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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    The Relationship Between Intelligence Quotient and Aspects of Everyday Functioning and Participation for People Who Have Mild and Borderline Intellectual Disabilities2018In: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 31, no 1, p. e68-e78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study explored the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and aspects of everyday functioning/participation in individuals (age 16–40) who have a mild/borderline intellectual disability (IQ 55–85).

    Method

    Correlations were examined between IQ and (i) self-rated (n = 72) ability, participation as performance (how often an activity is performed), important participation restriction (not/seldom performing an activity perceived as important) and general well-being and (ii) proxy-rated (n = 41) ability and participation as performance.

    Results

    No significant correlations between IQ and any of the explored measures were found. However, the effect sizes of the correlations between IQ and ability were considered as small but not negligible.

    Conclusions

    The results support the notion that IQ is a poor predictor of general aspects of everyday functioning in persons with mild/borderline intellectual disability. The result indicates that self-ratings partly generate other information than proxy ratings which may be important for assessments of supportive requirements and diagnosis.

  • 2.
    Arvidsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Thyberg, Mikael
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    How are the activity and participation aspects of the ICF used? Examples from studies of people with intellectual disability2015In: NeuroRehabilitation (Reading, MA), ISSN 1053-8135, E-ISSN 1878-6448, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 45-49Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Interdisciplinary differences regarding understanding the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) concepts activity/participation may hinder its unifying purpose. In the ICF model, functioning (and disability) is described as a tripartite concept: 1) Body structures/functions, 2) Activities, and 3) Participation. Activities refer to an individual perspective on disability that does not tally with the basic structure of social models.

    OBJECTIVE: To review how activity and participation are actually used in studies of intellectual disability (ID).

    CONCLUSION: Based on 16 papers, four different usages of activity/participation were found. 1) Theoretical reference to tripartite ICF concept with attempts to use it. 2) Theoretical reference to tripartite ICF concept without actual use of activities. 3) "Atheoretical" approach with implicit focus on participation. 4) Theoretical reference to bipartite concept with corresponding use of terms. The highlighted studies have in common a focus on participation. However, the usage of the term "activity" differs both within and between studies. Such terminology will probably confuse interdisciplinary communication rather than facilitating it. Also, the use of an explicit underlying theory differs, from references to a tripartite to references to a bipartite concept of disability. This paper is focused on ID, but the discussed principles regarding the ICF and interdisciplinary disability theory are applicable to other diagnostic groups within rehabilitation practices.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Kristina J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Balldin, Jan
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry of the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg .
    Berggren, Ulf
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry of the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg .
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Fahlke, Claudia
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg .
    Childhood Maltreatment Affects the Serotonergic System in Male Alcohol-Dependent Individuals2013In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 757-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reduced central serotonergic neurotransmission has been demonstrated in individuals with excessive alcohol consumption and/or alcohol dependence. Childhood maltreatment has also been found to have a negative impact on central serotonergic neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of childhood maltreatment on central serotonergic dysfunction in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Methods: Adult men with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence (n=18) were recruited from outpatient treatment units for alcoholism. Central serotonergic neurotransmission was assessed by a neuroendocrine method, that is, the prolactin (PRL) response to the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.

    Results: Alcohol-dependent individuals with childhood experience of emotional abuse had significantly lower PRL response compared with those without such abuse (3 +/- 5 and 64 +/- 24mU/l, respectively; t=6.51, p<0.001). Among those who reported childhood emotional abuse, 4 of 7 individuals had flat PRL responses in comparison with none in those with no report of such abuse (p<0.01).

    Conclusions: This is the first study to show that self-reported childhood maltreatment, in particular emotional abuse, in male alcohol-dependent individuals is associated with a quite dramatic (more than 90%) reduction in central serotonergic neurotransmission. It should, however, be noted that the number of individuals is relatively small, and the results should therefore be considered as preliminary.

  • 4. Besga, Ariadna
    et al.
    Cedazo-Minguez, Angel
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Solomon, Alina
    Björkhem, Ingemar
    Winblad, Bengt
    Leoni, Valerio
    Hooshmand, Babak
    Spulber, Gabriela
    Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Differences in brain cholesterol metabolism and insulin in two subgroups of patients with different CSF biomarkers but similar white matter lesions suggest different pathogenic mechanisms2012In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 510, no 2, p. 121-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigate possible associations of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) with the metabolism of cholesterol and insulin in two subgroups of patients with memory complaints and different CSF Aβ42 and CSF tau levels. 59 patients from the memory clinic at Karolinska Hospital were included. Degree of WMHs was rated using the ARWMC scale and the following biomarkers were measured in CSF and plasma: insulin, cholesterol, lanosterol, lathosterol, and oxidized cholesterol metabolites. The WMHs in CSF control-like group correlated with increased brain cholesterol synthesis and reduced efflux of oxysterols and insulin in CSF. In the CSF AD-like group, the WMHs correlated with increased peripheral cholesterol metabolism. Despite having similar appearance on FLAIR images, the pathogenic mechanisms of WMHS are likely to be different in the two groups investigated.

  • 5.
    Black, Melissa H.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Chen, Nigel T.M.
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Iyer, Kartik K.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Lipp, Ottmar V.
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Bölte, Sven
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Mechanisms of facial emotion recognition in autism spectrum disorders: Insights from eye tracking and electroencephalography2017In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 80, p. 488-515Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While behavioural difficulties in facial emotion recognition (FER) have been observed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), behavioural studies alone are not suited to elucidate the specific nature of FER challenges in ASD. Eye tracking (ET) and electroencephalography (EEG) provide insights in to the attentional and neurological correlates of performance, and may therefore provide insight in to the mechanisms underpinning FER in ASD. Given that these processes develop over the course of the developmental trajectory, there is a need to synthesise findings in regard to the developmental stages to determine how the maturation of these systems may impact FER in ASD. We conducted a systematic review of fifty-four studies investigating ET or EEG meeting inclusion criteria. Findings indicate divergence of visual processing pathways in individuals with ASD. Altered function of the social brain in ASD impacts the processing of facial emotion across the developmental trajectory, resulting in observable differences in ET and EEG outcomes. 

  • 6.
    de Schipper, Elles
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundequist, Aiko
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Coghill, David
    University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK.
    de Vries, Petrus J.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Holtmann, Martin
    Ruhr University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karande, Sunil
    Seth G.S. Medical College & K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Robison, John E.
    US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.
    Shulman, Cory
    Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
    Singhal, Nidhi
    Action for Autism, New Delhi, India.
    Tonge, Bruce
    Monash University, Victoria, Australia.
    Wong, Virginia C. N.
    The University of Hong Kong, China.
    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Bölte, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ability and disability in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic literature review employing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version2015In: Autism Research, ISSN 1939-3792, E-ISSN 1939-3806, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 782-794Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The objective was to use a systematic review approach to identify, number, and link functional ability and disability concepts used in the scientific ASD literature to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY (Children and Youth version of the ICF, covering the life span).

    Methods: Systematic searches on outcome studies of ASD were carried out in Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, and relevant functional ability and disability concepts extracted from the included studies. These concepts were then linked to the ICF-CY by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. New concepts were extracted from the studies until saturation of identified ICF-CY categories was reached.

    Results: Seventy-one studies were included in the final analysis and 2475 meaningful concepts contained in these studies were linked to 146 ICF-CY categories. Of these, 99 categories were considered most relevant to ASD (i.e., identified in at least 5% of the studies), of which 63 were related to Activities and Participation, 28 were related to Body functions, and 8 were related to Environmental factors. The five most frequently identified categories were basic interpersonal interactions (51%), emotional functions (49%), complex interpersonal interactions (48%), attention functions (44%), and mental functions of language (44%).

    Conclusion: The broad variety of ICF-CY categories identified in this study reflects the heterogeneity of functional differences found in ASD—both with respect to disability and exceptionality—and underlines the potential value of the ICF-CY as a framework to capture an individual's functioning in all dimensions of life. The current results in combination with three additional preparatory studies (expert survey, focus groups, and clinical study) will provide the scientific basis for defining the ICF Core Sets for ASD for multipurpose use in basic and applied research and every day clinical practice of ASD.

  • 7.
    de Schipper, Elles
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mahdi, Soheil
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Coghill, David
    University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, United Kingdom.
    de Vries, Petrus J.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
    National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Holtmann, Martin
    Ruhr University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.
    Karande, Sunil
    Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Levy, Florence
    School of Psychiatry, Prince of Wales Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Almodayfer, Omar
    Psychiatry Section, King Abdulaziz Medical City, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Rohde, Luis
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Tannock, Rosemary
    The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Bolte, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Towards an ICF core set for ADHD: a worldwide expert survey on ability and disability2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1509-1521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second in a series of four empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF and Children and Youth version, ICF-CY) core sets for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this stage was to gather the opinions from international experts on which ability and disability concepts were considered relevant to functioning in ADHD. An email-based survey was carried out amongst international experts in ADHD. Relevant functional ability and disability concepts were extracted from their responses and linked to the ICF/-CY categories by two independent researchers using a standardised linking procedure. 174 experts from 11 different disciplines and 45 different countries completed the survey. Meaningful concepts identified in their responses were linked to 185 ICF/-CY categories. Of these, 83 categories were identified by at least 5 % of the experts and considered the most relevant to ADHD: 30 of these were related to Body functions (most identified: attention functions, 85 %), 30 to Activities and Participation (most identified: school education, 52 %), 20 to Environmental factors (most identified: support from immediate family, 61 %), and 3 to Body structures (most identified: structure of brain, 83 %). Experts also provided their views on particular abilities related to ADHD, naming characteristics such as high-energy levels, flexibility and resiliency. Gender differences in the expression of ADHD identified by experts pertained mainly to females showing more internalising (e.g. anxiety, low self-esteem) and less externalising behaviours (e.g. hyperactivity), leading to a risk of late- and under-diagnosis in females. Results indicate that the impact of ADHD extends beyond the core symptom domains, into all areas of life and across the lifespan. The current study in combination with three additional preparatory studies (comprehensive scoping review, focus groups, clinical study) will provide the scientific basis to define the ADHD ICF/-CY core sets for multi-purpose use in basic and applied research and every day clinical practice.

  • 8.
    Garcia-Ptacek, S
    et al.
    Hospital Clínico San Carlos.
    Eriksdotter-Jönhagen, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jelic, V.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Porta-Etessam, J
    Hospital Clínico San Carlos.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Manzano Palmo, S.
    Hospital Infanta Cristina.
    Quejas cognitivas subjetivas: hacia una identificación precoz de la enfermedad de Alzheimer [Subjective cognitive impairment: Towards early identification of Alzheimer disease]2016In: Neurología, ISSN 0213-4853, E-ISSN 1578-1968, Vol. 8, no 31, p. 562-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD) begins decades before dementia and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) already demonstrate significant lesion loads. Lack of information about the early pathophysiology in AD complicates the search for therapeutic strategies.

    Subjective cognitive impairment is the description given to subjects who have memory-related complaints without pathological results on neuropsychological tests. There is no consensus regarding this heterogeneous syndrome, but at least some of these patients may represent the earliest stage in AD.

    Method: We reviewed available literature in order to summarise current knowledge on subjective cognitive impairment.

    Results: Although they may not present detectable signs of disease, SCI patients as a group score lower on neuropsychological tests than the general population does, and they also have a higher incidence of future cognitive decline. Depression and psychiatric co-morbidity play a role but cannot account for all cognitive complaints. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in these patients reveal a pattern of hippocampal atrophy similar to that of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and functional MRI shows increased activation during cognitive tasks which might indicate compensation for loss of function. Prevalence of an AD-like pattern of beta-amyloid (Aβ42) and tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid is higher in SCI patients than in the general population.

    Conclusions: Memory complaints are relevant symptoms and may predict AD. Interpatient variability and methodological differences between clinical studies make it difficult to assign a definition to this syndrome. In the future, having a standard definition and longitudinal studies with sufficient follow-up times and an emphasis on quantifiable variables may clarify aspects of early AD.

  • 9.
    Kramberger, MG
    et al.
    University Medical Centre Ljubljana.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Andersson, T
    Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge.
    Winblad, B
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Eriksdotter, M
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jelic, V
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Association between EEG Abnormalities and CSF Biomarkers in a Memory Clinic Cohort2013In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 36, no 5-6, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the study was to describe distinct electroencephalogram (EEG) phenotypes defined after routine visual EEG analysis in a large memory clinic cohort and to investigate their relationship to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Methods: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 131), mild cognitive impairment (n = 285), subjective cognitive impairment (n = 310), and mixed dementia (n = 29) were assessed clinically with neuroimaging, EEG and CSF investigations. EEG phenotypes were based on frequency of background activity (BA) and presence and degree of episodic abnormalities (EA). Results: BA and EA differed significantly (p < 0.001) between diagnostic groups. A lower CSF amyloid β42/phospho-tau ratio and higher total tau were associated with slower BA (p < 0.01) and a higher degree of EA (p < 0.04). Conclusions: Slowing of BA in combination with EA seems to be related to biological markers of neurodegeneration.

  • 10. Kramberger, Milica Gregoric
    et al.
    Jelic, Vesna
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Enache, Daniela
    Eriksdotter Jönhagen, Maria
    Winblad, Bengt
    Aarsland, Dag
    Cerebrospinal fluid alzheimer markers in depressed elderly dubjects with and without alzheimer's disease2012In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. Extra., ISSN 1664-5464, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 48-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer's disease (AD) markers and depression in elderly people.

    Method: We included subjects with AD as well as persons with subjective cognitive impairment and normal cognition. Depression was assessed with the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, and a cut-off score of >6 was used to define depression. Cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed using commercially available assays for β-amyloid 1-42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau 181.

    Result: A total of 183 participants (66.7% female) were included (92 with AD and 91 with subjective cognitive impairment), with a mean age (±SD) of 67.6 ± 7.4 years, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 26.0 ± 4.0, and a median Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia score of 5 (range 0-19). Depression scores were not associated with higher phosphorylated tau 181 and total tau or reduced β-amyloid 1-42 in AD or non-demented subjects.

    Conclusions: These results suggest that AD pathology does not contribute to depression, indicating that other factors may be more important. Further studies of the aetiology of depression in elderly people with and without AD are warranted.

  • 11.
    Lecusay, Robert
    et al.
    University of California, San Diego, Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, Department of Communication, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Rossen, Lars
    University of California, San Diego, Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, Department of Communication, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Cole, Michael
    University of California, San Diego, Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, Department of Communication, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Cultural-historical activity theory and the zone of proximal development in the study of idioculture design and implementation2008In: Cognitive Systems Research, ISSN 2214-4366, E-ISSN 1389-0417, Vol. 9, no 1-2, p. 92-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a large part of its history cognitive science has been grounded in views of the mind based on the traditional Cartesian dualisms. These dichotomies have been reinforced in particular by the view of the mind as an encased symbol-processing system ''protected from the external world'' (Newell, A., Rosenbloom, P. S., & Laird J. E. (1990). Symbolic architectures for cognition. In M. I. Posner (Ed.), Foundations of cognitive science, Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books/MIT Press, pp. 93-131: 107). Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) seeks to supersede Cartesianism, thinking about cognition and culture as mutually constitutive of each other. This approach analyzes thought processes as embedded in and manifested through systems of historically developing, culturally mediated activity. Consequently for CHAT, a basic unit for the study of human thought is joint mediated activity. In this paper we will discuss an example of research that follows the CHAT approach to the analysis of learning and development. The data sample is taken from a session of the Fifth Dimension, an after-school activity designed to implement CHAT principles in order to promote the cognitive and social development of adult and child participants alike. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Lee, Wee Lih
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, AustraliaDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Works, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Leung, Yee Hong
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Single-trial event-related potential extraction through one-unit ICA-with-reference2016In: Journal of Neural Engineering, ISSN 1741-2560, E-ISSN 1741-2552, Vol. 13, no 6, article id 066010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. In recent years, ICA has been one of the more popular methods for extracting event-related potential (ERP) at the single-trial level. It is a blind source separation technique that allows the extraction of an ERP without making strong assumptions on the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ERP. However, the problem with traditional ICA is that the extraction is not direct and is time-consuming due to the need for source selection processing. In this paper, the application of an one-unit ICA-with-Reference (ICA-R), a constrained ICA method, is proposed.

    Approach. In cases where the time-region of the desired ERP is known a priori, this time information is utilized to generate a reference signal, which is then used for guiding the one-unit ICA-R to extract the source signal of the desired ERP directly.

    Main results. Our results showed that, as compared to traditional ICA, ICA-R is a more effective method for analysing ERP because it avoids manual source selection and it requires less computation thus resulting in faster ERP extraction.

    Significance. In addition to that, since the method is automated, it reduces the risks of any subjective bias in the ERP analysis. It is also a potential tool for extracting the ERP in online application.

  • 13.
    Mihailescu, Daniela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Mihailescu, Marius
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    The contextualisation of an IS artefact: A synthetic framework grounded on a critical realist perspective on the development and deployment of IS development methodology2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamic business climate and technological advancements create new opportunities and challenges in the changing environment of IS development organizations. The clear distinction between the development and the implementation of Enterprise Systems software has affected the roles of involved parties, their work environment, and the knowledge needed. In response to the pressure for more efficiency and effectiveness and also flexibility and quality in Enterprise Systems implementations, new development models and methods, such as rapid product development, agile software development, and component-based development, have been suggested andare considered to be beneficial to consultants in their work. Yet, the quality of ES solutions continues to be problematic, resulting in various outcomes and, once again, questioning the value of the new IS development methodologies. What is not always clear from current IS studies, is the fact that IS development methodology represents a multi-perspective and cross-level phenomenon of study. Over the last decade, different perspectives in research works have tried to address the challenges related to development and deployment of IS development methodologies.

    We argue that existing fragmented approaches in studying IS developmentmethodology reduces the possibility to understand and explain the challengesencountered by IS professionals in practice. Therefore, in order to develop valuable theories, tools, and educational programs with practical relevance, as several scholars indicate, it is imperative to scrutinize new approaches and provide robust frameworks to study and explain the development, deployment, and the potentials of IS development methodologies.

    This work is motivated by the perception that a change of understanding and framing the study of IS development methodology is not only needed but is also a fundamental issue in order to facilitate the design of artefacts based on cumulative and integrated knowledge. This paper proposes to extend the existing body of IS research in general and ES research in particular, by exploring an alternative way to frame the study of ES implementation methodology from a critical realist perspective.

    The beneficial feature of this perspective is represented by a theoretical basis which allows to bridge the gap between two significant streams of IS research, i.e. the development and the deployment of IS development methodology. The framework outlined in this study is based on a synthesis of frameworks and theories of the development and deployment of IS development methodologies, and explores the characteristics and relations between social and technical objects together with potential transformations and implications in a stratified context.

  • 14.
    Tolppanen, Anna-Maija
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Ngandu, Tiia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Rusanen, Minna
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Soininen, Hilkka
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Midlife and Late-Life Body Mass Index and Late-Life Dementia: Results from a Prospective Population-Based Cohort2014In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity has been consistently associated with dementia. The role of certain risk factors of dementia may change during life, and the importance of having a life-course perspective has been acknowledged. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of midlife and late-life body mass index (BMI) with late-life dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD) and whether the association was independent of other obesity-related co-morbidities. Methods: The association between midlife BMI (mean age 50.2, SD 6.0) and late-life BMI (mean age 71.2, SD 4.0) and incident dementia later in life (mean age 75.7, SD 5.0) were investigated among 1,304 participants of the longitudinal population-based Cardiovascular risk factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study, conducted in Eastern Finland. The duration of follow-up was 26 years. The diagnosis of dementia was based on DSM-IV criteria and the probable and possible AD on the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Results: Higher midlife BMI was associated with higher risk of incident dementia (adjusted HR, 95% CI 1.07, 1.00–1.14). However, decrease in BMI from midlife to late-life was associated with higher risk of dementia (1.14, 1.03–1.25 for one-unit decrease) and AD (1.20, 1.09–1.33). High late-life BMI was associated with lower risk of AD (0.89, 0.81–0.98) but the association with dementia was less evident (0.94, 0.86–1.03). Conclusion: Higher midlife BMI is related to higher risk of dementia and AD, independently of obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities. Steeper decrease of BMI and low late-life BMI are associated with higher risk of dementia and AD. These findings highlight the importance of life-course perspective when assessing the association between BMI and cognition.

  • 15.
    Ulander, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Linköping University Hospital, 581 85, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansson, Malin Svensson
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ewaldh, Amanda Ekegren
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Linköping University Hospital, 581 85, Linköping, Sweden.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Side effects to continuous positive airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea: changes over time and association to adherence2014In: Sleep and Breathing, ISSN 1520-9512, E-ISSN 1522-1709, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 799-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective treatment against obstructive sleep apnoea, but adherence is often low, and side effects are common. It is unclear from previous research whether side effects are significant causes of nonadherence. No study has examined if side effects vary within subjects over time. The aims were to (1) examine the evolution of CPAP side effects over time, and (2) prospectively assess correlations between early CPAP side effects and treatment adherence. One hundred eighty-six obstructive sleep apnoea patients from three sleep centres were prospectively enrolled. They completed the Side Effects to CPAP Inventory, where the respondent rates the frequency, magnitude and perceived impact on adherence from 15 side effects. Adherence was measured by treatment dropout and machine usage time. The most common side effects were dry mouth, increased number of awakenings, blocked up nose, mask pressure and mask leaks. While some side effects were stable over time, others could both resolve and emerge within subjects. Dry mouth, mask leakage and blocked up nose emerged within 1 year in approximately 30 % of patients who had not experienced them after 2 weeks. Increased number of awakenings and dry mouth after 1-2 weeks were significantly associated to treatment dropout during the first year and machine usage time after 6 months. While some side effects are related to adherence, most are not. Not all side effects are stable over time. This, together with differences in methodology between studies, might explain the conflicting findings in earlier research.

  • 16.
    Vuorinen, Miika
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Julkunen, Valtteri
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Spulber, Gabriela
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Niskanen, Eini
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Paajanen, Teemu
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Soininen, Hilkka
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Solomon, Alina
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Changes in vascular factors 28 years from midlife and late-life cortical thickness2013In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 100-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed midlife blood pressure (BP), body mass index, total cholesterol, and their changes over time in relation to cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging 28 years later in 63 elderly at risk of dementia. Participants in the population-based Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia study were first examined at midlife. A first follow-up was conducted after 21 years, and a second follow-up after an additional 7 years. Magnetic resonance images from the second follow-up were analyzed using algorithms developed at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Midlife hypertension was related to thinner cortex in several brain areas, including insular, frontal, and temporal cortices. In elderly with thinner insular cortex, there was a continuous decline in systolic BP and an increase in pulse pressure after midlife, while in elderly with thicker insular cortex the decline in systolic BP started at older ages, paralleled by a decline in pulse pressure. No associations were found between body mass index, cholesterol, or apolipoprotein E ε4 allele and cortical thickness in this group of elderly at risk individuals.

  • 17.
    Wilkie, F. L.
    et al.
    Dept. of Psychiat. and Behav. Sci., University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Goodkin, K.
    Dept. of Psychiat. and Behav. Sci., Department of Neurology, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Ardila, A.
    Dept. of Psychiat. and Behav. Sci., University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Concha, M.
    Department of Neurology, University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lee, D.
    Dept. of Psychiat. and Behav. Sci., University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Dept. of Psychiat. and Behav. Sci., University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Suarez, P.
    Dept. of Psychiat. and Behav. Sci., University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Van Zuilen, M. H.
    Department of Medicine, University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Molina, R.
    Dept. of Psychiat. and Behav. Sci., University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    O'Mellan, S.
    Dept. of Psychiat. and Behav. Sci., University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    HUMANS: An English and Spanish neuropsychological test battery for assessing HIV-1-infected individuals - Initial report2004In: Applied neuropsychology, ISSN 0908-4282, E-ISSN 1532-4826, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 121-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A neuropsychological battery for testing HIV-1-infected individuals in Spanish was developed. We refer to this battery as the HIV/University of Miami Annotated Neuropsychological test battery in Spanish (HUMANS). The HUMANS battery includes recommendations of the National Institute of Mental Health Neuropsychology Workgroup on HIV-1 infection and measures processes in the following 7 cognitive domains: attention, verbal and visual memory, information processing speed, abstraction and executive functioning, language, visuospatial and visuo-constructive, and motor Administration requires approximately 3 to 4 hr The English version of the battery is sensitive to HIV-1 serostatus and Centers for Disease Control clinical disease stage. We report on the test selection, translation, and adaptation of this parallel English battery into Spanish using methods to eliminate linguistically and culturally biased items in some tests. The importance of standardized neuropsychological instruments equivalent in different languages to test HIV-1-positive individuals for impairment is emphasized. Validation and reliability studies are in progress.

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