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  • 1.
    Andersson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Bülow, PerJönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Psykiatriska kliniken, Länssjukhuset Ryhov, Jönköping.Denhov, AnneInstitutionen för socialt arbete, Stockholms universitet.Topor, AlainInstitutionen för socialt arbete, Stockholms universitet.
    Från patient till person: Om allvarliga psykiska problem - vardag, vård och stöd2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Gunnel
    et al.
    FoU-Södertörn, R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Denhov, Anne
    Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bülow, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Department of Psychiatry, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Topor, Alain
    Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aloneness and loneliness – persons with severe mental illness and experiences of being alone2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 353-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with severe mental illness (SMI) are often described as lonely and socially incapable – an inability resulting from the mental illness. The aim of this article is to explore experiences of being alone among persons with SMI. The article is based on interviews with 19 persons diagnosed with psychosis who were interviewed between four and nine times over a period of three years. The findings show that experiences of being alone can be identified by two concepts: aloneness and loneliness. The persons in the study appeared as socially able and active in relation to their social lives. However, a social agent does not operate in a void but in interaction with specific living conditions; the experiences of aloneness and loneliness may be viewed as the result of the interplay between the individual and the social and material environment.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Kristina J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Balldin, Jan
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry of the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg .
    Berggren, Ulf
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry of the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg .
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Fahlke, Claudia
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg .
    Childhood Maltreatment Affects the Serotonergic System in Male Alcohol-Dependent Individuals2013In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 757-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reduced central serotonergic neurotransmission has been demonstrated in individuals with excessive alcohol consumption and/or alcohol dependence. Childhood maltreatment has also been found to have a negative impact on central serotonergic neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of childhood maltreatment on central serotonergic dysfunction in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Methods: Adult men with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence (n=18) were recruited from outpatient treatment units for alcoholism. Central serotonergic neurotransmission was assessed by a neuroendocrine method, that is, the prolactin (PRL) response to the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.

    Results: Alcohol-dependent individuals with childhood experience of emotional abuse had significantly lower PRL response compared with those without such abuse (3 +/- 5 and 64 +/- 24mU/l, respectively; t=6.51, p<0.001). Among those who reported childhood emotional abuse, 4 of 7 individuals had flat PRL responses in comparison with none in those with no report of such abuse (p<0.01).

    Conclusions: This is the first study to show that self-reported childhood maltreatment, in particular emotional abuse, in male alcohol-dependent individuals is associated with a quite dramatic (more than 90%) reduction in central serotonergic neurotransmission. It should, however, be noted that the number of individuals is relatively small, and the results should therefore be considered as preliminary.

  • 4.
    Bruce, C. R.
    et al.
    Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Unsworth, Carolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Dillon, M. P.
    Prosthetics and Orthotics, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Tay, R.
    School of Business IT & Logistcs, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Bird, P.
    The Gosforth Clinic, Maroochydore QLD, Australia.
    Carey, L. M.
    Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Hazard perception skills of young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be improved with computer based driver training: An exploratory randomised controlled trial2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 109, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer technology with this group of drivers.

    Objectives

    *Determine the presence and magnitude of the between-group and within- subject change in hazard perception skills in young drivers with ADHD who receive Drive Smart training. *Determine whether training-facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time.

    Methods

    This was a feasibility study, randomised control trial conducted in Australia. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomised to the Immediate Intervention or Delayed Intervention group.The Immediate Intervention group received a training session using a computer application entitled Drive Smart. The Delayed Intervention group watched a documentary video initially (control condition), followed by the Drive Smart computer training session. The participant’s hazard perception skill was measured using the Hazard Perception Test (HPT).

    Findings

    After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant betweengroup difference in post-intervention HPT change scores in favour of the Immediate Intervention group. The magnitude of the effect was large. There was no significant within-group delayed intervention effect. A significant maintenance effect was found at 6-week follow-up for the Immediate Intervention group.

    Conclusions

    The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training with large effect size and some maintenance of gain. A multimodal approach to training is indicated to facilitate maintenance. A full-scale trial is feasible.

  • 5.
    Bruce, C.
    et al.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Unsworth, Carolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Dillon, M.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Tay, R.
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Bird, P.
    The Gosforth Clinic, Maroochydore, Australia.
    Carey, L.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Hazard Perception Skills Of Young Drivers With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Can Be Improved With Computer-Based Training: A Feasibility Trial2017In: Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (Print), ISSN 0004-8674, E-ISSN 1440-1614, Vol. 51, no Suppl. 1, p. 122-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Young drivers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer applications such as DriveSmart with this group of drivers.

    Objectives: To: determine the magnitude of the between-group and within-subject change in hazard perception skills among young drivers with ADHD-exposed/delayed exposure to DriveSmart training and determine whether training-facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time.

    Methods: Australian feasibility study. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to the intervention or control group. Participants in the intervention group received a computer training session using DriveSmart, while the control group watched a documentary video. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. The participants’ hazard perception skill was measured on the University of Queensland Hazard Perception Test (HPT) post training and at 6-week follow-up.

    Findings: After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant between-group difference (p = 0.023, partial η2 = 0.212) and a significant within-subject difference post intervention in the experimental group. There was no significant difference between post intervention and 6-week follow-up scores in the experimental group.

    Conclusions: The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training and were largely sustained. We found a large effect size consistent with one prior study. A full-scale trial is feasible.

  • 6.
    Bülow, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Psykiatriska kliniken, Länssjukhuset Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Läkemedel och vardagsliv2016In: Från patient till person: Om allvarliga psykiska problem - vardag, vård och stöd / [ed] Gunnel Andersson, Per Bülow, Anne Denhov, Alain Topor, Lund, 2016, p. 171-205Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bülow, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Psykiatriska kliniken, Länssjukhuset Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Samhällets respons på allvarliga psykiska problem: Från tidigmodern tid till nutid2016In: Från patient till person: Om allvarliga psykiska problem - vardag, vård och stöd / [ed] Gunnel Andersson, Per Bülow, Anne Denhov, Alain Topor, Lund, 2016, p. 51-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bülow, Per
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Psychiatric Clinic, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnel
    Research and Development Unit, FoU Södertörn, Tumba, Sweden.
    Denhov, Anne
    Research and Development Unit, Psychiatry South Stockholm, Johanneshov, Sweden.
    Topor, Alain
    Research and Development Unit, Psychiatry South Stockholm, Johanneshov, Sweden.
    Experience of psychotropic medication – An interview study of persons with psychosis2016In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 37, no 11, p. 820-828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychotropic drugs, particularly antipsychotic types, are a cornerstone of the treatment of people with psychosis. Despite numerous studies showing that drug treatment with psychotropic drugs initially alleviates psychiatric symptoms, the proportion of people with mental health problems and symptoms that do not follow doctors' prescriptions, thus exhibiting so-called non-adherence, is considerable. Non-adherence is predominantly seen as a clinical feature and as a patient characteristic that is especially due to patients' poor understanding that they are ill. There is also a widespread notion that non-adherence is of great disadvantage to the patient. This article is based on interviews with 19 persons diagnosed with psychosis. It challenges the notion of patients being either adherent or non-adherent to the doctor's orders. The findings show that persons with psychosis are active agents when it comes to adjusting medication. The interviewees created their own strategies to gain power over treatment with psychotropic drugs. The most common strategies were to adjust the doses or take breaks of varying lengths from the medication. These deviations from prescriptions were important to conceal, not only from their own psychiatrists, but from all psychiatric staff.

  • 9.
    Castelpietra, Giulio
    et al.
    Primary Care Service Area, Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, Trieste, Italy.
    Salvador-Carulla, Luis
    Centre for Mental Health Research, Australian National University (ANU), Canberra, Australia.
    Almborg, Ann-Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Nordic WHO-FIC Collaborating Centre, Oslo, Norway.
    Fernandez, Ana Isabel
    Community Health Service, Public Health Agency of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Madden, Richard Cawley
    National Centre for Classification in Health, University of Sydney, Australia Received 8 August 2017; accepted 9 October 2017 Available online 7 November 2017 KEYWORDS Mental.
    Working draft: Classifications of interventions in mental health care. An expert review2017In: European Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0213-6163, E-ISSN 2340-4469, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 127-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Specific classifications of mental health interventions have encountered many issues in their integration into a general classification of interventions. Nonetheless, there has not been any previous review on the content and structure of current classifications in relation to mental health care. This expert review aimed to compare the mental health interventions provided in a series of reference classification systems for the incorporation of mental health care into the International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI).

    Methods: Twelve classifications are described with regards to the structure of the classification (unit of analysis, sections, multiaxiality, granularity) and context of utilization (purpose, descriptors, neutrality, interoperability and implementation).

    Results: Major problems identified include a granularity unbalance (i.e. differences in the number of codes and its specificity with other areas such as rehabilitation), unclear units of analysis (i.e. differences between procedures, interventions, packages of care and care programs), lack of clearly stated evidence-based interventions in a mental health context; and lack of a well-defined taxonomical tree. An ontology approach to the definition of the different entities involved in the throughput of mental care, including their hierarchical relationships and conceptual map, may have contributed to the failure of previous systems together with the development of systems to classify mental health interventions separate from generic health interventions.

    Conclusions: The present review provides additional ground for the development of the ICHI knowledge-base and highlights the importance of taxonomical disambiguation and international comparability in the development and implementation of classifications of mental care interventions. 

  • 10.
    de Schipper, Elles
    et al.
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundequist, Aiko
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wilteus, Anna Löfgren
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coghill, David
    University of Dundee, UK.
    de Vries, Petrus J.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa .
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Holtmann, Martin
    Ruhr University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karande, Sunil
    Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Levy, Florence
    Prince of Wales Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Al-Modayfer, Omar
    College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Rohde, Luis
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Tannock, Rosemary
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Tonge, Bruce
    Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Bölte, Sven
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    A comprehensive scoping review of ability and disability in ADHD using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY)2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 859-872Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The objective here was to use a comprehensive scoping review approach to identify the concepts of functional ability and disability used in the scientific ADHD literature and link these to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY. Systematic searches were conducted using Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, to extract the relevant concepts of functional ability and disability from the identified outcome studies of ADHD. These concepts were then linked to ICF-CY by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. Data from identified studies were analysed until saturation of ICF-CY categories was reached. Eighty studies were included in the final analysis. Concepts contained in these studies were linked to 128 ICF-CY categories. Of these categories, 68 were considered to be particularly relevant to ADHD (i.e., identified in at least 5 % of the studies). Of these, 32 were related to Activities and participation, 31 were related to Body functions, and five were related to environmental factors. The five most frequently identified categories were school education (53 %), energy and drive functions (50 %), psychomotor functions (50 %), attention functions (49 %), and emotional functions (45 %). The broad variety of ICF-CY categories identified in this study underlines the necessity to consider ability and disability in ADHD across all dimensions of life, for which the ICF-CY provides a valuable and universally applicable framework. These results, in combination with three additional preparatory studies (expert survey, focus groups, clinical study), will provide a scientific basis to define the ICF Core Sets for ADHD for multi-purpose use in basic and applied research, and every day clinical practice.

  • 11.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Barndomens återkomst i behandling och forskning2011In: CTQ - Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, A Retrospective Self-Report: Manual, Svensk version / [ed] David P Bernstein & Laura Fink, Stockholm: Pearson Assessment and Information AB , 2011, p. 5-10Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Diagnosinstrument för beroende och missbruk - Granskning av ADDIS validitet och interna konsistens gällande alkoholproblem2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 265-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Board on Health and Welfare recommends that structured assessment instruments should be used in medical as well as in social treatment of substance misusers. These should be validated in a Swedish context. Instruments for diagnoses of dependence/abuse (DSM-IV) and dependence/harmful use (ICD-10) have been used in Sweden for many years, although not yet validated in Swedish. ADDIS, the Swedish version of the American SUDDS, is used in four Nordic countries and the most often used diagnostic instrument in Sweden. This article investigates the psychometric properties of ADDIS alcohol module, including discriminant and construct validity and internal consistency. The two main constructs in DSM - dependence and abuse - as well as the seven criteria for dependence and the four criteria for abuse are studied. Further, the value of each of the 44 specific items in ADDIS for capturing these criteria is studied.

    Two samples are explored: 1) a clinical sample (n = 349; incl. 129 women) and 2) a sample of 400 men convicted for driving while intoxicated. Mean age was the same (41 ys.). Using discriminant analyses on lifetime prevalence, the items correctly classify 94% of the cases in the two samples. Using one-factor principal component analysis to explore homogeneity of the combined samples, all 28 items on dependence and 15 of 18 items on abuse have loadings above 0,40 (R2 dependence = 0,46; abuse = 0,40). Separate analyses of the two samples, as well as on women, show similar results. Cronbach's alpha is excellent for dependence and satisfactory for abuse in all analyses. Analyses of specific criteria show satisfactory results on dependence and acceptable on abuse. Minor revisions are proposed to make ADDIS more user-friendly and to improve some specific items.

    In conclusion: ADDIS has acceptable to excellent discriminant and construct validity as well as internal consistency and captures the specific criteria of DSM-IV. It has the preconditions for sensitive assessment of alcohol use disorders in men and women.

  • 13.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Diagnosinstrument för substansberoende - MINI, SCID-I, eller ADDIS?2015In: Best Practice, ISSN 1329-1874, Vol. 6, no 23, p. 28-31Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Framgångsfaktorer i vården vid tungt missbruk: Inviterad föreläsning vid konferensen "På jakt efter den kraft som utvecklar", FSS studiedagar i Åre 27-29 september, Föreningen Sveriges Socialchefer (FSS)2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Från "tvångologins" horisont: Forskning om tvångsvård vid tungt missbruk2008In: Från teori och randomisering till klinik: Festskrift till Mats Berglund / [ed] Jan Arlebrink, Lund: Lunds Universitet, Medicinska fakulteten , 2008, p. 233-252Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    LVM-vårdens genomförande, utfall och efekt - En kontrollerad registerstudie i Jämtland2004In: Bilagedel till LVM-utredningens betänkande "Tvång och förändring": SOU 2004:3, Stockholm: Socialdepartementet & Fritzes Förlag , 2004, p. 415-476Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Missbrukarvårdens mål - framgångsfaktorer och hinder.2005In: Personer med tungt missbruk - Stimulans till bättre vård och behandling: SOU 2005:82, Stockholm: Socialdepartementet , 2005, p. 91-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Perspektiv på tvångsvård för alkohol- och drogproblem:  2007In: Inviterad föreläsning vid konferensen "Tvangsinleggelser i Rusbehandling - erfaringer, dilemmaer og muligheter.: i arrangemang av Borgestadklinikken, Helse Sør og RESA (Regional for samordning og analyse av rusebehandling) Sandefjord 11 april 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Tvångsvårdens utfall och effekt2005In: Tvångsvård vid missbruk: LVM i teori och praktik / [ed] Jan Arlebrink, Marianne Larsson Kronberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2005, p. 217-254Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Utfall av LVM-vård - Översikt och syntes av hittillsvarande studier2004In: Bilagedel till LVM-utredningens betänkande "Tvång och förändring": SOU 2004:3, Stockholm: Socialdepartementet & Fritzes Förlag , 2004, p. 303-414Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Vård av personer med samtidigt missbruk och annan psykisk störning - samordning eller integration av insatser: Inviterad föreläsning vid konferensen Framgångsrik missbruks- och beroendevård, Institutet För Kompetensutveckling 26-27 april, 20072007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Allgulander, Christer
    Dept of psychiatry, Karolinska Institute.
    Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ-SF)2009In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 160-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood maltreatment is delicate to assess both in clinical work and in research. There is a need for assessment tools that can be easily administered in an ethical and non-intrusive way that meets requirements of conceptual validity for various types of maltreatment and is sensitive to levels of severity. This study explores the psychometric properties of the Swedish translation of one such tool—the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form (CTQ-SF; Bernstein and Fink, 1998). The CTQ-SF was administered to seven samples (total n=659)—five clinical samples and two non-clinical student samples. The factor structure supports the construct validity of the global maltreatment scale, four of the five maltreatment subscales (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse and emotional neglect) and the minimization/denial (MD) scale, but not the physical neglect (PN) subscale. All items are highly correlated with their respective subscale. The discriminant validity is satisfactory. Highly significant correlation with social desirability gives further support for the MD-scale and to the recommendation of how to apply it. Internal consistency of PN is acceptable and for all other scales satisfactory. Swedish norm groups tend to score lower than similar American norm groups on abuse scales but higher on the neglect scales. Percentiles for seven gender-specific norm groups are presented. The weaknesses of the PN-scale are discussed and new constructs are proposed. The Swedish version of the CTQ-SF has the same construct validity and internal consistency as the original, including less homogeneity of the PN scale.

  • 23.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö, Lunds Universitet.
    Berglund, Mats
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö.
    Mortality of treated alcoholics after eight years in relation to  short-term outcome1997In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 573-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns the relation between mortality and the short-term outcome of inpatient treatment for alcoholism. A total of 121 patients (87 men, 34 women) were included, of whom 89 were voluntary and 32 compulsorily committed. They had a mean age of 41±7 (SD) years and attended a 5-week programme at Runnagården, Örebro, Sweden. Most patients were socially unstable and severely alcohol-dependent. Ten months (mean) after discharge, 96% of the patients and their referring social workers were contacted with mail questionnaires. Of these patients, 13% had been totally abstinent and a further 42% improved but had had relapses. After a mean of 8.5±0.27 years, 27 patients (24%) had died. All abstainers survived, but non-abstainers had nine-fold higher mortality than expected. Non-abstinent improved women tended to survive longer than non-improved women, but among non-abstinent improved men no such tendency was found. In conclusion, a reduction in the frequency and quantity of abusive drinking was not enough to reduce the higher risk of death. Only abstinence seemed to be preventive.

  • 24.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Berglund, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Tvångsvård vid missbruk – effekt och kvalitet2011In: SOU 2011:6; Missbruket, Kunskapen, Vården - Missbruksutredningens Forskningsbilaga: Delbetänkande av Missbruksutredningen, Stockholm: Socialdepartementet , 2011, p. 653-770Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Runnagården, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Yrkesmedicinska enheten, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Socialmedicinsk avdelning, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Minnesotamodellen på Runnagården - bakgrundsfaktorer och resultat1989In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 86, no 32-33, p. 2671-2674Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Holmberg, Anders
    Örebro Universitet.
    Factors affecting motivation to treatment in severely dependent alcoholics.2000In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol, ISSN 0096-882X, E-ISSN 1934-2683, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 548-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    This article explores environmental, developmental and personality-related factors as predictors of motivation to treatment for alcoholism, using such concepts as: social situation on admission, treatment career, age, education and adventurous patterns of behavior.

    METHOD:

    The original population consists of 603 severely dependent alcoholic patients (76% men, 42% compulsorily committed) with a mean age of 40 years. In structural equation model estimation, 85% of the original cases were used (N = 511), made up of compulsorily as well as voluntarily admitted patients. A reduced model was tried on voluntary patients alone.

    RESULTS:

    In the main model, patterns of behavior and age were not related to the motivation to treatment, while treatment career had some negative impact. Social problems were related to less motivation to treatment. In turn, a worse social situation was related to more treatment experience. The reduced model on voluntary patients alone confirmed the main findings, although more previous treatment tended to be related to more motivation.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Motivation was mostly related to a better social situation (i.e., having "more to lose"). A collapse in the social situation was more of an obstacle than a promoter of motivation. There was no support for statements that "maturing out" would result in more motivation, and findings were inconclusive concerning the impact on motivation of having had many previous treatment experiences. The pattern of behavior was not directly related to the level of motivation. Based on these findings, the relevance of social work for motivation to treatment is discussed.

  • 27.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nordlander, Torsten
    Karlstad Universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pedersen, Therese
    Örebro Universitet.
    Personality factors and drug of choice in female addicts with psychiatric comorbidity2001In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Female addicts (N= 108) with a mean age of 37.2 were tested using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 1996-97. In a representative sub-sample (N = 49) assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview. DSMIIIr (SCID), 82% manifested an axis-1-syndrome (lifetime), and 53% a personality disorder. Of the 108 addicts, 42 preferred alcohol, 14 heroin, 33 amphetamines, and 19 benzodiazepines. Maturity was low, but there were no differences in maturity between drug preference groups. Results indicated that those less mature were more "novelty-seeking" and "harm-avoidant", while those maturer tended to be more persistent. Less mature persons answered less consistently. They agreed more with different items and their answers were more rare when compared to the general population. Heroin addicts were less sentimental and helpful and more aware of their own resources. Benzodiazepine and amphetamine addicts were more self-transcendent and self-forgetful. Among the relatively more mature, benzodiazepine addicts scored higher than heroin and alcohol addicts on "true" and rare answers. In conclusion, maturity and the drug of choice among female addicts were related to different TCI scales.

  • 28.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Svensson, Krister
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Predictors of gambling problems among male adolescents.2003In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 182-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study concerns prediction of gambling problems in 178 male adolescents (aged 16 and 18 years) who completed a questionnaire, which included the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory and a number of questions concerning social background, emotional and life-style factors. About 27% of the boys gamble at least weekly. As many as 16% qualify as probable pathological gamblers according to the SOGS. Another 7% are at risk. None of the social background factors are related to severity of gambling problems. The only significant family factor is parental substance misuse. The optimal multivariate model predicts about 30% of the variance in gambling problems. The strongest factor is frequency of alcohol drinking. Several factors indicate a personality with problems in relations to others. Another factor indicates a dreamy personality. Unexpectedly, impulsiveness is not related to gambling. In conclusion, problem gambling among male adolescents is related to life-style and personality, especially in relation to others, but not to usual social background factors. Gamblers are asocial rather than impulsive. The nature of this finding should be further explored, since an asocial personality may point at genetics as well as to early social influences, as may the finding on the relation between gambling and parental drinking.

  • 29.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Avdelningen för Klinisk Alkoholforskning, Malmö, Lunds Universitet.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Socialmedicinsk avdelning, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Alkoholism som sjukdom1993In: Nordisk Alkoholtidskrift, ISSN 0789-6069, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Goh, Kwang Leng
    et al.
    School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Australia.
    Morris, Susan
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Australia.
    Rosalie, Simon
    School of Physiotherapy andPhysiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Australia.
    Foster, Chris
    Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Australia.
    Typically developed adults and adults with autism spectrum disorder classification using centre of pressure measurements2016In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing: proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, Vol. 41, p. 844-848Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders which affect a persons ability to interact with the world around him/her. Emerging studies have shown abnormal postural control in people with ASD. The aim of this study was to enable the classification of adults with ASD and typically developed (TD) adults based on force plate measurements of centre of pressure. Nineteen typical adults and eleven adults diagnosed with ASD primarily high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome participated in this study. A correlation-based feature selection algorithm was used to evaluate the quality of the attributes and the results have achieved up to 0.976 classification accuracy. 

  • 31.
    Green, Dido
    et al.
    Newcomen Centre, Guy's Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
    Baird, G.
    Barnett, A. L.
    Henderson, L.
    Huber, J.
    Henderson, S. E.
    The severity and nature of motor impairment in Asperger's syndrome: A comparison with Specific Developmental Disorder of Motor Function2002In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 655-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The aims of this study were to measure objectively the extent and severity of motor impairment in children with Asperger's syndrome and to determine whether the motor difficulties experienced by such children differed in any way from those classified as having a Specific Developmental Disorder of Motor Function (SDD-MF). Criteria derived from ICD 10-R were used to identify 11 children with Asperger's syndrome and a matched group of 9 children with a Specific Developmental Disorder of Motor Function. Children in both groups were required to have a verbal IQ of 80 or greater on the WISC IIIR.

    Method:

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview (Revised; Lord, Rutter, & LeCouteur, 1994) was used to identify features of AS in the first group and to exclude them in the latter. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Henderson & Sugden, 1992) provided a standardised test of motor impairment. A Gesture Test based on that by Cermak, Coster, and Drake (1980) was used to assess the child's ability to mime the use of familiar tools and to imitate meaningless sequences of movements.

    Results:

    All the children with Asperger's syndrome turned out to meet our criterion for a diagnosis of motor impairment, five of the six most severely motor impaired children in the whole study being from this group. Performance of the Asperger group was also slightly poorer on the Gesture Test. The profile of performance on each test was examined in detail but no evidence of group differences in the pattern of impairment was found.

    Conclusions:

    This study is consistent with others suggesting a high prevalence of clumsiness in Asperger's syndrome. Our findings also attest to the widespread prevalence of motor impairment in developmental disorders and the problems such co-morbidity poses for attempts to posit discrete and functionally coherent impairments underlying distinct syndromes.

  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Berit M.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Psychiatric Clinic, Högland Hospital, Division of Psychiatrics and Rehabilitation/Region Jönköping, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research and Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Department of Special Education, Oslo University, Norway.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Proczkowska, Marie
    Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hyperactivity precedes conduct problems in preschool children: a longitudinal study2018In: BJPsych Open, E-ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 186-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Externalising problems are among the most common symptoms of mental health problems in preschool children.

    Aims

    To investigate the development of externalising problems in preschool children over time, and the way in which conduct problems are linked to hyperactivity problems.

    Method

    In this longitudinal study, 195 preschool children were included. Latent growth modelling of conduct problems was carried out, with gender and hyperactivity at year 1 as time-invariant predictors.

    Results

    Hyperactivity was a significant predictor for the intercept and slope of conduct problems. Children with more hyperactivity at year 1 had more conduct problems and a slower reduction in conduct problems. Gender was a significant predictor for the slope of conduct problems.

    Conclusions

    Children with more initial hyperactivity have less of a reduction in conduct problems over time. It is important to consider the role of hyperactivity in studies of the development of conduct problems.

  • 33.
    Gustafsson, Berit M.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Linköping, Sweden.
    Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Linköping, Sweden.
    Emotional and behavioural problems in Swedish preschool children rated by preschool teachers with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)2017In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a high risk that young children who show early signs of mental health problems develop symptoms in the same or overlapping areas some years later. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used to screen externalizing and internalizing problems early in life. In Sweden 80-90% of all children aged 1-5 years go to preschool and preschool is thus an appropriate context for finding early signs of mental health problems among children.

    Methods: This study is part of a longitudinal project too investigate the frequency of emotional and behavioural problems for children between 1 and 5 years of age in Sweden. The SDQ including the impairment supplement questions were rated by preschool teachers too establish Swedish norms for SDQ in preschool children.

    Results: The sample involved 815 children with a mean age of 42 months (SD = 16, range 13-71 months). 195 children were followed longitudinally for three years. There were significant differences between boys and girls on all subscales except for the Emotional subscale. The prevalence of behavioural problems was similar to other that in European countries, except for Prosocial behaviour, which was rated lower, and Conduct problems, rated higher. Swedish children were estimated to have more problems in the preschool setting, scored by preschool teachers. The development of behaviour over time differed for the different subscales of SDQ.

    Conclusions: The teacher version of the SDQ, for 2-4 year-olds, can be used as a screening instrument to identify early signs of emotional distress/behavioural problems in young children. Preschool teachers seem to be able to identify children with problematic behaviour with the use of SDQ at an early age. The development of behaviour over time differs for the different subscales of SDQ. The Swedish norms for SDQ are to a large extent, similar to findings from other European countries. 

  • 34.
    Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Division of Epidemiology and Public Health Intervention Research (EPHIR), Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    Division of Epidemiology and Public Health Intervention Research (EPHIR), Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Herring, Matthew P.
    Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Health Research Institute, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Zeebari, Zangin
    Division of Epidemiology and Public Health Intervention Research (EPHIR), Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Öjehagen, Agneta
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Division of Epidemiology and Public Health Intervention Research (EPHIR), Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Exercise and internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression: Multicentre randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up2016In: British Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0007-1250, E-ISSN 1472-1465, Vol. 209, no 5, p. 414-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Evidence-based treatment of depression continues to grow, but successful treatment and maintenance of treatment response remains limited.

    Aims

    To compare the effectiveness of exercise, internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (ICBT) and usual care for depression.

    Method

    A multicentre, three-group parallel, randomised controlled trial was conducted with assessment at 3 months (posttreatment) and 12 months (primary end-point). Outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. Computer-generated allocation was performed externally in blocks of 36 and the ratio of participants per group was 1:1:1. In total, 945 adults with mild to moderate depression aged 18-71 years were recruited from primary healthcare centres located throughout Sweden. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three 12-week interventions: supervised group exercise, clinician-supported ICBT or usual care by a physician. The primary outcome was depression severity assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).

    Results

    The response rate at 12-month follow-up was 84%. Depression severity reduced significantly in all three treatment groups in a quadratic trend over time. Mean differences in MADRS score at 12 months were 12.1 (ICBT), 11.4 (exercise) and 9.7 (usual care). At the primary end-point the group x time interaction was significant for both exercise and ICBT. Effect sizes for both interventions were small to moderate.

    Conclusions

    The long-term treatment effects reported here suggest that prescribed exercise and clinician-supported ICBT should be considered for the treatment of mild to moderate depression in adults. 

  • 35.
    Hallgren, Mats
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Section for Epidemiology and Public Health Intervention Research (EPHIR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öjehagen, Agneta
    Department of Clinical Science, Lund, Division of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zeebari, Zangin
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Section for Epidemiology and Public Health Intervention Research (EPHIR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Section for Epidemiology and Public Health Intervention Research (EPHIR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Physical exercise and internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy in the treatment of depression: Randomised controlled trial2015In: British Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0007-1250, E-ISSN 1472-1465, Vol. 207, no 3, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Depression is common and tends to be recurrent. Alternative treatments are needed that are non-stigmatising, accessible and can be prescribed by general medical practitioners.

    Aims

    To compare the effectiveness of three interventions for depression: physical exercise, internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (ICBT) and treatment as usual (TAU). A secondary aim was to assess changes in self-rated work capacity.

    Method

    A total of 946 patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression were recruited through primary healthcare centres across Sweden and randomly assigned to one of three 12-week interventions (trail registry: KCTR study ID: KT20110063). Patients were reassessed at 3 months (response rate 78%).

    Results

    Patients in the exercise and ICBT groups reported larger improvements in depressive symptoms compared with TAU. Work capacity improved over time in all three groups (no significant differences).

    Conclusions

    Exercise and ICBT were more effective than TAU by a general medical practitioner, and both represent promising non-stigmatising treatment alternatives for patients with mild to moderate depression. 

  • 36.
    Hooshmand, Babak
    et al.
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mangialasche, Francesca
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, and Department of Neurology, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany.
    Kalpouzos, Grégoria
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Solomon, Alina
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Smith, David
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Refsum, Helga
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, and Institute of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Wang, Rui
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mühlmann, Marc
    Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximillian University Hospital, Munich, Germany.
    Ertl-Wagner, Birgit
    Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximillian University Hospital, Munich, Germany.
    Jonsson, Erika
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Association of vitamin B12, folate, and sulfur amino acids with brain magnetic resonance imaging measures in older adults: A longitudinal population-based study2016In: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 606-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance 

    Vitamin B12, folate, and sulfur amino acids may be modifiable risk factors for structural brain changes that precede clinical dementia.

    Objective 

    To investigate the association of circulating levels of vitamin B12, red blood cell folate, and sulfur amino acids with the rate of total brain volume loss and the change in white matter hyperintensity volume as measured by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in older adults.

    Design, Setting, and Participants 

    The magnetic resonance imaging subsample of the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen, a population-based longitudinal study in Stockholm, Sweden, was conducted in 501 participants aged 60 years or older who were free of dementia at baseline. A total of 299 participants underwent repeated structural brain magnetic resonance imaging scans from September 17, 2001, to December 17, 2009.

    Main Outcomes and Measures 

    The rate of brain tissue volume loss and the progression of total white matter hyperintensity volume.

    Results 

    In the multi-adjusted linear mixed models, among 501 participants (300 women [59.9%]; mean [SD] age, 70.9 [9.1] years), higher baseline vitamin B12 and holotranscobalamin levels were associated with a decreased rate of total brain volume loss during the study period: for each increase of 1 SD, β (SE) was 0.048 (0.013) for vitamin B12 (P < .001) and 0.040 (0.013) for holotranscobalamin (P  = .002). Increased total homocysteine levels were associated with faster rates of total brain volume loss in the whole sample (β [SE] per 1-SD increase, –0.035 [0.015]; P = .02) and with the progression of white matter hyperintensity among participants with systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mm Hg (β [SE] per 1-SD increase, 0.000019 [0.00001]; P = .047). No longitudinal associations were found for red blood cell folate and other sulfur amino acids.

    Conclusions and Relevance 

    This study suggests that both vitamin B12 and total homocysteine concentrations may be related to accelerated aging of the brain. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the importance of vitamin B12 supplementation on slowing brain aging in older adults.

  • 37.
    Israelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Compulsory Commitment to Care of Substance Misusers: A Worldwide Comparative Analysis of the Legislation2010In: The Open Addiction Journal, ISSN 1874-9410, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 117-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the worldwide use of compulsory commitment to care (CCC) at the end of the 20th century and evaluates the implementation of WHO recommendations since the 1960s. Based on three WHO reports, the legislation of 90 countries and territories are analyzed, and types as well as predictors of such legislation are analyzed in multivariate models from country characteristics. Laws on CCC for alcohol and drug misusers are common all over the world; more than 80 percent of the countries and territories studied have such laws. The majority use civil commitment – acute or rehabilitative – in accordance with welfare logic, while a large minority still uses commitment under criminal law, based on a moral logic. Civil CCC is positively related to strong economies or having been part of the Soviet legal system. CCC under criminal law is negatively related to the same factors.

  • 38.
    Israelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Compulsory commitment to care of substance misusers: international trends during 25 years2012In: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 302-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study explores international trends in law on compulsory commitment to care of substance misusers (CCC), and two subtypes – civil CCC and CCC within criminal justice legislation – as well as maximum length and amount of applications of such care. Method: The time period covers more than 25 years, and a total of 104 countries and territories. The study is based on available data in three times of observation (1986, 1999 and 2009). Applications of CCC in number of cases are studied on European level for the years 2002–2006. Trends are analyzed using nonparametric tests and general linear models for repeated measures. Findings are discussed from contextual analysis. Result: There is a trend towards decrease in the number of countries worldwide having civil CCC legislation after the millennium, while CCC under criminal law has increased since the mid-1980s, resulting in some total net decrease. The shift results in longer mean duration of CCC and an increase in the number of cases sentenced. Conclusion: There is a risk that the shift from civil CCC to penal CCC implies more focus on young out-acting males in compulsory treatment and that the societal responsibility for more vulnerable persons might be neglected.

  • 39.
    Levin, Sara K.
    et al.
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Linköping University, Vadstena, Sweden.
    Nilsen, Per
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Department of Medical Specialists, Linköping University, Motala, Sweden.
    Bülow, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Structured risk assessment instruments: A systematic review of implementation determinants2016In: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 602-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research-based structured risk assessment instruments (SRAIs) can improve violence risk assessment and clinical judgements in mental health and correctional services. Practical challenges of implementing SRAIs have led to calls for more research to understand the determinants influencing this process. Studies describing determinants for SRAI implementation in psychiatric, correctional, or community in-patient settings were systematically reviewed. Findings were analysed according to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. A total of 11 studies were included. Four types of main implementation determinants were found: characteristics of the SRAI; users of the SRAI; inner setting; and process. Findings underscore the importance of applying a multifactorial approach to the implementation of SRAIs to address many different barriers and facilitators. More stringent research is needed to obtain more solid evidence of factors that impede or enable SRAI implementation, especially regarding patient perspectives and outer setting determinants. Constructing shared concepts of determinants across research fields could further aid information transferences.

  • 40.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Nilsen, Per
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center (SDH), Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Bahonar Blvd, Qazvin, Iran.
    Psychometric validation of the Persian bergen social media addiction scale using classic test theory and Rasch models2017In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 620-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), a six-item self-report scale that is a brief and effective psychometric instrument for assessing at-risk social media addiction on the Internet. However, its psychometric properties in Persian have never been examined and no studies have applied Rasch analysis for the psychometric testing. This study aimed to verify the construct validity of the Persian BSMAS using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch models among 2,676 Iranian adolescents.

    Methods: In addition to construct validity, measurement invariance in CFA and differential item functioning (DIF) in Rasch analysis across gender were tested for in the Persian BSMAS.

    Results: Both CFA [comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.993; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.989; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.057; standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.039] and Rasch (infit MnSq = 0.88-1.28; outfit MnSq = 0.86-1.22) confirmed the unidimensionality of the BSMAS. Moreover, measurement invariance was supported in multigroup CFA including metric invariance (ΔCFI = .0.001; ΔSRMR = 0.003; ΔRMSEA = .0.005) and scalar invariance (ΔCFI = .0.002; ΔSRMR = 0.005; ΔRMSEA = 0.001) across gender. No item displayed DIF (DIF contrast = .0.48 to 0.24) in Rasch across gender.

    Conclusions: Given the Persian BSMAS was unidimensional, it is concluded that the instrument can be used to assess how an adolescent is addicted to social media on the Internet. Moreover, users of the instrument may comfortably compare the sum scores of the BSMAS across gender.

  • 41.
    Lochner, Christine
    et al.
    Dept of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbrosh, South Africa.
    Seedat, S
    Allgulander, Christer
    The Karolinska Institute, Dpt of Psychiatry.
    Kidd, M
    Stein, D
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Childhood trauma in adults with social anxiety disorder and panic disorder: A cross-national study2010In: African Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 1994-8220, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 376-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    The influence of childhood trauma as a specific environmental factor on the development of adult psychopathology is far from being elucidated. As part of a collaborative project between research groups from South Africa (SA) and Sweden focusing on genetic and environmental factors contributing to anxiety disorders, this study specifically investigated rates of childhood trauma in South African and Swedish patients respectively, and whether, in the sample as a whole, different traumatic experiences in childhood are predictive of social anxiety (SAD) or panic disorder (PD) in adulthood.

    METHOD:

    Participants with SAD or PD (85 from SA, 135 from Sweden) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Logistic regression was performed with data from the two countries separately, and from the sample as a whole, with primary diagnoses as dependent variables, gender, age, and country as covariates, and the CTQ subscale totals as independent variables. The study also investigated the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) of the CTQ subscales.

    RESULTS:

    SA patients showed higher levels of childhood trauma than Swedish patients. When data from both countries were combined, SAD patients reported higher rates of childhood emotional abuse compared to those with PD. Moreover, emotional abuse in childhood was found to play a predictive role in SAD/PD in adulthood in the Swedish and the combined samples, and the same trend was found in the SA sample. The psychometric qualities of the CTQ subscales were adequate, with the exception of the physical neglect subscale.

    CONCLUSION:

    Our findings suggest that anxiety disorder patients may differ across countries in terms of childhood trauma. Certain forms of childhood abuse may contribute specific vulnerability to different types of psychopathology. Longitudinal studies should focus on the potential sequential development of SAD/PD among individuals with childhood emotional abuse.

  • 42.
    Lundgren, Kata
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Lundquist, L-O
    Örebro Universitet.
    Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Severely Dependent Female Addicts: Homogeneity and reliability of a Swedish Version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire2002In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 219-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the psychometric characteristics of childhood experiences (‘Barndomsupplevelser’), using a Swedish translation of the 53–item version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Fifty–five female addicts, treated in a compulsory–care setting, completed the questionnaire. Homogeneity and reliability were studied using principal component analyses (PCA) and Cronbach’s alpha. The test was submitted to content analysis. Nearly all (94.5%) had experienced childhood abuse or neglect. The internal consistency is high. The 4–factor solution corresponded to the subscales of emotional and physical abuse (combined), of sexual abuse and of emotional neglect, while the items in the physical neglect subscale were distributed to several factors. In the 5–factor solution, this subscale was divided into two factors. Content analyses of these factors point to other meanings than physical neglect. The CTQ (Swedish translation) was found to have high consistency and homogeneity in four of the five subscales (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, and emotional neglect), while the subscale on physical neglect may need revision. The new 28–item brief version seems to be an improvement, with regard to these problems.

  • 43. MacDonald, K.
    et al.
    Thomas, M. L.
    Sciolla, A. F.
    Schneider, B.
    Pappas, K.
    Bleijenberg, G.
    Bohus, M.
    Bekh, B.
    Carpenter, L.
    Carr, A.
    Dannlowski, U.
    Dorahy, M.
    Fahlke, C.
    Finzi-Dottan, R.
    Karu, T.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Glaesmer, H.
    Grabe, H. J.
    Heins, M.
    Kenny, D. T.
    Kim, D.
    Knoop, H.
    Lobbestael, J.
    Lochner, C.
    Lauritzen, G.
    Ravndal, E.
    Riggs, S.
    Sar, V.
    Schäfer, I.
    Schlosser, N.
    Schwandt, M. L.
    Stein, M. B.
    Subic-Wrana, C.
    Vogel, M.
    Wingenfeld, K.
    Minimization of childhood maltreatment is common and consequential: Results from a large, multinational sample using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-16, article id e0146058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood maltreatment has diverse, lifelong impact on morbidity and mortality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is one of the most commonly used scales to assess and quantify these experiences and their impact. Curiously, despite very widespread use of the CTQ, scores on its Minimization-Denial (MD) subscale-originally designed to assess a positive response bias-are rarely reported. Hence, little is known about this measure. If response biases are either common or consequential, current practices of ignoring the MD scale deserve revision. Therewith, we designed a study to investigate 3 aspects of minimization, as defined by the CTQ's MD scale: 1) its prevalence; 2) its latent structure; and finally 3) whether minimization moderates the CTQ's discriminative validity in terms of distinguishing between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Archival, item-level CTQ data from 24 multinational samples were combined for a total of 19,652 participants. Analyses indicated: 1) minimization is common; 2) minimization functions as a continuous construct; and 3) high MD scores attenuate the ability of the CTQ to distinguish between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Overall, results suggest that a minimizing response bias-as detected by the MD subscale-has a small but significant moderating effect on the CTQ's discriminative validity. Results also may suggest that some prior analyses of maltreatment rates or the effects of early maltreatment that have used the CTQ may have underestimated its incidence and impact. We caution researchers and clinicians about the widespread practice of using the CTQ without the MD or collecting MD data but failing to assess and control for its effects on outcomes or dependent variables. © 2016 MacDonald et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 44.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nyberg, S. T.
    Magnusson Hanson, L. L.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Ahola, K.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Batty, G. D.
    Bjorner, J. B.
    Borritz, M.
    Burr, H.
    Chastang, J. -F
    de Graaf, R.
    Dragano, N.
    Hamer, M.
    Jokela, M.
    Knutsson, A.
    Koskenvuo, M.
    Koskinen, A.
    Leineweber, C.
    Niedhammer, I.
    Nielsen, M. L.
    Nordin, M.
    Oksanen, T.
    Pejtersen, J. H.
    Pentti, J.
    Plaisier, I.
    Salo, P.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Suominen, S.
    ten Have, M.
    Theorell, T.
    Toppinen-Tanner, S.
    Vahtera, J.
    Väänänen, A.
    Westerholm, P. J. M.
    Westerlund, H.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Heikkilä, K.
    Virtanen, M.
    Rugulies, R.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression: systematic review and meta-analysis with additional individual participant data2017In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 1342-1356Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.

    Method: We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.

    Results: We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).

    Conclusions: Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.

  • 45.
    Malm, Dan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Ekblad, Helena
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Impact of a cognitive behavioral intervention on quality of life and psychological distress in patients with atrial fibrillation: the importance of relatives2017In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 16, no Suppl. 1, p. S49-S50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although there is an evidence to support the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving quality of life and decreasing psychological distress in patients with cardiovascular diseases but involving patient’s and relatives in the CBT and its effect on patient’s general health, has not been evaluated.

    Aim: The aim was to determine whether involving the relatives in CBT for patients with Atrial Fibrillation (AF) enhances treatment outcomes relative to treatment as usual group (TAU).

    Method: In a randomized controlled trial, 78 patients diagnosed with AF were randomly assigned to experimental (EXP) or TAU groups. In the EXP group, patients and relative participated in a 6-week program while the patient in the TAU group received standard care. Short Form 36(SF-36), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS),Euro-QoL 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire (EQ-5D) and Sense of Coherence (SOC-13) were completed at  baseline and at 12-month follow-up. 

    Results: In all 78 patients completed the assessment at 12 months. The two groups were similar for sociodemographic and clinical variables at baseline. The EXP group reported significantly higher scores in EQ-5D (F= 6.18, p = 0.01) and SOC (F= 4.15, p = 0.04) than TAU group. Compared with TAU group, patients in EXP group reported significantly lower depression (F= 4.58, p = 0.04). Thirteen percent of Indirect effect of the intervention on improving patient’s quality of life in the EXP group was related to the SOC improvement (z = 11.83, p < .01).

    Conclusions: This study provides evidence that patients and their relatives’ involvement is more effective in improving quality of life and decreasing psychological distress than those who receiving standard care. Our results also indicate that interventions should initially focus on increasing patient’s sense of coherence.

  • 46.
    Manzoor, Ayesha
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sial, Sundus
    Manzoor, Kiran
    Schema as predictor of depression2013Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Blix, Olof
    Beroendemottagningen, Psykiatriska kliniken, Länssjukhuset Ryhov.
    Bülow, Per
    Psykiatriska kliniken, Länssjukhuset Ryhov.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Ämneslista som kognitivt stöd gav utförligare uppgifter om droganvändning: Jämförelse av två metoder för utredning av opioidberoende2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, no 48, p. 2178-2180Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Type of opioid dependence: Are there differences in background and severity of problems? 2017In: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Per, Bülow
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Type of opioid dependence: Are there differences in background and severity of problems?Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Murray, Nina
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Hatfield, Megan
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Evaluation of career planning tools for use with individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review2016In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 23, p. 188-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This systematic review aimed to identify tools published in peer reviewed journals that could be utilised in career planning for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to describe their clinical utility and psychometric properties. Due to limited results for ASD-specific tools, the search was broadened to career planning tools for individuals with a cognitive or developmental disability, which could be used by individuals with ASD. Six databases were electronically searched. Main search terms used were 'disability', 'young adult', 'assessment' and 'employment'. Boolean operators expanded the search strategy. Two independent reviewers undertook data extraction and quality assessment. Electronic searches located 2348 literature items; 14 articles met inclusion criteria covering 10 career planning tools. Identified tools were of a predictive nature; however, none of the studies assessed all the psychometric properties necessary for evaluating a sound predictive tool. Only one addressed all three components of clinical utility. None of the identified tools had strong reliability or validity and their clinical utility remains unexplored. 

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