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  • 1.
    Alanko, Rosanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Oskarsson, Tina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Kommunikation mellan patient och ortopedingenjör: En kvalitativ studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie har genomförts med syftet att undersöka diabetespatienters tolkning av informationen som ges av deras respektive ortopedingenjör under ett patientmöte samt undersöka vad ortopedingenjören anser sig ha förmedlat för information till patienten under patientmötet. Metoden i studien är kvalitativ där intervjuer med semistrukturerade öppna frågor har använts. I studien ingick två ortopedingenjörer samt två diabetespatienter. Efter avslutade intervjuer har materialet från intervjuerna analyserats och bildat kategorier. Dessa kategorier har sedan använts för att finna skillnader samt likheter mellan ortopedingenjörens och patientens tolkningar. Patientmötens har spelats in för att få möjligheten att se vart missförstånd uppstått. Genomgående i resultatet var att ortopedingenjören anser sig ha förmedlat mer information än vad patienten beskriver under intervjuerna. Några missförstånd upptäcktes men kommunikationen mellan parterna var god.  

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Stina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science.
    Waenkaeo, Jenjira
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science.
    Erfarenheter av förändringar i levnadsvanor för vuxna personer med diabetes mellitus typ 2: En litteraturöversikt med kvalitativ ansats2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes mellitus typ 2 är en kronisk sjukdom som ökar världen över och livsstilsförändringar är ofta en del av behandlingen då hälsosamma levnadsvanor minskar risken för senkomplikationer. Att diagnostiseras med diabetes mellitus typ 2 och att förändra levnadsvanor kan innebära att personen genomgår olika former av transition. Sjuksköterskan har en viktig del i omvårdnaden genom att ge information om sjukdomen och risker för senkomplikationer samt att stödja personen till förändring av levnadsvanor. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva vuxna personers erfarenheter av förändrade levnadsvanor vid diabetes mellitus typ 2. Metod: En litteraturöversikt med kvalitativ design och induktiv ansats. Resultat: Resultatet delades in i två teman: Att hantera livsstilsförändringar och Omgivningens betydelse för en lyckad livsstilsförändring. Personer med diabetes mellitus typ 2 har utmaningar att förändra levnadsvanor och att bevara förändringar över tid. I resultatet beskrivs hur omgivningen påverkar personens förmåga till förändring samt hur hälso- och sjukvården kan stödja och motivera till hälsosamma levnadsvanor. Slutsats: Samhället behöver erbjuda fler platser som är anpassade för fysisk aktivitet för att stödja personer med diabetes mellitus typ 2 till hälsosamma levnadsvanor. Informationen från hälso- och sjukvården var alltför omfattande när personer blivit nydiagnostiserad med diabetes mellitus typ 2 och informationen och sättet att ge information på behöver utvecklas och anpassas för den enskilda personens situation och behov. Även strategier för att skapa möjlighet för personer att få kompletterande informationen senare i sjukdomsförloppet behöver utvecklas.  

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  • 3.
    Axelsson, Kristian F.
    et al.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Werling, Malin
    Department of Gastrosurgical Research & Education, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Björn
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Szabo, Eva
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Näslund, Ingmar
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wedel, Hans
    Health Metrics, Sahlgrenska Academin, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundh, Dan
    School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Lorentzon, Mattias
    Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fracture Risk After Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study2018In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN 0884-0431, E-ISSN 1523-4681, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 2122-2131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gastric bypass surgery constitutes the most common and effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity. Gastric bypass leads to bone loss, but fracture risk following surgery has been insufficiently studied. Furthermore, the association between gastric bypass and fracture risk has not been studied in patients with diabetes, which is a risk factor for fracture and affected by surgery. In this retrospective cohort study using Swedish national databases, 38,971 obese patients undergoing gastric bypass were identified, 7758 with diabetes and 31,213 without. An equal amount of well-balanced controls were identified through multivariable 1:1 propensity score matching. The risk of fracture and fall injury was investigated using Cox proportional hazards and flexible parameter models. Fracture risk according to weight loss and degree of calcium and vitamin D supplementation 1-year postsurgery was investigated. During a median follow-up time of 3.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.7 to 4.6) years, gastric bypass was associated with increased risk of any fracture, in patients with and without diabetes using a multivariable Cox model (hazard ratio [HR] 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.53; and HR 1.32; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.47; respectively). Using flexible parameter models, the fracture risk appeared to increase with time. The risk of fall injury without fracture was also increased after gastric bypass. Larger weight loss or poor calcium and vitamin D supplementation after surgery were not associated with increased fracture risk. In conclusion, gastric bypass surgery is associated with an increased fracture risk, which appears to be increasing with time and not associated with degree of weight loss or calcium and vitamin D supplementation following surgery. An increased risk of fall injury was seen after surgery, which could contribute to the increased fracture risk.

  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Mohamed, Zhiar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Egenvård vid diabetes mellitus typ 2 - En litteraturöversikt2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 5.
    Bixo Ottosson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Västmanland County Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Department of Paediatrics, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ilvered, Rosita
    Department of Paediatrics, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Forsander, Gun
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Särnblad, Stefan
    Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Self-care management of type 1 diabetes has improved in Swedish schools according to children and adolescents2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, no 12, p. 1987-1993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Age-appropriate support for diabetes self-care is essential during school time, and we investigated the perceived quality of support children and adolescents received in 2015 and 2008.

    Methods: This national study was based on questionnaires answered by children and adolescents aged 6–15 years of age with type 1 diabetes attending schools or preschools in 2008 (n = 317) and 2015 (n = 570) and separate parental questionnaires. The subjects were recruited by Swedish paediatric diabetes units, with 41/44 taking part in 2008 and 41/42 in 2015.

    Results: Fewer participants said they were treated differently in school because of their diabetes in 2015 than 2008. The opportunity to perform insulin boluses and glucose monitoring in privacy increased (80% versus 88%; p < 0.05). Most (83%) adolescents aged 13–15 years were satisfied with the support they received, but levels were lower in girls (p < 0.05). More subjects had hypoglycaemia during school hours (84% versus 70%, p < 0.001), but hypoglycaemia support did not increase and was lower for adolescents than younger children (p < 0.001).

    Conclusion: Children and adolescents received more support for type 1 diabetes in Swedish schools in 2015 than 2008, but more support is needed by girls and during hypoglycaemia. 

  • 6.
    Dybjer, Elin
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Erik D.
    Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nägga, Katarina
    Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Hassing, Linda B.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Type 1 diabetes, cognitive ability and incidence of cardiovascular disease and death over 60 years of follow-up time in men2022In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 39, no 8, article id e14806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: There are few cohorts of type 1 diabetes that follow individuals over more than half a century in terms of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine associations between type 1 diabetes, diagnosed before age 18, and long-term morbidity and mortality, and to investigate whether cognitive ability plays a role in long-term morbidity and mortality risk.

    Methods: In a Swedish cohort, 120 men with type 1 diabetes and 469 without type 1 diabetes were followed between 18 and 77 years of age as regards morbidity and mortality outcomes, and impact of cognitive ability at military conscription for the outcomes. In Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier analyses with log-rank tests, associations between diabetes and cognitive ability respectively, and outcomes (mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and diabetes complications) were investigated.

    Results: Men with type 1 diabetes suffered from dramatically higher mortality (HR 4.62, 95% CI: 3.56–5.60), cardiovascular mortality (HR 5.60, 95% CI: 3.27–9.57), and cardiovascular events (HR 3.97, 95% CI: 2.79–5.64) compared to men without diabetes. Higher cognitive ability at military conscription was associated with lower mortality in men without diabetes, but was not associated with any outcome in men with diabetes.

    Conclusions: In this historical cohort study with 60 years of follow-up time and a less effective treatment of diabetes than today, mortality rates and cardiovascular outcomes were high for men with type 1 diabetes. Morbidity or mortality did not differ between those that had low to normal or high cognitive ability among men with type 1 diabetes.

    What’s new 

    • There is little data from Scandinavia on the long-term prognosis of type 1 diabetes before 1970, and no studies that investigate cognitive ability early in life as a predictor of long-term morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetes.
    • Men with type 1 diabetes followed for 60 years had a 4.6 times higher risk of all-cause mortality than men without diabetes. Cognitive ability at 18 years significantly predicted mortality in men without, but not with, type 1 diabetes.
    • The results add to the literature describing the prognosis of type 1 diabetes in Scandinavia during the time period from 1934 until today.
  • 7.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Children diagnosed with both type 1 diabetes and celiac disease - an Immunological challenge2016In: Immunoendocrinology, ISSN 2378-3079, Vol. 3, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease are both characterized by an autoimmune feature. As T1D and celiac disease share several common risk factors such as environment, genetics and immune dysregulation, patients have risk of developing the other disease subsequently. Patients with manifest T1D may have had a latent celiac disease, which is activated parallel to the anti-islet immune reactivity during the development of T1D. Contrary, a low prevalence of β-cell autoimmunity is found in young patients with celiac disease.

    The role of antigen-specific T cells and their relation to cytokines and chemokines is not well characterized in children with combination of T1D and celiac disease. Defective regulation and an impaired ability of responder T cells to be suppressed are suggested to contribute. We have previously shown that children suffering from these two immunological diseases in combination have a suppressed immune response to several antigens for example food antigens like gluten. Low percentages of both early and late effector memory CD8+ cells together with observations of immune aberrancies seen in the gut, in children who are prone to T1D, may suggests poor development of oral tolerance that may predispose for development of celiac disease.    

    This review highlights the immunological complexity in these two common pediatric immunological disorders that indicates that the combination of type 1 diabetes and celiac disease is an immunological challenge. It is obvious that we are far from understanding the immunological impact of these two autoimmune diseases in combination. This immunological challenge therefore needs to be elucidated to be able to predict and prevent these autoimmune diseases. 

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  • 8.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Batty, David
    University College London.
    Tabák, Adam
    University College London.
    Brunner, Eric
    University College London.
    Kumari, Meena
    University College London.
    Shipley, Martin
    University College London.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    University College London.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    University College London.
    Association between change in body composition and change in inflammatory markers: An 11-year follow-up in the Whitehall II study2010In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 95, no 12, p. 5370-5374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, but the long-term effects of weight change on inflammation are unknown.

    Objective: The aim was to examine the association of change in weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference with change in C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 and to assess whether this association is modified by baseline obesity status.

    Design and Setting: The design was a prospective cohort study among civil servants (the Whitehall II Study, UK). We used data from two clinical screenings carried out in 1991–1993 and 2002–2004 (mean follow-up, 11.3 yr).

    Participants: We studied 2496 men and 1026 women [mean age, 49.4 (SD = 6.0) yr at baseline] with measurements on inflammatory markers and anthropometry at both baseline and follow-up.

    Main Outcome Measures: We measured change in serum CRP and IL-6 during follow-up.

    Results: The mean increases in CRP and IL-6 were 0.08 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.07–0.09] mg/liter and 0.04 (95% CI, 0.03–0.05) pg/ml per 1-kg increase in body weight during follow-up. Study members with a BMI less than 25 kg/m2 at baseline had an average increase in CRP of 0.06 (95% CI, 0.05–0.08) mg/liter per 1-kg increase in body weight, whereas the increase in those who were overweight (25 BMI < 30 kg/m2) and obese (BMI 30 kg/m2) was greater: 0.08 (95% CI, 0.06–0.09) mg/liter and 0.11 (95% CI, 0.07–0.14) mg/liter, respectively (P value for interaction = 0.002). Similar patterns were observed for changes in BMI and waist circumference.

    Conclusions: Those who were overweight or obese at baseline had a greater absolute increase in CRP per unit increase in weight, BMI, and waist circumference than people who were normal weight.

  • 9.
    Gigante, Isabella
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Sigurjónsdóttir, Elva Dröfn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Offloading interventions of diabetes-related neuropathic foot ulcers in Swedish prosthetic and orthotic clinics: a cross-sectional survey2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The project aimed to assess the frequency of offloading provision for diabetes-related plantar neuropathic forefoot ulcers and the factors influencing the choice.

    Methods: Operational managers from 51 prosthetic and orthotic clinics in Sweden were contacted to select the participants. An online survey including seven closed-ended questions was conducted through SurveyMonkey.

    Results: The response rate was 68.6%. The majority of the participants provided the least efficient offloading intervention being off-the-shelf footwear combined with the insole to treat diabetes-related plantar neuropathic forefoot ulcers.  It also resulted that the two gold-standard devices to treat this ulcer type being total contact cast (TCC) and non-removable knee-high walker, were vastly underutilized. Most of the practitioner, patient, intervention, and wound-related factors were considered a median of “often” or “always” being considered when providing offloading interventions for this type of ulcer. The majority of the participants did not consider TCC or non-removable knee-high walkers being the gold standard. 

    Conclusions: A variety of offloading interventions resulted in being provided to patients having diabetes-related plantar neuropathic forefoot ulcers. Participants mainly provided the inadequate pressure distribution offloading intervention, being off-the-shelf footwear with modifications combined with an insole. The gold standards TCC and non-removable knee-high walkers were underutilized. That is, the pattern of providing offloading devices was almost exactly opposite to what evidence-based guidelines recommend. The clinicians’ unawareness regarding gold standard devices may have contributed to the underutilization of TCC and non-removable knee-high walker. Different factors were considered when providing offloading interventions to patients with diabetes-related plantar neuropathic forefoot ulcers. It is concluded that clinicians in Swedish P&O clinics need to have greater awareness regarding the most appropriate offloading device for plantar neuropathic forefoot DFUs. This is of great importance due to the choice of the offloading device greatly impacts ulcer healing.

  • 10.
    Hanberger, Lena
    et al.
    Division of Nursing Science, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    Division of Paediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Holl, Reinhard W
    Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, ZIBMT, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
    Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Åkesson, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Division of Paediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hofer, Sabine
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Type 1 diabetes during adolescence: International comparison between Germany, Austria, and Sweden.2018In: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, E-ISSN 1399-5448, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 506-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: By using pediatric diabetes quality registries in Austria, Germany, and Sweden treatment of type 1 diabetes and the outcome of care during the vulnerable adolescence period were compared.

    METHODS: Data in DPV, broadly used in Austria and Germany, and Swediabkids used in Sweden, from clinical visits in the year 2013 on 14 383 patients aged 11 to 16 years regarding hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin regimen, body mass index (BMI)-SD score (SDS), blood pressure, hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, and smoking habits were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Patients in Sweden had fewer clinical visits per year (P < .05), lower insulin dose per kg (P < .001), and lower proportion of fast acting insulin compared with Germany and Austria (P < .001). The proportion of pump users was higher in Sweden (P < .001). Patients in Sweden had lower mean HbA1c levels (Austria: 64 mmol/mol, Germany: 63 mmol/mol, and Sweden: 61 mmol/mol [8.0%, 7.9%, and 7.7%, respectively]; P < .001). The frequency of severe hypoglycemia was higher in Sweden while it was lower for ketoacidosis (3.3% and 1.1%, respectively) than in Austria (1.1% and 5.3%) and Germany (2.0% and 4.4%) (P < .001). Girls in all 3 countries had higher HbA1c and BMI-SDS than boys.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sharing data between diabetes registries and nations enables us to better understand differences in diabetes outcome between countries. In this particular comparison, pediatric patients with diabetes in Sweden were more often treated with insulin pump, had lower HbA1c levels and a higher rate of severe hypoglycemia. Patients in Austria and Germany used rapid acting insulin analogs more often and had a lower rate of ketoacidosis.

  • 11.
    Hassan, Ifrah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science.
    Mohammed Hassan, Rahma
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science.
    Farah, Yasmin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Nursing Science.
    Egenvårdserfarenheter hos immigrerade patienter med Diabetes typ 2 - En Litteraturöversikt med kvalitativ metod.2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is a globally growing chronic disease. Approximately 500 000 people in Sweden suffer from diabetes, of which 90 percent have DMT2. The prevalence of DMT2 is increasing among individuals who have immigrated to Sweden, which is assessed to be caused by a combination of genetic factors, lifestyle choices and social economic circumstances. To effectively manage DMT2, self-care is crucial, including regular monitoring of blood sugar levels, a tailored diet and physical activity. Aim: Describe self-care experiences among immigrant patients with diabetes type 2. Method: Qualitative literature review based on 13 selected articles published between 2003 and 2023. Literature was searched in the CINAHL and Medline databases. The articles were analysed using Friberg’s five-step model. Results: Several factors influenced a patient’s experience in managing their self-care. Lack of communication and language skills and insufficient knowledge about diabetes posed significant challenges for patients in understanding their illness. Patients held diverse perceptions regarding the causes for their diabetes, often linked to cultural and religious reasons. Furthermore, there was frustration regarding the healthcare providers’ attitudes and difficulties for patients in maintaining lifestyle changes. Conclusions: The patients’ perception of DMT2 and self-care plays a crucial role. There’s a need for increased knowledge about diet, exercise, and medication to enable continuous self-care and improve health. Social support facilitates the acceptance of lifestyle changes, thereby promoting self-care.  

      

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  • 12.
    Hellgren, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Breiner, Magnus
    A pilot study on plantar pressure differences at the interface between the metatarsal pad and foot plantar surface: Comparing groups of claw toe, hammer toe and/or hallux valgus toe deformity2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13. Hjorth, Maria
    et al.
    Axelsson, Stina
    Rydén, Anna
    Faresjö, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Casas, Rosaura
    GAD-alum treatment induces GAD65-specific CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ cells in type 1 diabetic patients.2011In: Clinical Immunology, ISSN 1521-6616, E-ISSN 1521-7035, Vol. 138, no 1, p. 117-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells. We have shown that treatment with alum-formulated glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD-alum) preserved residual insulin secretion and induced antigen-specific responses in children with recent onset type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to further investigate the immunomodulatory effect of GAD-alum, focusing on CD4+CD25high cells and their association to cytokine secretion. Samples obtained 21 and 30 months after the initial injection of GAD-alum or placebo were included in the present study. GAD65-stimulation enhanced the percentage of CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ cells, but reduced the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells, in samples from the GAD-alum treated group. Further, the GAD65-induced secretion of IL-5, -10, and -13 correlated with the expression of CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ cells, but inversely with CD4+CD25+ cells. These new data suggest that GAD-alum treatment induced GAD65-specific T cells with regulatory features.

  • 14.
    Hult, Amanda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Malmlöf, Hanna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Magnusson, Sonia
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Erfarenheter av egenvård hos unga vuxna med diabetes mellitus typ 1: En kvalitativ litteraturöversikt2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden there are about 50 000 people living with diabetes mellitus type 1. It is a chronic complex disease and demands a lifelong treatment. Teamwork with the healthcare is required throughout the course of the disease and a good relationship with the health care providers becomes significant. Self-awareness and good self-esteem facilitate self-care when it comes to being able to see one’s own strengths for a good management ability of the disease. Aim: The aim was to describe experiences of self-care among young adults with diabetes mellitus type 1. Method: A qualitative literature research that has an inductive design has been done. The results are based on twelve different scientific articles. Results:  Two main themes have emerged in results and one of them was challenge with four sub themes: fear and anxiety, limitations, transitions to adult life and how daily life can affect self-care. The other main theme was social support with three sub themes: support from family and friends, the importance of healthcare professionals and lack of knowledge by others that affects self-care. Conclusion:  Social support from family and friends was important when it comes to how young adults with diabetes mellitus type 1 managed self-care. Healthcare professionals have a big responsibility in supporting and guiding people to self-care. Lack of knowledge from others could lead to mismanagement of self-care.

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  • 15.
    Jarl, Gustav
    et al.
    Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rusaw, David
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Johannesson, Anton
    International Organization for Standardization, Convenor ISO/TC 168, WG1; Össur Clinics Scandinavia, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comment on van Netten, et al.: Definitions and criteria for diabetic foot disease2020In: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, E-ISSN 2398-9238, Vol. 3, no 3, article id e00142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) recently published updated definitions for the diabetic foot field. However, the suggested definitions of lower limb amputations differ from the definitions of the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), which may create problems when implementing the definitions. This paper compares and discusses the amputation definitions of IWGDF and ISO.

    Results

    Despite many similarities, the IWGDF and ISO systems have some important differences. First, the IWGDF uses the term “minor amputation” which is value‐laden, arbitrary and has been defined in several different ways in the literature. Second, the IWGDF system lacks descriptions of amputations distal or through the ankle, which may increase the risk for misclassification. Third, hip disarticulations and transpelvic amputations are not included in the IWGDF system.

    Conclusion

    It is suggested that future updates of the IWGDF definitions should be aligned with those of ISO, to meet the goal of global consensus on terminology related to lower limb amputation.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Mathilda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Vikström, Elsa
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Vuxna patienters erfarenheter av egenvård vid diabetes typ 1: En litteraturöversikt med kvalitativ ansats2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Orsaken till diabetes typ 1 är i dagsläget okänt, vilket innebär att sjukdomen är obotlig och kan medföra allvarliga komplikationer. Patientens egenansvar är därav nödvändigt i egenvården med stöd från hälso-och sjukvården. Sjuksköterskans roll är betydelsefull för att ge patienten stöd och kunskap som kan främja patientens egenvård samt hälsa. För att patienten ska få makt och kontroll över hälsan utgör begreppet empowerment en betydande del i egenvården. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva vuxna patienters erfarenheter av egenvård vid diabetes typ 1 i vardagen. Metod: Litteraturöversiktens design var kvalitativ med en induktiv ansats, där 13 vetenskapliga artiklar inkluderades som publicerades mellan 2015–2022. Använda databaser var CINAHL och MEDLINE. Analys utfördes enligt Fribergs fem steg. Resultat: Första huvudkategorin blev strategier med underkategorierna; hanteringsstrategier i egenvården, rutinernas betydelse i vardagen, den mentala inställningens påverkan på egenvården samt teknikens betydelse i egenvården. Andra huvudkategorin blev utmaningar med underkategorierna; svårigheter att hitta balans i vardagen samt faktorer som kan påverka egenvården negativt. Tredje huvudkategorin blev stöd med underkategorierna; påverkan från familj och vänner samt påverkan från vårdpersonal.  Slutsats: Genom strategier och stöd kan egenvårdens utmaningar hanteras, vilket kan främja en god egenvård. 

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  • 17.
    Kristiansen, E.
    et al.
    Department of Pediatrics, Region Kalmar County, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Wanby, P.
    Department of Medicine and Optometry, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Karin
    Futurum – Academy for Health and Care, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Blomstrand, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform. Department of Clinical Physiology, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Brudin, L.
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Region Kalmar County, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Thegerström, J.
    Department of Pediatrics, The Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Region Västra Götaland County, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Assessing heart rate variability in type 1 diabetes mellitus—Psychosocial stress a possible confounder2020In: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, ISSN 1082-720X, E-ISSN 1542-474X, Vol. 5, no 25, article id e12760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autonomic neuropathy (AN) commonly arises as a long-term complication in diabetes mellitus and can be diagnosed from heart rate variability (HRV), calculated from electrocardiogram recordings. Psychosocial stress also affects HRV and could be one of several confounders for cardiac AN. The present work investigated the impact of psychosocial stress on HRV in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and assessed the use of salivary cortisol as a biomarker for psychosocial stress in this context.

    Methods: A total of 167 individuals 6–60 years old (113 with T1DM and 54 healthy controls) underwent 24-hr ECG recordings with HRV analysis. Salivary cortisol was sampled thrice during the registration day. Perceived psychosocial stress along with other factors of possible importance for the interpretation of HRV was documented in a diary.

    Results: Heart rate variability (high-frequency power during sleep) was reduced (p <.05) with older age, longer diabetes duration, higher mean glucose levels, physical inactivity, and perceived psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol levels in the evening were increased (p <.05) in women in ovulation phase, in individuals with preceding hypoglycemia or with hyperglycemia. The amplitude of salivary cortisol was reduced (p <.05) with the presence of perceived psychosocial stress, but only in adult healthy controls, not in individuals with diabetes.

    Conclusion: Psychosocial stress might be a confounder for reduced HRV when diagnosing cardiac AN in T1DM. Salivary cortisol is, however, not a useful biomarker for psychosocial stress in diabetes since the physiological stress of both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia seems to overrule the effect of psychosocial stress on cortisol. 

  • 18.
    Lundberg, Oskar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Jalal, Faisal
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Change of the quality of life for people with diabetes over a 10-year period receiving orthotic care to prevent ulcers - A prospective longitudinal study2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes can lead to complications that lead to the development of foot ulcers. This in turn can affect the quality of life of people with diabetes. The P&O treatment must be person-centered, i.e., it should be based on patients' needs and life situation. To date, there has been a lack of long-term studies evaluating how people with diabetes self-assess their quality of life.

    Purpose: In a 10-year study, to map and investigate changes in the quality of life of people with diabetes who have been provided with orthopaedic devices to prevent the occurrence of foot ulcers.

    Methods: SF-36 is a general instrument that measures health-related quality of life and is divided into eight health domains that were used. SF-36 was filled in, over a ten-year period in a group of adults, >18 years, with diabetes without previous foot ulcers. They walked without walking aids and were first-time visitors to the P&O clinic.

    Results: Health-related quality of life over time changed only in the domain social functioning from baseline to 24 months, where it deteriorated (p-value= 0,011). Between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes at baseline people with type 1 diabetes scored higher in the three domains physical functioning, role functioning/physical and role functioning/emotional. At 10 years, people with type 1 diabetes scored higher in the domain physical functioning. 

    Conclusion: There are no major differences over a 10-year period, only a deterioration appeared in the domain SF at 2-year follow-up. The type of diabetes had the greatest impact on the quality of life of the variables tested. There is definitely a need for more research into quality of life for patients with diabetes at risk of foot ulcers.

  • 19.
    Löwendahl, Alma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Karlsson, Emelie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Svensson, Therese
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 2: En kvalitativ litteraturöversikt2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Living with diabetes mellitus type 2.  

     Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) is a global problem and more people are getting sick every year. Self-care is a central part of the treatment for these people. Understanding the lifestyle changes, treatments and self-care of these people contributes to increased knowledge in health care.

     Aim: Describing people's experiences of living with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

     Method: A qualitative literature review. Based on 12 scientific articles collected from Cinahl and MedLine.  

     Results: The results are presented in two main themes of self-care and information in diabetes mellitus type 2 and the impact of diabetes mellitus type 2 in life with the respective subcategories. There was experience of inadequate and insufficient information from the health service. There was experience that close relatives provided good information and during group-based training, experiences of living with DMT2 were reflected. The results showed that self-care included some difficulties such as changing dietary habits, physical activity, cultural aspects and changing lifestyles.

     Conclusion: DMT2 is a global and lifelong disease where lifestyle changes should be implemented. Experiences that it was difficult to implement lifestyle changes where dietary habits proved to be the most difficult to adapt your DMT2 to. Further research on the experiences of people with DMT2 contributes to increased knowledge for the nurse but also the public. Further research of people with DMT2 and how culture affects self-care can provide increased knowledge to the nurse and the public.

     

    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus type 2, diabetes type 2, lifestyle, patient experience, self care. 

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  • 20.
    Marseglia, Anna
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Santoni, Giola
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
    Xu, Weili
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cognitive Trajectories of Older Adults With Prediabetes and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study2018In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 400-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes has been linked to dementia risk; however, the cognitive trajectories in older adults with diabetes remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of prediabetes and diabetes on cognitive trajectories among cognitively intact older adults in a long-term follow-up study.

    Methods: Within the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, 793 cognitively intact older adults aged ≥50 were identified at baseline and followed for up to 23 years. Based on standardized scores from 11 cognitive tests, administered at baseline and up to seven follow-ups, four cognitive domains (verbal abilities, spatial/fluid, memory, perceptual speed) were identified by principal-component analysis. Prediabetes was defined according to blood glucose levels in diabetes-free participants. Diabetes was ascertained based on self-report, hypoglycemic medication use and blood glucose levels. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effect models adjusting for potential confounders.

    Results: At baseline, 68 participants (8.6%) had prediabetes and 45 (5.7%) had diabetes. Compared to diabetes-free individuals, people with diabetes had a steeper decline over time in perceptual speed and verbal abilities. The annual declines in these domains were greater than the annual decline in memory. Prediabetes was associated with lower performance in memory in middle-age, but also associated with a less steep memory decline over the follow-up.

    Conclusions: Diabetes is associated with a faster decline in perceptual speed and verbal abilities, while prediabetes is associated with lower memory performance in middle-age. However, the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia seem to not affect memory over time.

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  • 21.
    Nilsson, John
    et al.
    Department of Paediatrics, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Futurum—Academy for Health and Care, Jönköping County Council .
    Hanberger, Lena
    Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Paediatrics and Diabetes Research Centre, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    High HbA1c at onset cannot be used as a predictor for future metabolic control for the individual child with type 1 diabetes mellitus.2017In: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, E-ISSN 1399-5448, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 848-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To study how metabolic control at onset of type 1 diabetes correlates to metabolic control and clinical parameters during childhood until transition from pediatric care to adult diabetes care.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data at onset, three months, one, three, and five years after diagnosis and at transition, on HbA1c and clinical parameters, on 8084 patients in the Swedish pediatric quality registry, SWEDIABKIDS, were used. Of these patients, 26% had been referred to adult diabetes care by 2014.

    RESULTS: Children with HbA1c < 72 mmol/mol (8.7%) (20% of patients, low group) at diagnosis continued to have good metabolic control during childhood, in contrast to children with HbA1c > 114 mmol/mol (12.6%) (20% of patients, high group) at diagnosis, who continued to have high HbA1c at follow-up. For the individual, there was no significant correlation between high HbA1c at onset and during follow-up. During follow-up, children in the high group were more often smokers, less physically active, and more often had retinopathy than children in the low group (P < .01, .01, .03 respectively).

    CONCLUSION: High HbA1c at onset was associated with high HbA1c during follow-up on a group level, but it cannot be used as a predictor of future metabolic control on an individual level. These results emphasize the important work done by the diabetes team in the first years after diagnosis. It is important to continuously set high goals for the achievement of tight metabolic control, in order to decrease the risk of microvascular complications.

  • 22.
    Omar, Ruweyda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Turesson, Frida
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Patienters erfarenheter av egenvård vid diabetes mellitus typ 2: - En kvalitativ litteraturöversikt2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 23.
    Peterson, Anette
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Hanberger, Lena
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics and Diabetes. Research Center, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Department of Pediatric, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bojestig, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics and Diabetes. Research Center, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Improved results in paediatric diabetes care using a quality registry in an improvement collaborative: a case study in Sweden2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5(e97875), p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Several studies show that good metabolic control is important for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. In Sweden, there are large differences in mean haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in different hospitals and difficulties implementing national guidelines in everyday practice. This study shows how the participation in an improvement collaborative could facilitate improvements in the quality of care by paediatric diabetes teams. The Swedish paediatric diabetes quality registry, SWEDIABKIDS was used as a tool and resource for feedback and outcome measures.

    METHODS:

    Twelve teams at paediatric diabetes centres, caring for 30% (2302/7660) of patients in Sweden, participated in an 18-month quality improvement program. Each team defined treatment targets, areas needing improvement, and action plans. The main outcome was the centre patients' mean HbA1c levels, but other clinical variables and change concepts were also studied. Data from the previous six months were compared with the first six months after starting the program, and the long-term follow up after another eleven months.

    RESULTS:

    All centres reduced mean HbA1c during the second and third periods compared with the first. The mean reduction for all was 3·7 mmol/mol (p<0.001), compared with non-participating centres who improved their mean HbA1c with 1·7 mmol/mol during the same period. Many of the participating centres reduced the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia and/or ketoacidosis, and five centres reached their goal of ensuring that all patients had some sort of physical activity at least once weekly. Change concepts were, for example, improved guidelines, appointment planning, informing the patients, improving teamwork and active use of the registry, and health promotion activities.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    By involving paediatric diabetes teams in a quality improvement collaborative together with access to a quality register, the quality of paediatric diabetes care can improve, thereby contributing to a reduced risk of late complications for children and adolescents with diabetes.

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  • 24.
    Pettersson-Pablo, P.
    et al.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, T. K.
    Department of Medical Biosciences/Clinical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Clinical Diagnostics.
    Relative handgrip strength correlates inversely with increased body fat, inflammatory markers and increased serum lipids in young, healthy adults: The LBA study2024In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 207, article id 111057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is a surrogate marker of whole body strength that has been observed to correlate inversely with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this study, we examined whether HGS in young, healthy individuals, was associated with surrogate endpoints of the MetS. A secondary goal was to examine whether absolute HGS (absHGS) or relative HGS (relHGS) was a stronger predictor of MetS. Method: 834 subjects (577 women), aged 18–26, were recruited. Surrogate endpoints for MetS were waist circumference, HDL, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). We also examined the association between HGS and body fat percentage, HOMA-IR, CRP, orosomucoid and apolipoprotein A-1 and apolipoprotein B. The associations were examined using multivariable linear regression. Results: AbsHGS and relHGS were each associated with several surrogate endpoints of the metabolic syndrome, with RelHGS being statistically significantly associated with a greater number of the variables – all except fasting glucose and diastolic BP. Conclusion: RelHGS correlates with components of the MetS even in young, healthy populations. It is a better predictor of MetS components than absHGS. As a cheap and easy to use biomarker, relHGS holds merit as a screening tool for metabolic dysfunction even in preclinical contexts.

  • 25.
    Saffari, Mohsen
    et al.
    Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Chen, Hui
    School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    The role of religious coping and social support on medication adherence and quality of life among the elderly with type 2 diabetes2019In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 2183-2193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes is a major public health issue particularly in the elderly. Religion may affect the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in such patients, mediated by factors such as religious coping and social support. This study aimed to investigate the impact of religiosity on medication adherence and HRQoL.

    METHODS: 793 adults (> 65 years old, 45% females) were recruited from 4 diabetes care centers and followed for 1 year. Duke University Religion Index, Spiritual Coping Strategies, Multidimensional Perceived Social Support, Medication Adherence Report Scale, WHOQOL-BREF and Diabetes-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire Module were used for assessment, as well as HbA1c and fasting blood glucose level. Using structural equation modeling, the potential paths were tested between religiosity, medication adherence and HRQoL; social support, religious coping and medication adherence served as the mediators.

    RESULTS: Religious coping and social support were recognized as the significant mediators between religiosity and medication adherence (CFI = 0.983, TLI = 0.985, and RMSEA = 0.021). The relationships between religiosity and HRQoL were considerably mediated by social support, religious coping and medication adherence and these variables explained 12% and 33% of variances of generic and specific HRQoL, respectively. There was no significant direct effect of religiosity on HRQoL. HbA1c and fasting blood glucose level were successfully loaded on the latent construct of medication adherence (factor loading = 0.51 and 0.44, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: The impact of religiosity on medication adherence and HRQoL occurs through the mediators such as religious coping and social support. Therefore, to improve the adherence to treatment and quality of life, interventions may be designed based on these mediators.

  • 26.
    Saffari, Mohsen
    et al.
    Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    O’Garo, Keisha N.
    Division of Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States.
    Koenig, Harold G.
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States.
    Sanaeinasab, Hormoz
    Health Education Department, School of Health, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center (SDH), Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Psychometric properties of Persian Diabetes-Mellitus Specific Quality of Life (DMQoL) questionnaire in a population-based sample of Iranians2019In: International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, ISSN 0973-3930, E-ISSN 1998-3832, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 218-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with diabetes mellitus is often poorer than in those with other chronic medical conditions. Appropriate disease specific measures are needed to measure HRQoL in these patients. This study sought to validate a culturally adapted version of the Diabetes-Mellitus Specific Quality of Life (DMQoL) questionnaire module in Persian. Concurrent validity of the scale was assessed by the Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) questionnaire. Convergent and discriminative validity of the DMQoL was determined using a brief version of World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Scale Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS), and Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS). Construct validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. Rasch analysis was also performed to examine the unidimensionality of the DMQoL. Known-group method was used to examine the ability of the scale to differentiate between different categories of patients. A sample of 824 patients (512 females) with diabetes mellitus was recruited from diabetic care centers located in Qazvin, Iran. The mean age of participants was 54.1 (SD 6.3) and 27% were smokers. All items loaded on a single factor (factor loadings ≥ 0.6) and internal consistency of the scale was acceptable (α = 0.89). Significant associations were found between the scale and DQOL, indicating concurrent validity (p < 0.001). The DMQoL was able to differentiate subgroups of patients with hypertension, HbA1c, cholesterol, and diabetic diet. All items were appropriate with regard to difficulty level and confirmatory factor analysis verified the scale’s single dimension (CFI = 0.927; RMSEA = 0.067). Persian DMQoL is a reliable and valid measure of HRQoL in a Persian-speaking population with type II diabetes. Further assessment is needed to confirm the psychometric properties of the scale in other cultures and languages. Future studies are needed to determine the sensitivity of the scale to change over time in response to treatment. 

  • 27.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lindell, Nina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Carlsson, Annelie
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Caesarean section per se does not increase the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes: a Swedish population-based study2015In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 58, no 11, p. 2517-2524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis Some studies have revealed a relationship between Caesarean section (CS) and type 1 diabetes, while other studies have not. By using the Swedish paediatric quality register we investigated whether birth by CS is related to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. Methods All children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes from 2000 to 2012 and included in the register (n= 9,376) were matched with four controls by year, day of birth, sex and county of birth from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Results Overall, 13.5% of deliveries were by CS. By group, 14.7% of children who developed type 1 diabetes were delivered by CS compared with 13.3% of control children (p < 0.001). Mothers with diabetes more often gave birth by CS than mothers without diabetes (78.8% vs 12.7%, p < 0.001). In a logistic regression model adjusting for maternal age, maternal diabetes and BMI in early pregnancy, the OR for CS was 1.0. A child who developed type 1 diabetes and had a mother with type 1 diabetes at the time of delivery had the highest OR to have been born by CS. Children of mothers without diabetes, delivered by CS, had no increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Maternal diabetes was the strongest predictor of childhood diabetes (OR 3.4), especially if the mother had type 1 diabetes (OR 7.54). Conclusions/interpretation CS had no influence on the risk of type 1 diabetes during childhood or adolescence. However, maternal diabetes itself strongly increased the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes.

  • 28.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Department of Pediatrics, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Peterson, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Hanås, Ragnar
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanberger, Lena
    Division of Nursing, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Continued improvement of metabolic control in Swedish pediatric diabetes care.2018In: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, E-ISSN 1399-5448, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 150-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To prospectively investigate if the grand mean HbA1c and the differences in mean HbA1c between centers in Sweden could be reduced, thereby improving care delivered by pediatric diabetes teams.

    METHODS: We used an 18-month quality improvement collaborative (QIC) together with the Swedish pediatric diabetes quality registry (SWEDIABKIDS). The first program (IQ-1), started in April 2011 and the second (IQ-2) in April 2012; together they encompassed 70% of Swedish children and adolescents with diabetes.

    RESULTS: The proportion of patients in IQ-1 with a mean HbA1c <7.4% (57 mmol/mol) increased from 26.4% before start to 35.9% at 36 months (P < .001), and from 30.2% to 37.2% (P < .001) for IQ-2. Mean HbA1c decreased in both participating and non-participating (NP) centers in Sweden, thereby indicating an improvement by a spatial spill over effect in NP centers. The grand mean HbA1c decreased by 0.45% (4.9 mmol/mol) during 36 months; at the end of 2014 it was 7.43% (57.7 mmol/mol) (P < .001). A linear regression model with the difference in HbA1c before start and second follow-up as dependent variable showed that QIC participation significantly decreased mean HbA1c both for IQ-1 and IQ-2. The proportion of patients with high HbA1c values (>8.7%, 72 mmol/mol) decreased significantly in both QICs, while it increased in the NP group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The grand mean HbA1c has decreased significantly in Sweden from 2010 to 2014, and QICs have contributed significantly to this decrease. There seems to be a spatial spill-over effect in NP centers.

  • 29.
    Strand, Marianne
    et al.
    Department of Pediatrics, Ålesund Hospital, Ålesund, Norway.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Haugstvedt, Anne
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Adolescents' perceptions of the transition process from parental management to self-management of type 1 diabetes.2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 128-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe how adolescents perceive the transition from being dependent on their parents to managing their own type 1 diabetes.

    DESIGN: An explorative design with a phenomenographic approach was used.

    METHODS: Semistructured interviews took place during 2016-2017 with 18 strategically sampled adolescents (7 boys and 11 girls, aged 16-18 years) with type 1 diabetes from five Norwegian paediatric diabetes centres.

    FINDINGS: Three descriptive categories, each comprising three perceptions, emerged: (1) Taking responsibility for own diabetes is a process comprised 'It is natural to take over responsibility for own diabetes', 'Expectations from parents and healthcare personnel', and 'The adolescents want more independence'. (2) Taking responsibility for own diabetes was dependent on coping comprised 'Feeling proud to handle their own diabetes', 'The transition is like a roller coaster', and 'Taking responsibility means that it is your fault if you make mistakes'. (3) It is demanding to take responsibility for own diabetes comprised 'Taking responsibility for own diabetes requires knowledge and skills', 'It is time-consuming to take responsibility for own diabetes', and 'Having responsibility for own diabetes is like being examined every day'.

    CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents want to take over the responsibility for their diabetes treatment from their parents, but they need knowledge, experience and skills to succeed. Parents, friends and health professionals are important supporters during the transition.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Health professionals need to know their patients to identify the adolescents' need for support. Self-care is considered essential in the management of diabetes. Education sessions are an important part of the transition to control own diabetes. Such education should also include parents and friends.

  • 30.
    Torfi, Sanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sauma, Jennifer
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Personers erfarenheter och upplevelser av kost och motionsförändringar vid diabetes mellitus typ – 2: - En litteraturöversikt2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes mellitus typ – 2 är ett kroniskt tillstånd som ökar världen över. Tillståndet kan drabba personer i olika åldrar. Sjuksköterskan har en betydande roll i personens egenvård i relation till kost- och motionsförändringar vid diabetes mellitus typ – 2. Litteraturöversikten utgår från Orems egenvårdsteori som teoretisk referensram då teorin fokuserar på egenvård.  

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva personers erfarenheter och upplevelser av rekommenderade kost och motionsförändringar vid diabetes mellitus typ – 2. 

    Metod: En kvalitativ litteraturöversikt med induktiv ansats och analyserades med hjälp av Fribergs sätt att tänka i fem steg. 

    Resultat: I resultatet identifierades två kategorier och sex subkategorier. Första kategorin var Behov av stöd med subkategorierna Stöd från sjuksköterska, Stöd från närstående och brist på stöd. Andra kategorin var Den nya vardagen med subkategorierna Utmaningar i kostförändringar, Utmaningar i motionsförändringar och Känsla av motivation. Resultatet påvisade att personer med diabetes mellitus typ – 2 upplevde att egenvård och stöd från omgivningen var viktiga delar för att genomgå förändringar i vardagen. Motivation upplevdes även viktig för att optimera en god egenvård. 

    Slutsats: Litteraturöversikten visade att personer med diabetes mellitus typ – 2 var i behov av stöd från närstående och sjuksköterskan. Information, stöd, utbildning och motivation var till en stor fördel för en god upprätthållen egenvård. 

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    C-uppsats diabetes
  • 31.
    Vislapuu, Maarja
    et al.
    Department of Health and Social Sciences, Institute of Health and caring Science, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Igland, Jannicke
    Department of Health and Social Sciences, Institute of Health and caring Science, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Vorderstrasse, Allison
    Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York City, New York, USA.
    Iversen, Marjolein M.
    Department of Health and Social Sciences, Institute of Health and caring Science, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the short form of The Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID-5): a validation study2019In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 2, article id e022903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the psychometric properties of the short form of The Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID-5) in Norwegian adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey design.

    METHODS: Participants (n=143) were included from three Western-Norway endocrinology outpatient clinics. Demographic and clinical data were collected in addition to questionnaires concerning diabetes-related distress, fear of hypoglycaemia, symptoms of depression, emotional well-being and perception of general health. Psychometric evaluation of the PAID-5 included confirming its postulated one-factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and assessing convergent validity, discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The retest questionnaire was sent out 35±15 days after the initial assessment to those who agreed (n=117).

    RESULTS: The CFA for the PAID-5 scale showed excellent one-factor structure, and there was high internal consistency (α=0.89) and good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, ICC=0.81). The PAID-5 correlated positively with fear of hypoglycaemia (r=0.598) and depression (r=0.380) and negatively with emotional well-being (r=-0.363) and perception of general health (r=-0.420), thus satisfying convergent validity. Patients who had experienced episodes of serious hypoglycaemia in the past 6 months had a significantly higher PAID-5 mean score (7.5, SD=4.95) than those who had not had these episodes (5.0, SD=4.2 (p=0.043)).

    CONCLUSION: The Norwegian PAID-5 was shown to be a reliable and valid short questionnaire for assessing diabetes-related distress among people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, its ability to discriminate between groups needs to be tested further in larger samples. The PAID-5 scale can be a particularly valuable screening instrument in outpatient clinics, as its brevity makes it easy to use as a tool in patient-provider encounters. This short questionnaire is useful in the national diabetes registry or population cohort studies as it enables increased knowledge regarding the prevalence of diabetes-related distress.

  • 32.
    Wallander, Marit
    et al.
    Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Kristian F.
    Geriatric Medicine, Center for Bone Research at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anna G.
    Geriatric Medicine, Center for Bone Research at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundh, Dan
    School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Lorentzon, Mattias
    Geriatric Medicine, Center for Bone Research at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Type 2 Diabetes and Risk of Hip Fractures and Non-Skeletal Fall Injuries in the Elderly: A Study From The Fractures And Fall Injuries In The Elderly Cohort (Frailco)2017In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN 0884-0431, E-ISSN 1523-4681, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 449-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions remain about whether the increased risk of fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is related mainly to increased risk of falling or to bone-specific properties. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the risk of hip fractures and non-skeletal fall injuries in older men and women with and without T2DM. We included 429,313 individuals (aged 80.8 +/- 8.2 years [mean +/- SD], 58% women) from the Swedish registry "Senior Alert" and linked the data to several nationwide registers. We identified 79,159 individuals with T2DM (45% with insulin [T2DM-I], 41% with oral antidiabetics [T2DM-O], and 14% with no antidiabetic treatment [T2DM-none]) and 343,603 individuals without diabetes. During a follow-up of approximately 670,000 person-years, we identified in total 36,132 fractures (15,572 hip fractures) and 20,019 non-skeletal fall injuries. In multivariable Cox regression models where the reference group was patients without diabetes and the outcome was hip fracture, T2DM-I was associated with increased risk (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) [95% CI] 1.24 [1.16-1.32]), T2DM-O with unaffected risk (1.03 [0.97-1.11]), and T2DM-none with reduced risk (0.88 [0.79-0.98]). Both the diagnosis of T2DM-I (1.22 [1.16-1.29]) and T2DM-O (1.12 [1.06-1.18]) but not T2DM-none (1.07 [0.98-1.16]) predicted non-skeletal fall injury. The same pattern was found regarding other fractures (any, upper arm, ankle, and major osteoporotic fracture) but not for wrist fracture. Subset analyses revealed that in men, the risk of hip fracture was only increased in those with T2DM-I, but in women, both the diagnosis of T2DM-O and T2DM-I were related to increased hip fracture risk. In conclusion, the risk of fractures differs substantially among patients with T2DM and an increased risk of hip fracture was primarily found in insulin-treated patients, whereas the risk of non-skeletal fall injury was consistently increased in T2DM with any diabetes medication.

  • 33.
    Åkesson, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Ryhov City Hospital, Jönköping.
    Hanberger, Lena
    Linköping University Hospital.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    Linköping University Hospital.
    The influence of age, gender, insulin dose, BMI, and blood pressure on metabolic control in young patients with type 1 diabetes2015In: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, E-ISSN 1399-5448, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 581-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To explore the relationship between certain clinical variables and metabolic HbA1c at diagnosis correlated to HbA1c at follow-up (p < 0.001). There was a clear gender difference regarding HbA1c. Girls had higher values both at diagnosis and at follow-up (p < 0.001). Girls also had lower BMI and pH at diagnosis than boys (p < 0.001). In contrast, girls with the highest body mass index (BMI) at follow-up had higher mean HbA1c at follow-up in 2010 (p < 0.001). Having a mother and/or a father with high BMI implied higher HbA1c at diagnosis (p < 0.003).

    Conclusions

    HbA1c at diagnosis seems to predict metabolic control years later. There is a gender difference at diagnosis as female patients have higher HbA1c than males at diagnosis as well as at follow up. As metabolic control is very much correlated to complications there is a need to early identify patients at risk of poor metabolic control. Even though we do not know whether a high HbA1c level is mainly due to severity of the disease or to behavioral patterns, new ways to treat and support these children, especially girls, are needed.

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