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  • 1.
    Allén, Tobias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Wern, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Utveckling av applikationsplattform för inbyggt system2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Al-Otaibi, Ahmad
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Hamed Oraibi, Yaser
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    AUTOMOTIVE BUS SYSTEM SCALABILITY2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose: The purpose of these theses is to build a deep understanding of CAN-FD and how does it work in the network.

    Method:The methods are literature studies that build on scientific books, data sheets, white papers, articles and interviews. 

    Findings: This research shows that the scalability of CAN-FD is the same in Classic CAN. Supporting high bit rate and increasing the bandwidth for CAN-FD is the only gap between them. In addition, the result shows that the CAN-FD doesn’t work on Partial Networks.

    Implications: The idea of this report was interesting for the companies that have needs for CAN-FD, which help to increase their knowledge about CAN-FD.

    Limitations: A Qualitative method was a useful method to reach the needs of this study. This method leads to real results that have been done in the other studies. The only missing for the authors is the scientific research that could build on real experiments and measurements on the hardware or software was not available under this research and this could lead to more clear results.

    Limitations: A Qualitative method was a useful method to reach the needs of this study. This method leads to real results that have been done in the other studies. The only missing for the authors is the scientific research that could build on real experiments and measurements on the hardware or software was not available under this research and this could lead to more clear results.

  • 3.
    Aslam, Muhammad Awais
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Router Architecture for Junction Based Source Routing:Design and FPGA Prototyping2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in the number of cores that can be integrated on a single chip has forced the designer to use computer network concepts for design of System on Chip (SoC). This idea led to development of Network on Chip (NoC) to deal with more cores on a single chip. NoC has three main parts, namely routers, link and network interface through which cores are connected to NoC. Router is one of the most important parts because cores communicate with other cores through routers. One of the important tasks for a NoC designer is to design router with low latency.Router design depends on the routing protocol and routing algorithm used. Two kinds of routing algorithms are source routing and distributed routing. In source routing, complete route information is available in Head flit while in distributed routing, routing decisions are taken inside every router on the path. Source routing has speed advantage over distributed routing because the packet itself contains the routing information. But source routing leads to overhead to store complete path information in the header of each packet. To overcome this flaw, junction based source routing has been introduced. If destination is far away from the source then first packet will go to a junction and get the new path information from the junction to the destination. Thus we need to store the path information only for a few hops in the packet header. This idea has been taken from the daily experience of train journey. In this thesis we have developed design of a router for junction based source routing. Main component of simple router includes buffering, header modification and making route decision. Router includes a table called Path Table which stores information about paths from junction to various destinations. JB router also includes, picking up the new path information from Path Table and modify the header by adding new path information.We have developed VHDL designs of two versions of the routers for Junction Based Routing. The delay performance of routers have been analysed through simulation. A simple prototype of the router has also been implemented in Altera FPGA to find out the resource requirements of the new router designs.

  • 4.
    Badri, Shabnam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    JUNCTION BASED ROUTING: A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR LARGE NETWORK ON CHIP PLATFORMS2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    To support communication among hundreds of cores on a chip, on-chip

    communication must be well organized. In the embedded systems using such a chip,

    the communication patterns can be profiled and routing can be well planned off-line.

    Source routing, with many advantages over distributed routing, will be very suitable

    in such contexts. However, source routing has one serious drawback of overhead for

    storing the path information in header of every packet. This disadvantage becomes

    worse as the size of the network grows. In this thesis we propose a technique, called

    Junction Based Routing (JBR), to remove this limitation. In the proposed technique,

    path information for only a few hops is stored in the packet header. With this

    information, either the packet reaches the destination, or reaches a junction from

    where the path information for on-ward path is picked up.

    There are many interesting issues related to this approach. Two important issues

    related to JBR, namely, number and position of junctions and path computation for

    efficient deadlock free routing are discussed and solved in this thesis work. Increase

    in path length by using the minimum number of junctions, link load distribution while

    computing paths, path encoding for JBR and packet format in JBR are also discussed.

    A few tools have been developed in MATLAB to analyze the various aspects of JBR.

    A simulator has been also developed to evaluate the performance of JBR with simple

    source routing. Outline of the architecture for a junction is also proposed.

    The results of simulation-based experiments show that the performance of JBR is

    similar to source routing. JBR is compared with source routing and the simulationbased

    results show that latency does not increase so much using junctions.

    Throughput also does not level off significantly. Header flit in JBR can carry payload

    data and this improves the performance of JBR in terms of throughput and latency

    compared to source routing which needs to store large path information. We observe

    improvement in throughput as compared to basic source routing when payload is very

    small.

    Key Words

    System on Chip (SoC)

    Core-Based Design

    On Chip Communication

    Network on Chip (NoC)

    Packet Switched Network

    Routing Algorithms

    Source Routing

    Junction-Based Routing

    Specification and Description Language (SDL)

  • 5.
    Berggren, Emil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Gustafson, Tobias
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Jämförelse av GPGPU-ramverk och AES-metoder: Jämförelse av GPGPU-ramverk och AES-metoder för att besvara vilka GPGPU-ramverk och vilken AES-metod som bör rekommenderas för AES-kryptering med GPGPU2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Background - Processors today are approaching the limit for how high clockfrequences they can run. This has led to that instead of trying to make them run faster they are instead made with multiple cores so they can utilize parallelization by running several threads in parallel. However aside from the CPU there is still the graphics card which has a large amount of unused computing power for long durations of time while the computer is active. While a GPU might not have as quick processors it instead has several thousands of them at the same time than a CPU which have led to the development of GPGPU-frameworks to use that potential parallelization. The profit in this lies in using algorithms and code functions that got high potential parallelization, one of which is the AES encryption algorithm. AES is one of the most widely used encryption algorithms today and also considered to be one of the most secure.

    Purpose – By using GPGPU-acceleration the encryption speed of AES is higher than by using a traditional CPU approach. To make the GPU-acceleration as effective as possible this study looks into which AES-method and which GPGPU-framework that should be chosen during development.

    Method – This study makes two literature studies to determine which AES-methods and which GPGPU-frameworks that are viable for GPU-acceleration of AES. Afterwards this study conducts experiments to determine which of these GPGPU-frameworks are the most effective.

    Findings – The conclusion drawn from the literature study is that the CTR-method among the AES-methods is preferable due to its parallelization potential and high security measures. Among the current GPGPU-frameworks only two frameworks satisfies the criteria determined from the literature study and those are CUDA and OpenCL. From the experiment the conclusion is thereafter drawn that of the two GPGPU-frameworks CUDA is more effective due to the bandwidth limits that OpenCL have compared to CUDA. This conclusion is valid on at least the tested graphics card, GTX 560.

    Implications – CUDA is faster at larger file sizes than OpenCL due to limited data transfer speed in OpenCL on a GTX 560.

    Limitations – The experiments were only conducted on one graphics card from Nvidia due to hardware constraints in that CUDA can only be run on Nvidia hardware. Due to this hardware constraint and Nvidia’s lack of support in their tools for debugging and profiling of OpenCL the results from the testing of OpenCL couldn’t be verified using external tools.

    Keywords – Processor, GPGPU, AES, CTR, OpenCL, CUDA, GPGPU-framework

  • 6.
    Bertilsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Johansson, Romario
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Undersökning om hjulmotorströmmar kan användas som alternativ metod för kollisiondetektering i autonoma gräsklippare.: Klassificering av hjulmotorströmmar med KNN och MLP.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the study is to expand the knowledge of how wheel motor currents can be combined with machine learning to be used in a collision detection system for autonomous robots, in order to decrease the number of external sensors and open new design opportunities and lowering production costs.

    Method – The study is conducted with design science research where two artefacts are developed in a cooperation with Globe Tools Group. The artefacts are evaluated in how they categorize data given by an autonomous robot in the two categories collision and non-collision. The artefacts are then tested by generated data to analyse their ability to categorize.

    Findings – Both artefacts showed a 100 % accuracy in detecting the collisions in the given data by the autonomous robot. In the second part of the experiment the artefacts show that they have different decision boundaries in how they categorize the data, which will make them useful in different applications.

    Implications – The study contributes to an expanding knowledge in how machine learning and wheel motor currents can be used in a collision detection system. The results can lead to lowering production costs and opening new design opportunities.

    Limitations – The data used in the study is gathered by an autonomous robot which only did frontal collisions on an artificial lawn.

    Keywords – Machine learning, K-Nearest Neighbour, Multilayer Perceptron, collision detection, autonomous robots, Collison detection based on current.

  • 7.
    Dahl, Dag
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Gustaf, Sterne
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    En jämförelse av Eigenface- och Fisherface-metoden tillämpade i en Raspberry Pi 22016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this report is to demonstrate the possibility to use Raspberry Pi 2 as hardware in a face recognition system. The study will show performance differences regarding the Eigenface- and Fisherface-method.

    To demonstrate the possibility the authors have done tests using an experimental study and quantitative method. To review the tests and to understand the result a qualitative literature review was taken.

    The tests will be presented as graphs to show the possibility to use Raspberry Pi 2 as hardware in a face recognition system. The same goes for the comparison of the chosen algorithms. The work indicates that Raspberry Pi 2 is a possible candidate to use for smaller face recognition systems. There is also an indication that the Fisherface method is the better choice for face recognition.

  • 8.
    Dahlberg, Christopher
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Speeding up matrix computation kernels by sharing vector coprocessor among multiple cores on chip2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s computer systems develop towards less energy consumption while keeping high performance. These are contradictory requirement and pose a great challenge. A good example of an application were this is used is the smartphone. The constraints are on long battery time while getting high performance required by future 2D/3D applications. A solution to this is heterogeneous systems that have components that are specialized in different tasks and can execute them fast with low energy consumption. These could be specialized i.e. encoding/decoding, encryption/decryption, image processing or communication.

    At the apartment of Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing Laboratory (CAPPL) at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) a vector co-processor has been developed. The Vector co-processor has the unusual feature of being able to receive instructions from multiple hosts (scalar cores). In addition to this a test system with a couple of scalar processors using the vector processor has been developed. This thesis describes this processor and its test system. It also shows the development of math applications involving matrix operations. This results in the conclusions of the vector co-processing saving substantial amount of energy while speeding up the execution of the applications.

    In addition to this the thesis will describe an extension of the vector co-processor design that makes it possible to monitor the throughput of instructions and data in the processor.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Klas-Göran
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Peterson, Andreas
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Solbil: Designundersökning av övervakningssystem och automatisk energiförbrukningsprognos för en solbil2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Jönköping University Solar Team participated in the 2015 edition of World Solar Challenge, which is held every other year in Australia. Teams from all around the world participates in the competition in which they construct a solar car and competes in a 3000 km long race from Darwin to Adelaide. A solar car is an electric car equipped with solar panels to give it a theoretical infinite mileage as long as the car have access to solar energy. Jönköping University came in 15th place in this race and would like to improve their competitiveness in the next race. Because it is a competition and the goal for every team is to use their car as efficiently as possible a system to log and monitor the battery and present the information to the team was needed. It would also be good to have some kind of energy consumption forecast that would be used to decide the speed the solar car should keep. A system that collect, stores and transmits the information from the solar car to an escort vehicle was developed and evaluated.

    Thus, the pursues of this studies were: Improve Jönköping University Solar Teams competitiveness by provide a decision support which in real time monitor and log the solar car battery level and energy consumption.

    Design Science Research was used as a method to realize this purpose, which gave the opportunity to develop the system as an artifact and use this to present the result. Three different experiments were constructed to determine the functionality of the wireless communication, how accurate the system was and how well the energy consumption could be predicted. In the results the artifact is described as a whole and together with the experiments it is found that the system will give Jönköping University Solar Team a higher competitiveness in the next race.

  • 10.
    Fransson, Albin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Larsson, Philip
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Avdriften hos robotgräsklippare: en experimentell studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to reduce the drift of a robot lawnmower using a simple GPS. A drift occurs when the robot lawnmower falls off the direction that should be followed. This happens due to external forces. In this report the definition of drift is the deviation from a straight line between the robot lawnmower’s start and stop position.

    The thesis answers the following research questions:

    • What different measurements are available to measure drift and what or which of these are preferred in the experiment done in this study?
    • How can the drift from the robot lawnmower be reduced by software that uses data from only a simple GPS?

    The development of software has been done iteratively where each iteration results in a configuration that reduces drift. To answer the second research question, experiments have been performed on each configuration. The result of the experiment could then be analyzed with the measurements that emerged from the first research question.

    The study's results show that it is possible to reduce the drift of a robotic lawnmower with a simple GPS.

  • 11.
    Hejderup, Jacob
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Multipla loggar för ökad programförståelse: Hur multipla loggar kan bidra till programutveckling och programförståelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To develop or maintain a piece of code requires a certain level of comprehension of the developed or maintained software itself. To achieve this goal the developer uses a set of different tools. This report will focus on two types of debug tools: single trace and multiple traces. The purpose of the study is to examine how multiple traces can contribute to an improved program comprehension. The study was carried out through experiments and interviews. The experiment consisted of 10 typical comprehension tasks in a development context. Eclipse and Trace Compass were used to display the logs. Eclipse is a development environment that shows the source code. Trace Compass is a tool for inspecting traces.  After the experiment, an interview was carried out with the subjects of the experiment. The results of this study indicated that multiple traces could have an advantage over a single trace when the task is to understand the interactions between code components in a software system. One of the limitations of the study was due to the limited number of subjects taken part in the study and cannot be used to draw a more general conclusion. 

  • 12.
    Henrik, Dahl
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Testprogram till hårdvara på en viktindikator2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Holmgren, Viktor
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Vikmyr, Karl-Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Detektion av fasta ekon vid vindmätning med SODAR2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this thesis was to facilitate the search for echoes caused by fixed objects, so called fixed echoes, when using SODAR-technique for wind measurements. Furthermore, it was investigated how fixed echoes in measurements can change based on different conditions such as: the angle of the sound beam towards the object causing the echo, the output frequency of the instrument, the air temperature and relative humidity.

    Method – Data was recorded on a test site in southern Sweden during February - April 2017 using two different SODAR-instruments, AQ500 and AQ510, manufactured by AQSystem. Experiments were conducted by installing the instruments at different distances and in different angles next to a met mast. The data recorded was examined for fixed echoes both by using Excel and manually and compared for correlation with the parameters mentioned. A software that uses the r-squared value for a power function adapted to the collected data was developed to detect fixed echoes.

    Findings – The result of the study showed that the angle of the SODAR-instrument sound beam direction compared to the met mast has a relatively high impact on the number of fixed echoes that can be easily detected. When a sound beam is aimed directly at the fixed object the echoes increased significantly compared to when the sound beams were aimed next to the mast. AQ510, that uses a higher measurement frequency than the AQ500, was less susceptible to fixed echoes when doing simultaneous measurements. Both temperature and relative humidity showed low correlation to the number of fixed echoes so the implication was that these atmospherical parameters do not affect the emergence of fixed echoes. The r-squared value for a power function adapted to the wind data turned out to be a good measure for the magnitude of a fixed echo. When the correlation coefficient of the r-squared value and the percentage of wind profiles that contained fixed echoes were calculated the value was 0,995 which is a strong positive correlation. The r-squared value is compared with a threshold value (which depends on the number of wind profiles in the data to be analysed) to determine if a fixed echo is causing disturbance. Another control is also made in the software where the measured wind values are compared with the values from the power function to find minor deviations possibly caused by fixed echoes.

    Implications – When the result of the thesis is considered it can help the person installing the instruments as well as the developers of the SODAR-instruments. The person installing the system can notice that fixed echoes can be decreased by rotating the instrument. The result showed the developer that by carefully selecting the right frequency the number of fixed echoes can be decreased. If neither the temperature nor the relative humidity has any impact on fixed echoes it shows the developer that the instrument can be used in varying climates. The result of the study can also be of service to wind analysts using SODAR-equipment. The software developed can be used to find fixed echoes in a more efficient way than was previously possible.

    Limitations – The data recordings took place during a limited period during late winter, early spring in the southern parts of Sweden which means that neither extremely high or low temperatures were measured during the campaign. The thesis is further limited by only using ”multiple axis” SODAR-instruments from AQSystem.

    Keywords – SODAR, wind measurements, fixed echoes, measurement instrument.

  • 14.
    Hult, Marcus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Vinkelmätning med sensorfusion2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sensorfusion innebär att man kombinerar resultatet från två eller flera sensorersom mäter samma information. På så sätt kan man få ett bättre mätresultat än vadvarje enskild sensor kan ge. Ofta använder man olika typer av sensorer som harsina för och nackdelar, filtrerar bort ”nackdelarna” från varje sensor och slår sedanihop resultatet. Ett sådant filter kallas för komplementärfilter.Sensorfusion för vinkelmätning används främst i reglersystem för olikabalanseringssyften, t.ex. för att stabilisera luftburna fordon som helikopter ochflygplan, eller tvåhjuliga självbalanserande fordon som ”Segway PersonalTransporter”[1].I denna rapport beskrivs hur ett komplementärfilter för vinkelmätning med ettgyroskop och en accelerometer fungerar. Komplementärfiltret används sedan i entvåhjulig självbalanserande robot som insignal till dess PID-regulator, i ett försökatt få den att balansera helt själv utan yttre påverkan.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Alfred
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Bluetooth IPS med en mottagare och Kalmanfiltrering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at investigating a central mounted Indoor Positioning System based onBluetooth RSSI values and Kalman filtering where the Bluetooth module is mounted on arotating arm around an axle. The purpose is to investigate how the length of the arm and therotational speed influence on the possible positioning accuracy of the artefact. As requested bythe company Combitech AB, the artefact will also be evaluated whether the design is areasonable alternative to de most common Bluetooth based Indoor Positioning Systems. Thecase study is performed using design science as an artefact is developed and evaluated. Theartefact is tested in a predetermined test environment, in this case an office room. In the testenvironment, measurements will be realized on the different iterations of the artefact. Theresult of the study is the achieved positioning accuracy for the artefact in two and threedimensions. Linear equations describing the relationship between the length of the arm andthe achieved accuracy of the artefact will also be proposed. The best accuracy achieved in twodimensions was 510 centimeters. The best achieved accuracy in three dimensions was 730 centimeters. The observed relationship between the length of the arm and the uncertainty ofthe trilaterated position is that when the length of the arm increases the uncertainty decreasesin both two and three dimensions.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Mathias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Utvärdering av inomhuslokalisering med Bluetooth Low Energy2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication is becoming more common, a relatively new technology within the area is Bluetooth Low Energy. It’s been developed to be energy efficient and in regard to compatibility. Alongside the growth of wireless technology, scientists and companies are looking for new areas of use. One of these is localization, which means to determine the position of a moving device with the use of stationary devices, an example of this would be GPS.This report means to evaluate indoor localization using Bluetooth Low Energy and was made for Combitech AB in Jönköping. The purpose of the work was to determine with what accuracy and precision the position of a moving device could be estimated. The report will answer the following questions: With what accuracy and precision can the position of a device be determined within a test area of varying size using Bluetooth Low Energy? Is the accuracy and precision affected by the environment?The authors chose an inductive reasoning and therefore intended to answer the questions with the help of experimental studies. A system consisting of both software and hardware was developed and was then used to conduct multiple rounds of tests, where the size of the area and the environment was varied.By evaluating the data gathered from said tests and comparing it to theoretical studies and prior research credible results were obtained. The accuracy appears to decrease as the distance between the units is increased, however a deeper analysis shows that the difference is smaller below 500 cm. No correlation is found between environment and accuracy. When three stationary units, forming a triangle with 400 cm between the vertices, are used to determine the position of a fourth the achieved accuracy is 65 cm. During the tests the precision is not shown to decrease with distance, it seems to vary independently. However, as the environment is changed a noticeable difference is observed. In a gymnasium the standard deviation was calculated to 0.38 RSSIwhereas in an office environment it was 0.99 RSSI. In regard to the given results the authors conclude that Bluetooth Low Energy shows some potential for the use in indoor positioning systems. A possible scenario where the technology would be well suited would be when the units need to work of a coin cell battery for a large period of time, while the system must support multiple types of units and a rough estimation of the position is adequate.

  • 17.
    Justegård, Henrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Ljungblom, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Kontinuerlig RFID-detektering för batteridrivna system2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with RFID systems and how to detect nearby tags with the Mifare standard using only a microcontroller and an antenna circuit.

    The aim was to investigate whether there was any possibility to continuously search for a nearby tag for a system operated with batteries without compromising   the lifespan of the battery. At this time the system would take too long time to wake up and look for a tag to give a satisfactory battery lifespan, which should be done a couple of times every second.

    The report has two issues, namely:

    • Is it possible to direct the microprocessor to detect and identify a nearby tag after the Mifare standard?
    • What hardware is required for this to be possible?

    As the research method to provide answers to the above questions an action research was used. This approach has meant that the group worked on information retrieval, examined existing solutions, tested their own solutions and documented the results.

    The group examined an existing solution that can search for nearby tags with minimal energy consumption. An antenna circuit was built that was connected to the processor. The program code was made in AVR Studio on a PC and programmed with a AVR one!. The processor was in an AVR Xplain development board for processors made by Atmel. The software is designed to wake up the system to search for a tag as quickly as possible, and then go back to sleep.

    By only activating the carrier and measure the amplitude of the received signal could determine whether a tag is around or not. This made it possible to conduct a search for a tag of less than 4 µS.

  • 18.
    kakani, phani priya
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Data Aggregation and Gathering Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks have many sensor devices that send their data to the sink or base station for further processing. This is called direct delivery. But this leads to heavy traffic in the network and as the nodes are limited with energy, this decreases the lifetime of the network. So data aggregation technique is introduced to improve the lifetime. This technique aggregates or merges the multiple incoming packets in to single packet and forwards it to sink. There is different data aggregation techniques based on the topology of the network.

    This report clearly explains the purpose of data aggregation and gathering in WSN, data aggregation in flat networks and data aggregation in hierarchical networks, different data aggregation techniques in cluster based networks, chain based, tree based and grid based networks.

    Data aggregation technique can successfully minimize the data traffic and energy consumption only when it is carried out in a secure manner. Part2 of the survey explains the possible attacks that affect data aggregation in wireless sensor network. The secure data aggregation techniques in wireless sensor networks are also discussed in this report.

  • 19.
    Karlsson, Filip
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Emanuelsson, Alexander
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Ett automatiskt verifieringssystem vid utvecklingen av inbyggda system: En länk mellan byggserver och testmiljö2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive companies are increasingly investing in fast development processes and new advanced technology, resulting in less time being allocated to development that is more time consuming. The purpose of this thesis was to develop and evaluate an automatic verification system adapted for companies within the automotive industry with VT System as test environment and Jenkins as build server. Based on this purpose, three research questions were defined and then answered by first investigating which components an automatic verification system could contain. This was followed by the development of an automatic verification system and a corresponding architecture. Finally, the automatic verification system was evaluated through an experiment, with the purpose of investigating it’s time efficiency. To achieve the purpose of this thesis the method Design Science Research was used. The results from the experiment shows that there is no significant difference in time efficiency between the automatic verification system and a manual approach of the same task. The thesis highlights other aspects of the automatic verification system in which it can contribute. The result of the work contributes to different knowledge areas such as automated testing and fully automated systems, it does this by presenting an architecture for an automatic verification system and by presenting the result from the above-mentioned experiment.

  • 20.
    Karlsson, Linda
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Dataöverföring mellan en mobiltelefon och en NFC-läsare2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about using a wireless communication technology called NFC (Near Field Communication) when communicating between a mobile phone using an Android operating system and a NFC reader called ACR122U. The purpose of this project is to:

    • Select an Android phone which supports NFC.
    • Create an application that runs on the Android mobile phone and which shall send a password via NFC.
    • Create a program which will run on a PC running Windows 7 and which will handle ACR122U.
    • Explain the gathered knowledge in this document so that others may more readily be able to work with NFC.

    The following questions will be answered in this report:

    • Which Android mobile phone should be used when developing an application which will communicate via NFC?
    • What is required when developing an application that can communicate via NFC?

    Action research is the research method that was used when searching for answers to the questions above. This means the research is done by reading about the subject, implementing one or more solutions in order to find a working solution and then documenting the results. The implementation of the software on the mobile phone was done with a lot of help from the Android Developers website. When developing the software to be used by the computer to handle ACR122U a lot of research was made. A demo application and a java library called “nfctools” made by the German company GrundID GmbH were very useful when trying to figure out how the communication works. The program that handles ACR122U was developed through alternating between reading and testing different solutions.

    The mobile phone that was chosen during this project is Samsung Galaxy Nexus running Android 4.0.The software that handles ACR122U needs to handle these things:

    • Sending data via USB to ACR122U – This was done using a class called “ModWinsCard” which came with an NFC development package.
    • An ACR122U Pseudo-APDU (Application Protocol Data Unit) command.
    • Some of ACR122U’s NFC controller (PN532) commands.
    • Some parts of the NFC layers: NDEF (NFC Data Exchange Format), SNEP (Simple NDEF Exchange Protocol) and LLCP (Logical Link Control Protocol).

    It is important to know which NFC layers are implemented in the devices that are to communicate with each other via NFC. The same layers must be used when packing and unpacking data.

  • 21.
    Larsson, Mattias
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Energieffektivt videosikte: Metoder för reducering av effektförbrukning i en hårdvarulösning som baseras på System On Chip2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Ljungberg, Jan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    SYSTEM ON CHIP: Fördelar i konstruktion med system on chip i förhållande till fristående FPGA och processor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this exam project the investigation has been done to determine, which profits that can be made by switching an internal bus between two chips, one FPGA and a processor, to an internal bus implemented on only one chip, System on Chip.

    The work is based on measurements made in real time in Xilinx’s development tools on different buses, AXI4 and AXI4-Light connected to AXI3. The port that is used is FPGA’s own GP-port. Besides measuring the time of transactions also physical aspects have been investigated in this project: space, costs and time. Based on those criteria a comparison to the original construction was made to determine which benefits that can be achieved.

    The work has shown a number of results that are in comparison with the original construction. The System on Chip has turned out to be a better solution in most cases. When using the AXI4-Light-bus the benefits were not as obvious. Cosmic radiation, temperature or humidity are beyond the scope of this investigation.

    In the work the hypothetic deductive method has been used to prove that the System on Chip is faster than the original design. In this method three statements must be set up against each other; one statement that ought to be true, one statement that is a contradiction and a conclusion of what is proved.

    The pre-study pointed out that the System on Chip is a faster solution than the original construction. The method is useful since it proves that the pre-study is comparable to the measured results.

  • 23.
    Megersa, Tamene Tujuba
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Hardware Platform for Mobile Adaptable Surveillance System for Critical Areas2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smart Environment is built with the help of embedded system that can give an access to the environment in which it is placed. The embedded systems are electronic systems constituting electronic devices which are specially built to facilitate certain processes such as the human interaction with an environment. These systems play a vital role in an electronic application systems such as  medical diagnosis, geological investigation, surveillances, cash records, play stations and etc. The Mobile Adaptable Surveillance System for Critical Areas (MASURCA) is an embedded system wireless sensor network application system that embodies both the hardware (node) and software. In this thesis project, Development of Hardware Platform for Mobile Adaptable Surveillance System for Critical Areas, the design and development of the hardware platform for the system is built. The project deals with building the smart system comprising of radio frequency (RF) radio, global positioning system (GPS) sensor module, Accelerometer, Temperature sensor, and Ultrasonic sensor.

     The design focuses on designing the power supply stage from a single AA battery in such a way that the entire connected components and sensors get a required supply source with best possible extended battery life. The design of power supply stage includes EMC, signal integrity, thermal and efficiency design considerations, and prototyping and testing of the power supply stage.

     First the sensors and the necessary design components are selected with more emphasis on their power/energy consumption, size of footprint and signal output (I2C-bus protocol interface capability). Then the system schematic will be designed and simulated for signal integrity and design rule using the Mentor Graphics design entry Dxdesigner and hyperlynx Analog simulator. The designed schematic is also packaged and the part is listed and the bill of material is generated so as to be able to annotate to the PCB layout and later component placement.

     Likewise, the PCB layout is designed according to the Saab Training Systems AB’s standards, regulatory guidelines and standards, and the MASURCA main node system specific requirements. The project will also design and provide the mechanical enclosure kit and software development kit for the MASURCA main node hardware platform. Finally testing and evaluation of the system is done to make the hardware ready for the application implementation.

  • 24.
    Mirza, Usman Mazhar
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Extended Junction Based Source Routing Technique for Large Mesh Topology Network on Chip Platforms2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Network on Chip (NoC) has been proposed as a scalable and flexible interconnect infrastructure for communication among hundreds of cores on a core-based System on Chip. Routing algorithm affects the communication performance of a NoC. Therefore, many researchers have proposed different routing techniques in their work. Source routing, with many advantages over distributed routing, is very suitable for NoC platforms but has a serious drawback of overhead for storing the path information in every packet header. A technique called Junction Based Routing (JBR) was proposed to overcome this limitation of source routing. In JBR, either the packet reaches the destination directly, or reaches a junction from where it picks up the path information for on-ward path towards the destination. However, JBR has few drawbacks such as increased packet latency due to the delay involved in fetching the new path information from junction nodes, increased path length overhead using minimum number of junctions and deadlocks while even using the deadlock free routing algorithms.

     

    In this thesis we proposed a technique, called Extended Junction Based Routing (EJBR), to address the limitations of JBR. EJBR reduces the packet latency for the communicating pairs of nodes involving multiple junctions. We are using three virtual channels to avoid deadlocks and to make communication from junction to junction faster we are reducing the delay at intermediate routers among them by skipping routers pipeline stages. There are many interesting issues related to this approach. We discuss and solve three important issues related to EJBR, namely, number and position of junctions, junctions network topology and path computation for efficient deadlock free routing. A simulator has been developed to evaluate the performance of EJBR with simple source routing and JBR. We also developed a tool in MATLAB to find the efficient junctions network topology and to compute the paths for deadlock free routing. The results of simulations show that the performance of EJBR is better than JBR for few routing algorithms in terms of latency and throughput. 

  • 25.
    Nilsson, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Stranne Stark, Lars
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Optimala vinkeln vid 3D skanning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbete på kandidatnivå som behandlar 3D skanning vid olika vinklar och de resultat de ger vid olika avstånd.

  • 26.
    Polya, Alexander
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Lindén, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Förening av trådlösa mesh-nätverk och PLC-miljö för industriella behov2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In conjunction with the possibility of inexpensive wireless communication, many products of tomorrow are developed with the support for wireless communication. The technology enables the possibilty of wireless communication to small plattforms at a realistic price. The cheap connectivity allows for great creativity and gives the developers imagination a wide discretion in the development of new products. This thesis aims to evaluate how the serial communication protocol Modbus RTU - RS232, performs and behaves when transported through meshed networks (Atmel lightweight mesh will be used in this thesis). The work was commissioned by M2M Solutions in J¨onk¨oping. The report will answer the following questions1. How does Modbus RTU behaves when transported through a meshed network. 2. How does Modbus RTU preform when transported through Atmel Lightweight Mesh.The authors have chosen to conduct action research to answer established questions. A test system consisting of both hardware and software was designed and created. With this system, several different tests were conducted and the results were observed and subjected to reflection. The different tests varied the distance, the network’s composition and location of the network infrastructure. Through observation of the test system and evaluation of the recorded data conclusions concering Modbus RTU’s performance and behavior during transport in Atmel lightweigh mesh has been drawn. The test system has been designed with the help of clients and previously made research. Modbus behaves nominally during transportation through Atmel lightweight mesh. Before the network is fully established, an inability to transport data has beend observed. The performance is evaluated by the time it takes to send data, the time is greatly affected by the following factors; Network composition and changes in signal strength (that creates changes in transport routes). For each additional node that traffic is transported through an increase of 5-10ms in the responstime was noted. The network’s ability to change the transport route is also expected to increase performance. The wireless communication provides a longer range than during transportation by standard conventional cable.Considering the results, the authors believe that Modbus RTU has the potential for use in transportation through wireless, meshed networks. One possible scenario is when several Modbus RTU masters are beeing used and data needs to be transported over large distances.

  • 27.
    Santhanam, Manisundaram
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    UWB technology and its application2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact ultra-wideband (UWB) technology has been around for over 30 years, there is a newfound excitement about its potential for communications. With the advantageous qualities of multipath immunity and low power spectral density, researchers are examining fundamental questions about UWB communication systems. Majorly the whole report gives a complete picture about properties of UWB signal and its advantages and disadvantages, generation of the UWB pulse using various techniques, Modulation scheme, Test bed, applications, UWB regulations. The report mainly concerns with the survey about various techniques and also its comparison of generating UWB pulses using various components. There is a general description on various modulation and demodulation scheme that are relevant to UWB technology and its various applications concerning different fields.

     

    This report clearly explains how UWB is far better than RFID and difference between active and passive RFID and its communication protocol, message format. Clear explanation about advantage of higher operating frequencies and low power spectral density. Properties of UWB pulse gives clear idea why we go for UWB and in near future lot of applications will discover. Generation of UWB is a tedious process and in this report readers can understand the various method of generation its advantages and its drawbacks. Modulation and demodulation scheme gives clear idea about how UWB are modulated and demodulated as well as its probability of error and in which situation which modulation is suitable. By using future testbed concept, smaller size UWB chip will be designed and used in various application efficiently. Application gives clear idea about how to take advantage of various properties. 

  • 28.
    Timilsina, Manish
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Comparision between single mesh network and cell-based mesh network2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The theme of this thesis is to analyse the performance of a conventional mesh topology in a multipath fading environment and compare it with a newly proposed multiple cell based mesh topology. The communication performance in general is measured by the overall through-put, packets delivery reliability, average message delivery delay and power-consumption.

    In this thesis, for simplicity of the calculation the network performance is indirectly measured in-terms of the number of additional routes originally required to connect an isolated or disconnected device, percentage of the devices which have reliable and unreliable route from or to the back bone routers, number of hops from back-bone routers to the nodes and redundant routes which includes the routes inside the particular cell or outside to the other cell.

    In this simulation 240 nodes has been used within the area of 120 x 60 m2 which is just in accordance with an average size of industry. Network simulation is broken down into five different scenarios with respect to different number of field devices or nodes and back bone routers along with the presence of obstacles in the area and then analysed respectively. Entire simulation and analytical work have been done on MATLAB.

    Major applications of multiple cell based mesh topology can be used within industrial process automation, such as pulp and paper, steel, oil and gas, etc.

  • 29.
    Tirosh, Daniél
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Design utav kompakt multifrekvent RFID-system2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radio Frequency Identification, RFID, is a wireless identification method which uses electromagnetic fields in order to communicate with electronic tags in the vicinity. In recent years, in conjunction with the digitalization of society, RFID has become a popular method for digital identification. RFID, as a method for digital identification, is often used for credit card payments in store, access control to locked rooms and renting books at libraries. As a result of RFID growing rapidly, different frequencies have emerged. In order to benefit from different frequencies, a multi frequency RFID-reader was designed. The purpose of this study was to examine which difficulties arise in the development of a small multi frequency RFID-reader. This study shows that a small multi frequency RFID-reader lacks the conditions that are required to reach the read distance specified in available research. Furthermore, the study shows it is difficult to read different tags simultaneously without the use of a RTOS or a multicore processor.

  • 30.
    Ullah, Naseem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Implementing and Analyzing Single Edge Nibble Transmission (SENT) Protocol for Automotive Applications2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With advancement in automotive systems, it is not just the combination of mechanical devices like in old days. Almost all the systems of today's modern car are controlled electronically by a number of ECUs (Electronics Control Unit) with the combination of sensor modules. To exchange information between the ECU and sensor modules a number of communication standards are used. The most commonly used standards are CAN, LIN, and PWM etc.

    The data transmission between the ECU and sensor modules can be easily established with a PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) techniques in comparison with CAN or LIN. PWM provide a convenient solution in terms of cost and performance when the data-rate is up to 10-bits. While for higher resolution data rates its performance is not satisfied. Extra effort is needed to implement diagnostic information for the integrity of data. Also, the accuracy of PWM signal is dependent on the noise voltage and channel bandwidth. In 10-bit system a single bit is represented by 4mV which face serious problem in automotive system due to the noise voltage pulses which effect the resolution of the PWM. The alternative solution for safe and high data rate which is more than 10-bit resolution is to used CAN and LIN protocols. Both CAN and LIN have availability of diagnostic modes for an ensured data transmission. Also, their capabilities for interconnecting a number of nodes (sensors-modules) on the same network can significantly reduce the wiring cost. But in automotive a number of systems need to communicate through point-to-point link, and it seem to be too expensive to used CAN and LIN for point-to-point communication because of its development complexity and wiring cost for a standalone system. To overcome these issues and to provide an alternative low-cost solution the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) developed a 3-wire new digital point-to-point protocol called SENT. SENT (Single Edge Nibble Transmission) Protocol is now an international standard (SAE J2716).

    SENT is unidirectional point-to-point communication protocol, which can be used for high resolution data transmission between sensor module and ECU. The data are transmitted by sensor module in a series of pulses each pulse is 4-bit (one nibble) long and the data are measured between two falling edges by the receiving module. There are total of nine pulses which defined the SENT frame. The first pulse is called calibration pulse, it is used for compensating to recalibrate all the other pulses in case of transmitter clock deviation, this is the best feature of SENT and can be implemented in the decoder design.

    This thesis work focuses on the development of SENT protocol decoder and its signal robustness analysis in comparison with the conventional PWM signal. Our first goal is to developed SENT-Protocol decoder in software on the available microcontrollers is to check how much memory foot print is used and how much the processor overhead. Two platforms have been used for this purpose. First, two implementation designs prototype were made with fixed-point and floating-point development techniques on the 32-bit platform for SENT decoder. Secondly SENT-decoder were developed with 8-bit platform and compared with the two previous designs to check how much memory foot print is used and how much is the processor overhead. Finally, the signal integrity analysis has been performed for PWM and SENT signal using spice simulation. The purpose is to check the maximum data rate limit that the PWM signal support without creating any bit error in the transmitted signal. The same data rate is then used for SENT signal to be compared with PWM signal.

  • 31.
    Wikman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Hassel, Philip
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Prestanda och precision på en enkortsdator i ett system med realtidskrav2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to investigate how well a certain type of affordable embedded single board computer can hold up against today's more expensive computers in a computer system by doing various tests on a system with the specified requirements. The system has a Raspberry Pi as the single board computer which task is to control a camera based on coordinates obtained from a server as well as capture and stream a video signal on a network.

    The researches were conducted to check how much network traffic a single-chip computer sent in different video formats and how much CPU utilization was required. Studies were also made to ensure the accuracy of the camera control. The researches have been experimental, where several tests have been performed and analyzed.

    The results show that a sufficiently good accuracy can be obtained from the camera steering unit, in which two different servos have been investigated. When the video format MJPEG and H.264 are used, the single-chip computer is able to transmit a video signal up to 1280x720 at 15 fps. The system managed to download and perform calculations on an object from the server at 42.3 ms.

    When the entire system was up and running at the same time the Raspberry Pi didn’t manage to deliver a video signal and obtain the coordinates from the server fast enough. Depending on the video format the performance on the single-chip computer varied, but no setup managed to keep the system stable enough to reach the requirements. 

  • 32.
    Yousaf, Imran
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    MAC SCHEDULING IN INDUSTRIAL WIRELESS CELL-BASED MESH SENSOR NETWORKS2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Undergoing developments for the adaptation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in automation industry is creating several research questions. The usage of wireless technologies in industrial environments requires real-time reliability and security. Many standards for WSNs and Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) have been developed. The list includes WirelessHART [4], ISA100.11a [10], Zigbee [16], IEEE 802.15.4, and IEEE 802.15.4a etc.Recently a new network topology “Cell-Based Mesh Networks” [12] has been developed in an effort to make IWSNs feasible for large scale deployments in process automation industries. Cell-Based Mesh Network topology inherits the qualities of star-mesh topology and mesh topology, and also offers many additional features.Reliability of an IWSN significantly depends on the real-time scheduling of the network. During this thesis work a scheduling mechanism has been developed by exploiting the features of a Cell-based Mesh Network. The idea of superframes’ further partitioning into time-cells of 100ms duration is presented, these 100ms time-cells guarantees interlocking data transmission [9] within 100ms. The closed loop control data [9] transmission is guaranteed by assigning dedicated time-slots. The performance evaluation of the presented scheduling mechanism is done by considering two case studies i.e. oil-industry and paper & pulp industry.

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