and their referring social workers were contacted with mail questionnaires. Of these patients, 13% had been totally abstinent and a further 42% improved but had had relapses. After a mean of 8.5±0.27 years, 27 patients (24%) had died. All abstainers survived, but non-abstainers had nine-fold higher mortality than expected. Non-abstinent improved women tended to survive longer than non-improved women, but among non-abstinent improved men no such tendency was found. In conclusion, a reduction in the frequency and quantity of abusive drinking was not enough to reduce the higher risk of death. Only abstinence seemed to be preventive.

  • 15.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö, Lunds universitet.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Statistiska institutionen, Örebro Universitet.
    Berglund, Mats
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Socialmedicinsk avdelning, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Prediction of outcome in coerced and voluntarily treated alcoholics.1996In: Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 0907-2055, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 106-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study concerns multivariate prediction of the short-term outcome of alcoholism in a coercive treatment setting in Sweden. One hundred and twenty-one patients (87 men, 34 women) with a mean age of 41 (range 26–63) years attended a 5-week program. They were for the most part severely alcohol-dependent and socially unstable. Compulsorily committed patients (n-32) were less socially stable but did not differ from the voluntary patients (n=89) in the type of drugs abused. Nine months (mean) after treatment, a follow-up was performed by mailing questionnaires to the patients and to the referring social workers. The improvement data in the questionnaires were checked with other data. Data on alcohol abuse were available for 116 (96%) of the patients; 55% improved. Of these, 13% had remained entirely abstinent. Using multivariate logistic regression, participation in a self-help group and first-time admission were found to be significant factors for overall improvement, while having a family and more than primary education were significant for abstinence. Compulsory commitment to treatment was not related to the short-term drinking outcome. Undergoing voluntary treatment and having previous treatment experience were significant factors for participation in self-help groups.

  • 16.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Runnagården, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Yrkesmedicinska enheten, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Socialmedicinsk avdelning, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Minnesotamodellen på Runnagården - bakgrundsfaktorer och resultat1989In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 86, no 32-33, p. 2671-2674Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Fridell, Mats
    Lunds universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Effects of psychologists' assessment of patients within compulsory care - A matched-control trial.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö, Lunds universitet.
    Furuholm, Per-Eric
    Runnagården, Örebro.
    Berglund, Mats
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö.
    Abscondance and length of treatment in locked wards for compulsorily committed alcoholics in relation to treatment program and legal changes1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 0907-2055, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 310-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Describes a study of alcoholics compulsorily committed to a locked ward in a coercive treatment setting in Sweden. Finds that the introduction of an Alcoholics Anonymous - oriented programme in a coercive treatment setting reduced the time spent on a locked ward without increasing the number of times patients absconded. Increase in length of coercion increased both the time spent at the locked ward and the number of times absconded.

  • 19.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Holmberg, Anders
    Örebro Universitet.
    Factors affecting motivation to treatment in severely dependent alcoholics.2000In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol, ISSN 0096-882X, E-ISSN 1934-2683, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 548-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    This article explores environmental, developmental and personality-related factors as predictors of motivation to treatment for alcoholism, using such concepts as: social situation on admission, treatment career, age, education and adventurous patterns of behavior.

    METHOD:

    The original population consists of 603 severely dependent alcoholic patients (76% men, 42% compulsorily committed) with a mean age of 40 years. In structural equation model estimation, 85% of the original cases were used (N = 511), made up of compulsorily as well as voluntarily admitted patients. A reduced model was tried on voluntary patients alone.

    RESULTS:

    In the main model, patterns of behavior and age were not related to the motivation to treatment, while treatment career had some negative impact. Social problems were related to less motivation to treatment. In turn, a worse social situation was related to more treatment experience. The reduced model on voluntary patients alone confirmed the main findings, although more previous treatment tended to be related to more motivation.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Motivation was mostly related to a better social situation (i.e., having "more to lose"). A collapse in the social situation was more of an obstacle than a promoter of motivation. There was no support for statements that "maturing out" would result in more motivation, and findings were inconclusive concerning the impact on motivation of having had many previous treatment experiences. The pattern of behavior was not directly related to the level of motivation. Based on these findings, the relevance of social work for motivation to treatment is discussed.

  • 20.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Kestenberg, Jenny
    Clinic of Psychiatry, NU Hospital Group, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Mattias, Edvinsson
    Clinic of Psychiatry, NU Hospital Group, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Validity of the Swedish SCID and ADDIS diagnostic interviews for substance use disorders: Sensitivity and specificity compared with a LEAD golden standard2015In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 48-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study explores agreement on diagnoses and diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders between two structured assessment interviews, the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID) and the Alkohol/Drog Diagnos InStrument (ADDIS). Both interviews are compared with a golden standard (GS), based on a LEAD model (Longitudinal, Expert, All Data). Method: Patients were interviewed concerning substance use problems by trained interviewers using SCID and ADDIS separately and blind to each other's results. SCID and ADDIS interviews were compared with each other, and both were compared with a GS. Results: Satisfactory agreement exists between SCID and ADDIS on criteria as well as final diagnostic suggestions, although ADDIS tended to propose dependence diagnoses somewhat more often than SCID. Agreement between SCID and GS is moderate. Sensitivity of SCID is satisfactory, as is specificity for lifetime diagnoses, while specificity for current diagnoses is perfect. ADDIS demonstrates substantial to perfect agreement with GS on dependence diagnoses and moderate agreement on abuse diagnoses (both lifetime and current), as well as showing excellent to perfect overall sensitivity and specificity. Both instruments are in almost perfect agreement with the GS on severity ratings. Conclusion: Both ADDIS and SCID can be used to ensure good standards in the diagnostic assessment of substance use disorders (both alcohol and drugs), with and without psychiatric comorbidity. Significant outcomes. Both SCID and ADDIS are in good agreement with the GS based on a LEAD model concerning substance use disorders.

  • 21.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nordlander, Torsten
    Karlstad Universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pedersen, Therese
    Örebro Universitet.
    Personality factors and drug of choice in female addicts with psychiatric comorbidity2001In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Female addicts (N= 108) with a mean age of 37.2 were tested using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 1996-97. In a representative sub-sample (N = 49) assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview. DSMIIIr (SCID), 82% manifested an axis-1-syndrome (lifetime), and 53% a personality disorder. Of the 108 addicts, 42 preferred alcohol, 14 heroin, 33 amphetamines, and 19 benzodiazepines. Maturity was low, but there were no differences in maturity between drug preference groups. Results indicated that those less mature were more "novelty-seeking" and "harm-avoidant", while those maturer tended to be more persistent. Less mature persons answered less consistently. They agreed more with different items and their answers were more rare when compared to the general population. Heroin addicts were less sentimental and helpful and more aware of their own resources. Benzodiazepine and amphetamine addicts were more self-transcendent and self-forgetful. Among the relatively more mature, benzodiazepine addicts scored higher than heroin and alcohol addicts on "true" and rare answers. In conclusion, maturity and the drug of choice among female addicts were related to different TCI scales.

  • 22.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Avdelningen för Klinisk Alkoholforskning, Malmö, Lunds Universitet.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Socialmedicinsk avdelning, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Alkoholism som sjukdom1993In: Nordisk Alkoholtidskrift, ISSN 0789-6069, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö, Lunds universitet.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Socialmedicinsk avdelning, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Explaining inconsistancy between patient and collateral: Validity in outcome studies of coercive alcoholism treatment1996In: Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 0907-2055, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the consistency of replies to questionnaires mailed to patients and two kinds of collaterals, i.e., social workers and significant others, at a public treatment center with socially unstable and compulsory committed patients. It compares the quantity and kind of discrepancies between replies by patients and collaterals on outcome data concerning social situation and drinking habits. It aims to measure the amount of systematic bias among factors that may explain inconsistencies between reports, especially the factors compulsory commitment, worse outcome, frequency of contact and type of collateral. The responders generally agreed. Variables in which there was less agreement were explored in logistic regressions using ten explanatory variables. Significant relations did not exceed those expected by chance. Discrepancies were not systematic in size and kind. On a six-rank ordinal scale of alcohol use or abuse, however, patients tended to underestimate the extent of their abuse. Inconsistencies here concerned the degree but not the presence of abuse. No difference in consistency due to type of collateral was found. In conclusion, the consistency of the questionnaires was high and independent of the social situation of the patient, of compulsory commitment and of other background or treatment factors, as well as of treatment outcome and type of collateral.

  • 24.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Socialmedicinsk avdelning, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Berglund, Mats
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö.
    Social workers and significant others as collaterals of non-responding alcoholics in follow-up studies using mail questionnaires and telephone inteviews1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 0907-2055, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 34-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this study is non-response to mail questionnaires and supplementary telephone interviews in evaluation of outcome of treatment for alcohol dependence. The study is based on two clinical populations (n= 121 and 603) from Runnagården, Sweden, a coercive care setting with both voluntary and compulsorily committed patients. The populations differed regarding size, treatment and background factors. Replies were obtained from two- and one-third of the patients in the two populations respectively. Replies from social workers were obtained in 67% and 57% of the cases respectively, and from significant others in 59% of a smaller sub-sample of the second population. With respect to the combination of patient and collaterals, we received at least one questionnaire reply concerning 96% and 79% of the two populations respectively. In this study we analysed non-response and evaluated two methods to remedy this, i.e., prediction of the outcome in non-responders from additional telephone follow-up and questionnaires to collaterals. About two-thirds of patients who replied had improved, compared with about one-third of non-responders. Significant others replied more often if patients had improved, while social workers replied more often if patients had not improved. Patients who did not reply to mail questionnaires, but answered the same questions in a telephone interview, differed in drinking outcome from non-responders, but not from mail respondents. The method of using questionnaires addressed to social workers as an additional source of data can be used in countries with a general system of social welfare services and is better than the use of significant others as collaterals. In conclusion, replies obtained by additional telephone interviews were not representative for patients who did not return mail questionnaires. Non-response groups were highly selected in each of the three questionnaires (addressed to patients, significant others and social workers). Since the selectivity had opposite tendencies, the combination of questionnaires to patients and to social workers seems to be the most representative.

  • 25.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Wickström, Lynn
    Reliability of ADDIS for diagnoses of substance use disorders according to ICD-10, DSM-IV and DSM-5: test-retest and inter-item consistency2015In: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, ISSN 1747-597X, E-ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-8, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study investigates test-retest and inter-item consistency of Alcohol Drog Diagnos InStrument (ADDIS), a structured interview to diagnose substance use disorders according to ICD-10, DSM-IV and DSM-5. ADDIS, the Swedish version of SUDDS, is the only instrument in Swedish that produces diagnostic proposals specific to all drug categories, and for all three diagnostic systems. Screening of stressful life events, anxiety, and depression is also included.

    Methods

    Thirty patients at addiction treatment facilities were interviewed for diagnostic assessment and re-interviewed after one week.

    Results

    ADDIS has excellent internal consistency. There is also very high test-retest correlation on number of fulfilled criteria for all diagnostic systems. Agreement of diagnostic proposals is substantial, mean absolute agreement is excellent, and mean systematic correlation is almost perfect.

    Conclusion

    ADDIS is a reliable tool for specific diagnostic assessment of SUDs.

  • 26.
    Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundin, Andreas
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zeebari, Zangin
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rehm, J.
    Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.
    Collectivity of drinking or collective thinking?: Policy implications of polarised alcohol consumption trends2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, p. S470-S471Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Israelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Compulsory Commitment to Care of Substance Misusers: A Worldwide Comparative Analysis of the Legislation2010In: The Open Addiction Journal, ISSN 1874-9410, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 117-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the worldwide use of compulsory commitment to care (CCC) at the end of the 20th century and evaluates the implementation of WHO recommendations since the 1960s. Based on three WHO reports, the legislation of 90 countries and territories are analyzed, and types as well as predictors of such legislation are analyzed in multivariate models from country characteristics. Laws on CCC for alcohol and drug misusers are common all over the world; more than 80 percent of the countries and territories studied have such laws. The majority use civil commitment – acute or rehabilitative – in accordance with welfare logic, while a large minority still uses commitment under criminal law, based on a moral logic. Civil CCC is positively related to strong economies or having been part of the Soviet legal system. CCC under criminal law is negatively related to the same factors.

  • 28.
    Lundgren, Kata
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Lundquist, L-O
    Örebro Universitet.
    Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Severely Dependent Female Addicts: Homogeneity and reliability of a Swedish Version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire2002In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 219-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the psychometric characteristics of childhood experiences (‘Barndomsupplevelser’), using a Swedish translation of the 53–item version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Fifty–five female addicts, treated in a compulsory–care setting, completed the questionnaire. Homogeneity and reliability were studied using principal component analyses (PCA) and Cronbach’s alpha. The test was submitted to content analysis. Nearly all (94.5%) had experienced childhood abuse or neglect. The internal consistency is high. The 4–factor solution corresponded to the subscales of emotional and physical abuse (combined), of sexual abuse and of emotional neglect, while the items in the physical neglect subscale were distributed to several factors. In the 5–factor solution, this subscale was divided into two factors. Content analyses of these factors point to other meanings than physical neglect. The CTQ (Swedish translation) was found to have high consistency and homogeneity in four of the five subscales (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, and emotional neglect), while the subscale on physical neglect may need revision. The new 28–item brief version seems to be an improvement, with regard to these problems.

  • 29.
    Miguez-Burbano, M. J.
    et al.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Pineda-Medina, L.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Page, J. B.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Castillo, G.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Burbano, X.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Rodriguez, A.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rodriguez, N.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    Division of Disease Prevention, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, United States.
    Continued high risk behaviors in HIV infected drug abusers2002In: Journal of Addictive Diseases, ISSN 1055-0887, E-ISSN 1545-0848, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 67-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To characterize current risk behaviors of HIV drug abusers in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, socio-demographic, medical and behavioral information were obtained and immune measurements determined. High-risk sexual practices were prevalent. Participants diagnosed before 1995 were 6 times more likely to have unprotected sex with HIV+ partners (p = 0.05) and 11 times more likely to use contaminated needles (p = 0.05) than participants with later diagnosis. Consistent condom use was reported by only 7% of the cohort. Many (43%) of the participants reported multiple HIV+ and HIV- concurrent partners. Most (65%), particularly women (OR = 3, p = 0.02), did so for drugs or money. Despite detectable viral loads, 36% reported unprotected anal sex. Antiretroviral-treated men, compared to non-treated, tended to have unprotected anal sex (OR = 2, p = 0.07). The continued high-risk behaviors of HIV drug users, particularly those diagnosed before 1995 and/or on antiretroviral therapy, indicates an urgent need for new public health strategies.

  • 30.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Blix, Olof
    Beroendemottagningen, Psykiatriska kliniken, Länssjukhuset Ryhov.
    Bülow, Per
    Psykiatriska kliniken, Länssjukhuset Ryhov.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Ämneslista som kognitivt stöd gav utförligare uppgifter om droganvändning: Jämförelse av två metoder för utredning av opioidberoende2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, no 48, p. 2178-2180Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare. Department of Dependency, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Blix, Olof
    Department of Dependency, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Bülow, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Psychiatric Clinic, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Drug list as a cognitive support to provide detailed information on a patient's drug use: A comparison of two methods within the assessment of drug misuse and dependence2016In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 1470-1476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is important to identify the type of drugs a patient has used, especially when polydrug misuse has increased and new drugs and patterns of misuse are quickly spread. Objectives: In order to acquire sufficient information about drug use, an effective and simple form of mapping is needed.

    Methods: Persons actualized for Opioid Substitution Treatment (n = 135) were interviewed about their drug-history in a two-stage model. First, they were asked to write down the drugs misused, and dot those injected with a felt pen. Second, they were asked to do the same on a drug list provided as a cognitive support. For a subsample of 50 persons, the drug list included four fictive drugs to evaluate possible over-reporting.

    Results: The use of a drug list did not take longer than the traditional way of using open questions, i.e. about 5–8 minutes. Using a drug list gave a cognitive support resulting in a much higher proportion/number of reported drugs. The majority, 97%, used more than one drug. None of the patients who were given the drug list that included fictive drug names reported having used any of them. The respondents reported 43 additional substances to the 125 given on the list which improve our knowledge of the drug scene.

    Conclusions/importance: Using a drug-list was superior to open questions; it does not take more time and provides additional, clinically relevant information than open questions. Using a drug-list also gives improved knowledge of new drugs entering the local drug scene.

  • 32.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare. County Hospital Ryhov, Department of Dependency, Psychiatric Clinic, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bülow, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Type of opioid dependence among patients seeking opioid substitution treatment: Are there differences in background and severity of problems?2016In: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, ISSN 1747-597X, E-ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-8, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The study explores differences and similarities in background and problem severity among those seeking Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST), comparing those who primarily had misused "opiates", e.g. heroin, morphine and opium, with those who primarily had misused other opioids.

    Methods: Patients (n=127) assessed for possible admittance in OST are compared based on the Addiction Severity Index. Two groups based on primary type of opioid misused are compared (opiates vs. other opioids).

    Results: In the global severity ratings there were no significant differences between the groups other than tautological artefacts concerning heroin. There were few specific differences between the groups. The opiate group more often had Hepatitis C and more often had legal problems related to financing their misuse. Injection of drugs was the main method of administration in both groups, i.e. 90 % for mostly opiates vs. 75 % for mostly other opioids. A great majority in both groups, 96 % vs. 91 %, had misused most other types of drugs. Both groups were found to have severe problems in all areas investigated.

    Conclusions: The study demonstrates great similarities in problem severity among those seeking OST, both those who primarily had misused opiates and those who primarily had misused other opioids.

  • 33.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Department of dependency, Psychiatric Clinic, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bülow, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Psychiatric Clinic, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Johnson, Björn
    Department of Social Work, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    The Pros And Cons Of Supervised Urine Tests In Opioid Maintenance Treatment: A Study Of Patients’ Experiences2017In: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: In opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), drug testing is performed continuously to ensure that patients are taking their prescribed medication, and to detect whether they have taken other, non-prescribed, substances. Typically, supervised urine testing is conducted, and in Sweden such testing is often a treatment precondition. This study investigates OMT patients’ experiences of and views on supervised urine testing.

    Methods: Structured interviews were conducted with 90 Swedish OMT patients. During the interview, patients were asked to say what they thought about the supervised urine tests required. The answers were then analysed through content analysis.

    Results: Three main themes with sub-themes were found in the patients’ statements. 1) The consequences of the test results (sub-themes: external control can provide assurance; proven drug intake may have negative consequences for patients; proven drug abstinence can yield advantages for patients), 2) The testing procedures (sub-themes: supervised urine testing is humiliating and causes harm; how you are treated is important; clinical culture and attitudes differ; stress, pressure and anxiety – tests can be difficult to perform), and 3) The structure of the testing (sub-themes: structure is needed in life; inflexible testing schemes can interfere with treatment goals; gathering people with similar problems can be counterproductive).

    Conclusions: Most interviewees found the testing functional as support or as proxy control in case of personal loss of control. However, supervised urine testing also constitutes a severe invasion of privacy. Less demeaning testing methods need to be developed and implemented.

  • 34.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Department of Dependence, Psychiatric Clinic, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Opiates versus other opioids – are these relevant as diagnostic categorizations?2017In: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    For more than three decades, the international diagnostic systems have used the term ‘opioids’, including opiates, yet research publications continue to use an older terminology. In 2010, new Codes of Statutes for “opiate replacement therapy” (ORT) was brought into effect in Sweden, stating that only those “dependent on opiates” – explicitly described as heroin, morphine or opium – were eligible. Those addicted to other opioids were then denied access. This study examines the relevance of the distinction of opiates vs. other opioids. Are there differences in the severity of opioid dependence or concerning other substance-related diagnoses?

    Methods:

    Ninety-nine individuals participated: 1) the opiate group (n = 69), and 2) the other opioids group (n=30). Structured interviews covered the ICD-10 criteria of nine different types of addictive substances. For opioids, questions were asked separately in relation to opiates versus other opioids.

    Results:

    The two groups fulfilled the criteria for opioid dependence to the same extent, with most participants meeting all six criteria, so indicating a severe opioid dependence problem. Both opiates and other opioids had contributed to their development of opioid dependence, and both groups, to the same high degree, showed comorbidity affecting other dependence conditions.

    Conclusions:

    This study reveals that the two categories of opioids used contribute to the development of opioid dependence and that the term ‘opioids’ can be suitably used to convey a unitary concept in diagnostic terms. There was no support for treating the two groups differently. The study calls for more stringent use of terminology in accordance with the international diagnostic systems.

  • 35.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Type of opioid dependence: Are there differences in background and severity of problems? 2017In: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Per, Bülow
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Type of opioid dependence: Are there differences in background and severity of problems?Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Opsal, Anne
    et al.
    Sørlandet Hospital, Addiction Unit, Norway.
    Kristensen, Øistein
    Sørlandet Hospital, Addiction Unit, Norway.
    Larsen, Tor Ketil
    Stavanger University Hospital, regional Centre for Clinical Research in Psychosis.
    Syversen, Gro
    Oslo University Hospital, Adult Addiction Treatment Unit, Centre for Addiction.
    Rudshaug, Elise Bakke Aasen
    Sørlandet Hospital, Addiction Unit, Norway.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Clausen, Thomas
    University of Oslo, Norwegen Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF); Sørlandet Hospital, Addiction Unit, Norway.
    Factors associated with involuntary admissions among patients with substance use disorders and comorbidity: a cross-sectional study2013In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 13, no 57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To investigate factors associated with involuntary admissions to hospital pursuant to a social services act of patients with substance use disorder by comparing the socio-demographic characteristics, substance use, and psychiatric comorbidities with voluntarily admitted patients.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study compared two groups admitted to combined substance use disorder and psychiatry wards. Sixty-five patients were involuntarily admitted pursuant to the Social Services Act and 137 were voluntarily admitted. The International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems was used for diagnostic purposes regarding substance use disorders, type and severity of psychiatric problems, and level of functioning. Socio-demographic variables were measured using the European Addiction Severity Index, and the Symptom Checklist-90-R instruments were used to evaluate the range of psychological problems and psychopathological symptoms. Logistic regression was performed to investigate the relationship between involuntary admissions and patients characteristics.

    Results: Patients who had been involuntarily admitted were more likely to be females, had utilized public welfare services more often, presented more severe substance use patterns, and had a history of more frequent visits to physicians for somatic complaints in the last 6 months, they also had fewer comorbid mental disorders. Still, considerable burdens of comorbid substance use disorders and mental disorders were observed both among involuntary and voluntary admitted patients.

    Conclusions: More attention is required for involuntarily admitted patients in order to meet the needs associated with complex and mixed disorders. In addition, treatment centers should offer diagnostic options and therapy regarding substance use, psychiatric and somatic disorders.

  • 38.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    et al.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Miguez-Burbano, M. J.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Quesada, J.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rodriguez, A.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Ruiz, P.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    O'Mellan, S.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Campa, A.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rincon, H.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Wilkie, F.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Page, J. B.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Baum, M. K.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Quality of life measures in the Miami HIV-1 infected drug abusers cohort: Relationship to gender and disease status2000In: Journal of Substance Abuse, ISSN 0899-3289, E-ISSN 1873-6491, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 395-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study examined activity, daily living, health, support, and outlook in HIV+ drug users. Methods: Using the physician-administered Spitzer Index, the study assessed 75 HIV-1 seropositive men (n = 51) and women (n = 24) enrolled in the Miami HIV-1 Infected Drug Abusers Study (MIDAS). Results: Total composite scores were significantly lower in the HIV-1 infected women than the men (p = .03). Significant gender differences were observed in activity assessment, independent of disease status, with women six times as likely to have lower activity scores (p = .0038). Most women (45%) in this category were homeless or marginally housed, compared to II percent of the men. Additionally, women with low activity scores had less social support than women with high activity scares. Cocaine use was significantly related to reports of normal activity, and varied across genders; more men used cocaine than women (p = .03). Conylared to non-AIDS participants, AIDS patients were more likely to have lower scores in health (p = .009) and poorer outlook (p = .03). Implications: These findings reveal specific deficits in areas of psychosocial capacity particularly in HIV-1 infected women who abuse drugs, that may need to be strengthened in order to enhance function and adherence to treatment, as well as well-being.

  • 39.
    Stenström, Nils
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Patterns of service utilization in a syringe exchange program.: Poster2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Zeebari, Zangin
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundin, Andreas
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dickman, Paul W.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Mats
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Are changes in alcohol consumption among swedish youth really occurring 'in concert'?: A new perspective using quantile regression2017In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 487-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Recent studies of youth alcohol consumption indicate a collective downward drinking trend at all levels of consumption, i.e. reductions occurring 'in concert'. We re-examine the collectivity of drinking theory by applying quantile regression methods to the analysis and interpretation of Swedish youth alcohol consumption.

    Method: Changes in youth alcohol consumption between 2000 and 2014 were assessed using a school-based survey conducted in Stockholm (n = 86,402). Participants were Swedish youth aged 15-18 years. The rate of change in consumption was examined using quantile regression, and compared to Ordinary Least Squares modelling. The hypothesis of parallelism or 'in concert' changes in consumption was assessed using the test of the equality of linear regression slopes corresponding to different quantiles of log consumption.

    Results: In both models, changes in consumption over time did not occur in parallel, contrary to the collectivity of drinking theory. Instead, a clear divergence in the rate of drinking was observed, with most adolescent quantiles reducing consumption, while heavy consuming remained stable.

    Conclusions: Contrary to previous studies, our findings do not support a collectivity of drinking behaviour among Swedish youth. Quantile regression is a robust and appropriate method for analysing temporal changes in alcohol consumption data.

  • 41.
    Åberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Grönberg, Annika
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Persson, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Psykosociala behandlingsinslag i svenska metadonprogram: värdering ur patientperspektiv2001In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 18, no 5-6, p. 444-460Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 41 of 41
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