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  • 1.
    Cuomo, Belinda M.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Lee, Elinda A. L.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Thompson, Craig
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Rogerson, Jessica M.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Effectiveness of Sleep-Based Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Synthesis2017In: Pharmacotherapy, ISSN 0277-0008, E-ISSN 1875-9114, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 555-578Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-synthesis collated eight previously published systematic reviews examining the efficacy of sleep interventions in children with ASD in an attempt to present a clear analysis of trialed interventions. The collated reviews consider five major groups of sleep interventions for children with ASD: melatonin therapy, pharmacologic treatments other than melatonin, behavioral interventions, parent education/education programs, and alternative therapies (massage therapy, aromatherapy, and multivitamin and iron supplementation). These eight reviews were based on 38 original studies and address the efficacy of interventions across 17 sleep problem domains. The results of this meta-synthesis suggest that no single intervention is effective across all sleep problems in children with ASD. However, melatonin, behavioral interventions, and parent education/education program interventions appear the most effective at ameliorating multiple domains of sleep problems compared with other interventions. Due to the heterogeneous causative factors and presentations of disordered sleep, further research into the effectiveness of sleep interventions may target specific phenotypic subgroups rather than a broad analysis across the general ASD population. Similarly, future research needs to consider the efficacy of different polytherapeutic approaches in order to provide clinicians with evidence to inform best practice. In the meantime, this review supports clinicians' decision making for a majority of the identified sleep problems in the ASD population.

  • 2.
    De Basso, Rachel
    et al.
    Jönköping Hospital.
    Hedblad, Bo
    Lund University.
    Carlson, Joyce
    Lund University.
    Persson, Margaretha
    Lund University.
    Östling, Gerd
    Lund University.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University.
    Increased carotid plaque burden in men with the fibrillin-1 2/3 genotype2014In: Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology, ISSN 0305-1870, E-ISSN 1440-1681, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 637-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibrillin-1 (FBN1) is an important constituent of the vascular wall and earlier studies have indicated an effect of the FBN1 2/3 genotype on blood pressure as well as aortic stiffness in men. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the FBN1 2/3 genotype was associated with the presence of carotid plaque and incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in middle-aged subjects. The FBN1 genotype was characterized in 5765 subjects (2424 men, 3341 women; age 45-69years) recruited from the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study Cardiovascular Cohort, Sweden. Plaque occurrence and intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery were assessed by ultrasound. The incidence of first cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and stroke) and cause-specific mortality were monitored over a mean follow-up period of 13.2years. The most common FBN1 genotypes were 2/2, 2/3 and 2/4, which accounted for 92.2% (n=5317) of subjects. There were no differences between the three genotypes regarding age, blood pressure, glucose, lipids, smoking habits, common carotid artery diameter and intima-media thickness in men and women. The presence of plaque in the carotid artery was higher in men with the 2/3 genotype compared with the 2/2 and 2/4 genotypes (55% vs 46% and 50%, respectively; P=0.007). No similar differences were observed in women. No significant relationship was observed between FBN1 genotypes and the incidence of cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality. The increased prevalence of plaque in the carotid artery of middle-aged men with the FBN1 2/3 genotype indicates pathological arterial wall remodelling with a more pronounced atherosclerotic burden.

  • 3.
    De Basso, Rachel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Sandgren, Thomas
    Capio Lundby Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Åsa Ryden
    Lund University.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University.
    Increased cardiovascular risk without generalized arterial dilating diathesis in persons who do not have abdominal aortic aneurysm but who are first-degree relatives of abdominal aortic aneurysm patients2015In: Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology, ISSN 0305-1870, E-ISSN 1440-1681, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 576-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong genetic predisposition towards abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), but it is unknown whether persons without AAA but with first-degree relatives who are AAA patients have a generalized dilating diathesis, defect arterial wall mechanics, or increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to investigate arterial diameters and wall mechanics at multiple arterial sites in these subjects and compare them with controls without a family history of AAA. This study included 118 first-degree relatives of patients with AAA and 66 controls (age: 40-80years). The abdominal aorta, common carotid artery, common femoral artery, and popliteal artery were investigated by echo-tracking ultrasound. The relatives had no arterial dilatation, but they did tend to have smaller diameters than controls. Relatives had a higher heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure than controls. The distensibility coefficient and the compliance coefficient were decreased in all arteries in male relatives, adjusted for age and smoking; these coefficients were normalized after adjustment for mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Female relatives had a lower compliance coefficient in the abdominal aorta, adjusted for age and smoking. After adjustment for mean arterial pressure and heart rate, the difference disappeared. No general arterial dilatation in relatives without AAA was found, supporting the hypothesis that the dilating diathesis is linked to the aneurysmal manifestation in the abdominal aorta. Although the threat of aneurysmal dilatation and rupture seems to be lacking in these subjects, heart rate, blood pressure, and arterial wall stiffness were all increased, which may indicate a higher risk of developing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  • 4.
    Elm, Niklas
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Hälsorisker med Bisfenol A2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a propane derivative with two phenol groups. It was synthetisized for the first time in the year of 1905 by Thomas Zincke at the Marburg University. When a polymer chemist discovered that it could be used to form polycarbonate plastics its popularity grew. Today the chemistry of BPA is a billion industry and many of us use daily plastics in which this chemical is used for. Many new toxicological studies have shown that BPA maybe is not as friendly as before thought. Our biggest exposure to it is orally because it can leak from different plastics with contact to food. According to a panel assembled by USA’s National Institutes of Health there is a risk of negative effects on brain and behaviour on children. The reactions of the risk assessment have been different and this thesis wants to show some arguments for the importance of exploring the health risks of BPA more.

    The purpose of this thesis is to use a literature study to investigate a part of what is documented about the health effects of BPA on humans, the kind of toxicological studies performed and how their results have affected companies and countries. The literature study shows that the width of interpretation of the toxicological studies’ results is big and thus that it is uncertain if there are health effects or not. There are some uncertain results facts funded on conflict that show a heightened risk for toxicological effects, for example damage on heart and changes in behavior in infants but there is no empirically stated health risk in humans. More standardization in research is needed for giving it a higher quality and thus making it more comparable.

  • 5. Lindström, Kjell
    et al.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Carlsten, Anders
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Can selective serotonin inhibitor drugs in elderly patients in nursing homes be reduced?2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Department of Dependence, Psychiatric Clinic, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Opiates versus other opioids – are these relevant as diagnostic categorizations?2017In: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    For more than three decades, the international diagnostic systems have used the term ‘opioids’, including opiates, yet research publications continue to use an older terminology. In 2010, new Codes of Statutes for “opiate replacement therapy” (ORT) was brought into effect in Sweden, stating that only those “dependent on opiates” – explicitly described as heroin, morphine or opium – were eligible. Those addicted to other opioids were then denied access. This study examines the relevance of the distinction of opiates vs. other opioids. Are there differences in the severity of opioid dependence or concerning other substance-related diagnoses?

    Methods:

    Ninety-nine individuals participated: 1) the opiate group (n = 69), and 2) the other opioids group (n=30). Structured interviews covered the ICD-10 criteria of nine different types of addictive substances. For opioids, questions were asked separately in relation to opiates versus other opioids.

    Results:

    The two groups fulfilled the criteria for opioid dependence to the same extent, with most participants meeting all six criteria, so indicating a severe opioid dependence problem. Both opiates and other opioids had contributed to their development of opioid dependence, and both groups, to the same high degree, showed comorbidity affecting other dependence conditions.

    Conclusions:

    This study reveals that the two categories of opioids used contribute to the development of opioid dependence and that the term ‘opioids’ can be suitably used to convey a unitary concept in diagnostic terms. There was no support for treating the two groups differently. The study calls for more stringent use of terminology in accordance with the international diagnostic systems.

  • 7.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Johnson, Björn
    Malmö högskola.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Opiater eller opioider?: dags att städa bland begreppen2015In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 43, p. 1928-1929Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 7 of 7
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