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  • 1.
    Aasa, Emma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science. Jönköpings University.
    Rosell, Michaela
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science. Jönköpings University.
    Den juridiska statusen för 3D-modeller som bygghandlingar2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction – This thesis in Building Engineering at Jönköping University, in collaboration with Tyréns Sweden AB, examines the issues surrounding 3D models as construction documents from a legal perspective and investigates how digitization affects stakeholders in the construction industry. The goal of the study is to explore a relevant and interesting research area in order to contribute to knowledge development and the advancement of new theories or methods in the field.

    Method – The study will employ qualitative research, including primary data collection through interviews, to address the research questions posed in the report. The authors have chosen this method to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the respondents' perspectives and identify important themes and patterns. The interviews were conducted with participants from various sectors of the construction industry to obtain a broader picture of the subject.

    Results – The study revealed that there are certain legal barriers to the use of 3D models as drawing documentation. These barriers are related to a lack of knowledge and uncertainty in handling the models. This includes issues of copyright, liability, and evidential value. There is a need to update current regulations to facilitate the management of digital models.

    Analysis – The analysis of the results clarifies that industry standards and clearer guidelines would prevent uncertainties and address knowledge gaps in the use of BIM and 3D models. An industry standard could have facilitated a smoother transition to a more digitized construction industry. There is also a need for education in the field for professionals and decision-making stakeholders.

    Discussion – The discussion focuses on possible solutions to the identified problems, such as the development of standards and guidelines, education, and regulatory updates. There is also a need to raise awareness about the legal aspects of using 3D models in the construction industry, as the uncertainty regarding their legal status is high. Legally, it is possible to use 3D models as contractual documents, but the study shows that concerns about the legal aspects are a reason for the weak implementation.

    Keywords – 3D model, 3D design, BIM, Building Information Modeling, construction documents, contractual law, and copyright.

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  • 2.
    Akdogan, Sibel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Fherm, Marcus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Indigenisera begreppet hållbarhet hos byggföretagen2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Today's society is constantly moving towards a more conscious and committed attitude about working increasingly sustainable. To ensure that the construction industry with both major environmental and societal impact is involved, there are standardized legal requirements and environmental certifications that need to be met by the construction companies. The purpose of the study is therefore to investigate factors for how medium-sized construction companies can best implement sustainability work. The aim of this qualitative study is to focus on ecological and economic sustainability as well as how construction companies can implement increased sustainability work in their daily work. The study was conducted at a medium-sized construction company in the Jönköping area.

    Method: The methods used in this study are proven methods such as literature study, interview study and document observations for data collection. The literature study is used as a bedrock for the interview study and document observation since the early literature study is used as a preliminary study in the subject. Interviews and document analysis are applied to provide information where there is lack of knowledge.

    Results: After the methods have been applied, it is evident that the sustainability work is only applied according to legal requirements when no higher demands are made by the client or the company. The construction company have abstract goals that are difficult to interpret by the recipient, the employee. It is also shown that the knowledge among employees is low and the perceived amount of training in sustainability in the company is low. The case company has no designated "sustainability officer", questions and suggestions can be emailed to an email address, but there is no clear procedure for how these suggestions should be dealt with.

    Consequences: The sustainability work has been passive; the present state is based on the absence of sustainability requirements from the permanent organization. The need of more clear goals and concrete descriptions of how to meet the goals are also needed. There are also no requirements from the permanent project organization. There are rarely requirements from the client, which means that the sustainability work is often only applied to the extent of time and with the site manager's own set requirements and goals. The knowledge about sustainability is thin among the employees concerned, which has meant that own decisions regarding sustainable choices could not be made and possibly affected the commitment to the construction company. Employees felt that it needed fewer choices, clear routines and requirements regarding sustainability work.

    Limitations: The study focuses on ecological and economic sustainability; social sustainability has been excluded as it affects people's conditions in society. In this study, ecological sustainability will not be specified, the study will research commitment and important parameters to successfully sustainability work. The exact direction that the company should take, or has taken, will not be determined in this study. 

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    Indigenisera begreppet hållbarhet hos byggföretagen
  • 3.
    Alomar, Rahaf
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    George Joseph, Beinu Shyne
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    The use of artificial intelligence in BIM and user preferences data: A framework for design sustainability evaluation and improved decision making2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability evaluation in building designs needs to consider the three aspects of sustainability, social, environmental and economic, simultaneously. The social aspect is less focused on the existing sustainability assessment methodologies and should be more incorporated in the assessment. The aim of this paper is to contribute a new method to sustainability evaluation that incorporates user preferences and important factors from the three aspects of sustainability and investigates Artificial intelligence (AI) for finding the best design that fits the user needs. Therefore, a framework in which a metric to compute the design quality of life (QoL) and an algorithm for evaluating design sustainability is proposed for best decision making. Building users, experts, and data from Building Information Modelling (BIM) simulation results were incorporated into the process. The study involves a literature review, a survey for collecting user preferences as methods and an experiment for testing the framework. Artificial data from designs and user is used in the experiment as inputs. The results demonstrate the feasibility of this framework to evaluate design sustainability and approximate the design that fits best the user’s requirements based on the three aspects of sustainability simultaneously. User preferences are incorporated into the framework to improve evaluating the social aspect of sustainability. More comprehensive design sustainability evaluation can be developed based on the proposed framework.

  • 4.
    Alsbäck, Linda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Landin, Emelie
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    EN JÄMFÖRANDE FALLSTUDIE AV VANLIGT FÖREKOMMANDE FASADMATERIAL I SVERIGE: MILJÖMEDVETNA VAL AV FASADMATERIAL2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study was conducted by two students in architectural engineering at Jönköping University and includes 15 higher education credits. Collaboration was carried out with PE Teknik and Arkitektur. The purpose was to evaluate the environmental impact of different facade systems using the LCA methodology. Investigation is motivated by the need to address environmental issues in the construction industry, which accounts for 21% of Sweden's total greenhouse gas emissions.

    Qualitative case study was conducted, exploring architects' thought processes when choosing facade materials and how they integrate principles of sustainability into their work. Interviews with architects answered questions about the process and the integration of sustainability. Five external walls with different facade materials and attachments were compared. To answer the question of which facade material has the most climate impact during its product stage, a material study was conducted. The measurement value used in determining the climate impact was carbon dioxide equivalents.

    The choice of facade material was based on lifespan, recyclability, and content of hazardous substances. Architects may have different focus areas, but the choice of facade material is always based on aesthetic and technical considerations. Respondents also emphasized the importance of choosing locally produced materials if possible. The material study showed untreated spruce panels had the lowest climate impact, while aluminum composite panels had the highest. Fastening of wooden panels had the least climate impact, while the fastening of tiles had the most.

    In conclusion, respondents stressed environmental awareness is a significant transition and the results of the study indicate the industry is not fully ready for it yet. Investigation showed that architects are aware of the environmental crisis and integrate sustainability principles into their work through various perspectives depending on the project's focus area. 

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  • 5.
    Alsterlund, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Andler, Fanny
    Jönköping University.
    Hantering av oanvänt byggmaterial på byggarbetsplatser2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The construction industry generates over 100 million ton of waste every year. When it comes to sustainability there is focus on material type, energy use, indoor climate, transports and waste. There are different certification systems that can be used to classify the buildings. In those certification systems there are no requirements on unused building material. 13 percent of the waste contains unused material. Unused material means material and products that are ordered to the construction site but is not used in the construction. The goal with the project is to analyse how to reduce the amount of unused material that goes to waste on big construction companies in Sweden.

    Method: This thesis is done through a qualitative study with the methods of literature study, document analysis and interviews. The literature study showed the current research front. Document analysis and interviews provided information about the companies sustainable goals, ethical regulations and working methods.

    Findings: The thesis shows that unused material occurs because of difficulties to quantify material because of the tight time schedule and not wanting to risk getting downtime in the production. The material gets damaged when it is handled on the construction site. The material is disposed to follow the ethical requirements of the company but is not in line with the sustainability goals. All interview responders agreed on the need of change to achieve the goal. The company has a working method where the trucks drive the material to a terminal and then out to the construction when it is time for the material to be used. This method could be used to minimize the disposal. Better communication between the projects would help unused material to be taken care of in a different project. The problem is that since it is different owners of the material depending on the purchase of contract it is not always easy to handle the material between the projects. To sell the unused material has been discussed before in the company but because of the lack of space and resource consumption it is problematic. Material also get damaged from the weather, but the lack of space is the reason why a tent not is a good solution.

    Implications: In order to reduce the occurrence of unused material, BIM, Lean, prefabrication and terminal management can be used. The materials that become unused can be taken care of in a different project, better communication between the projects will reduce material disposal.

    Limitations: The thesis is only theoretically analysing how to reduce disposal of unused material. No measures of time or economical aspects has been analysed. The work does not consider material like waste, consumables or material that are useable after demolishes. The result is useful in larger companies since smaller companies do not have the same problematics.

    Keywords: Building Information Modeling, BIM, disposal,  durability, environment, environmental objectives,  ethical rules, Lean Construction, material handling,  material waste, terminal management, unused building materials, waste and energy loss reduction.

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  • 6.
    Al-yousifi, Yani
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Deniz, Mustafa
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    EN JÄMFÖRELSESTUDIE MELLAN MANUELL UPPMÄTNING OCH LASERSKANNING VID OMBYGGNATION2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In a survey from the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, important causes for deficiencies, faults and damage in renovation projects has been identified. Lack of time proved to be the most cause, which also entails large costs of action to remedy the faults/damages. Digital tools provide opportunities for streamlining time and costs. Laser scanning is one such tool. However, the knowledge of laser scanning is not extensive in the construction industry and/or is assumed to cost a lot. The aim of the work was to compare laser scanning against traditional building surveying method to know which method is more advantageous regarding profitability.

    Method: To achieve the objectives of the work, a survey strategy was used that was both qualitative and quantitative. Literature study and interviews gathered knowledge about the advantages/disadvantages of the two building surveying methods (laser scanning and traditional) and factors that affect the profitability when using them. Calculations were performed to compare the costs of the methods regarding the complexity of the project.

    Findings: The generated result shows that laser scanning has more advantages than traditional building surveying. Laser scanning takes less time to perform in bigger projects and results in greater accuracy in the as-built documents than traditional building surveying, among other things. From a cost-benefit perspective it is important that for each specific project calculations should be made separately for the two building surveying methods to see which one is less expensive. The project used in this thesis would have been more profitable with laser scanning as a surveying method, while for other projects it might be more profitable with traditional building surveying.

    Implications: The study indicates that laser scanning is more profitable in terms of time and cost savings. Laser scanning should be chosen as a surveying method if you want to save time and get better accuracy, which results in less errors in the project planning. For larger projects, laser scanning is also recommended from a cost perspective. The survey also gives clients and contractors a better view of the benefits from using laser scanning.

    Limitations: The study was limited to treating only terrestrial laser scanning when surveying existing buildings prior to renovations, hence the result cannot be generalized to other types of laser scanning.

    Keywords: Laser scanning, Traditional building surveying, BIM, Profitability, Renovation, Complexity, LOD.

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  • 7.
    Andersson, Clas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Andersson, Edvard
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Analys och utvärdering av produktionsupplägg2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Toms in Habo moulds jelly candy. The company has a good demand for theirproducts while the factory's machines are in need of an upgrade. Therefore, newmachinery will be purchased and meanwhile there is a vision to change the layoutof the plant. A new arrangement of the plant is necessary because today's disposalof floor space lack conditions to produce large quantities. Toms have developed asuggestion of a new production arrangement, but an evaluation of this is needed.The thesis focuses on evaluating and developing the existing proposal to Toms. Inorder to do so four independent suggestions for a layout of the plant were madewith the method of Systematic Local Planning (SLP). The making of a situationanalysis clarified the conditions required to perform an SLP. The developedsuggestions were valued by a number of criteria. The criteria where establishedfollowing the conditions needed for production. The suggestion given the highestscore in the evaluation was then compared against the suggestion that wasdesigned by Toms. To clarify differences in flows between the various suggestionsarising from the work a spaghetti diagram were drawn for each suggestion.The comparison revealed that both suggestions were similar structured. Theevaluation shows that the suggestion that the thesis presents has a betterutilization of the area and an approach that makes it easier for the staff at thevarious workstations to see each other.Another issue has been how a requested molding machine is to be placed. Givenfrom the beginning have been two options from Toms. Our recommendation is inconsensus with the thesis highest scored suggestion, which means one of theoriginally given options.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Holmlund, Lin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Klimatdeklarationer ur entreprenörens perspektiv2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion och syfte: Första januari 2022 infördes lagen om klimatdeklarationer i Sverige med syfte att öka kunskapen hos byggherren som i sin tur kan göra medvetna val som minskar utsläppen av växthusgaser och även göra framtida byggnader mer miljövänliga. Syftet med studien är att ta reda på hur en byggentreprenör kan arbeta i framtida projekt för att underlätta arbetet med klimatdeklarationer samt att identifiera problem och konflikter som kan uppstå.

     Metod: Studien är en fallstudie upplagd som en enfallsdesign. Insamling utav empiri för att besvara frågeställningen har gjorts med hjälp utav dokumentanalys, intervjuer och litteraturstudie.

     Analys: För att upprätta en klimatdeklaration finns generiska data tillgänglig hos Boverket, vilket bidrar till att tillkommande uppgifter oftast är få eller inga alls i det studerade projektet. Den användbara data som krävs finns på projektet men kan däremot behöva granskas och sammanställas för en klimatdeklaration. Entreprenaderna har låg kunskap om den nya lagen gällande klimatdeklarationer och ämnet har ett generellt lågt inflytande i branschen. Byggherren har ansvaret för att upprätta klimatdeklarationen och måste därför ta initiativ för i vilken utsträckning dem upprättas. Ekonomi och pris är styrande i många av entreprenörens beslut och de utför därför vad som finns avtalat och vinner inget på att ta egna initiativ till klimatsmarta lösningar. 

    Resultat: Den nya lagen kommer inte att minska koldioxidutsläppen som den ser ut i dagsläget, det krävs att lagen utvecklas och sätter gränsvärden. För att minska koldioxidutsläppen krävs något som motiverar byggherren att vilja bygga mer klimatsmart. Byggbranschen har intresse att lära sig och därför skulle en lösning vara att exempelvis informera branschen om klimatsmart byggande eller ge fördelar till den som väljer att bygga klimatsmart.

    Diskussion: Målet med studien var att undersöka hur en byggentreprenad kan arbeta i framtida projekt för att underlätta i kommande projekt vid upprättande utav klimatdeklarationer vilket har undersökts med hjälp av studiens frågeställning. Studien har uppnått sitt mål och frågeställningen anses därför vara korrekt och relevant ställd.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Evelina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Davidsson, Ellen
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    ÅTERBRUK I BYGGBRANSCHEN UR ETT MILJÖMÄSSIGT PERSPEKTIV2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction and real estate sector is currently responsible for a large share of annual emissions. To counteract climate change, lack of virgin materials and reduce waste, a change is needed. The industry needs to become more sustainable.

    There is great interest among various actors in the industry to work with circular construction, of which reuse is an important part. But the problem is that there is a lack of knowledge and an effective process. Today, reuse is also usually costly, which means that actors instead choose to buy new things rather than reuse. With finite resources, it is important to extend the life cycle of a material.

    The goal of the study is to promote reuse by highlighting the driving forces that exist primarily from an environmental perspective. The study also explores the importance of using reused materials to decrease the use of new resource, waste and the prevent extinction of biodiversity. 

    he research methods used are literature-, document studies and qualitative semi-structured interviews. The selection of respondents consists of stakeholders in different parts of the construction industry.

    With stricter requirements in the future for environmental declarations, the use of recycled materials will increase and for this a better and more favorable process is required. Today there are difficulties in how to calculate a product's emissions and a major problem is about the warranty period. Who is responsible for the guarantee and how long a guarantee period can be given. Another difficulty is that today there are other requirements for products, which leads to that many of the products are unable to be reused. 

    The study has resulted in that reuse has a major effect on the environment and it is an important building block in a circular economy. It has also been found that reuse can contribute to benefits for actors through effective marketing, which leads to a more attractive workplace and financial gains. In addition, reuse is an important part of being a leader in the construction industry. The perception of the respondents is that there are currently a lack of legal requirements or incentives at national level to promote reuse.

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Gard, Ludwig
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    En analys av CO2e-utsläpp vid tillverkning och transport av prefabricerade betongelement2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The global concrete consumption amounts to 25 gigatons annually, making it the most widely used building material (Petek Gursel, et al. 2014). The continued increasing world population in connection with urbanization will lead to a greater demand for cement. The problem with the increased manufacturing process of cement is that carbon dioxide emissions in 2020 will account for 10-15 % of global CO2 emissions, compared with the values measured in 2016, which only reached 5-8 % (Habert & Ouellet-Plamondon, 2016). The aim of the thesis is to analyse stages in the manufacturing process of prefabricated concrete from an environmental point of view with consideration to CO2 emissions. This will later result in providing concrete improvement measures or alternatively only provide useful knowledge for the concrete industry’s future. The stages that will be analysed are transport, concrete, rebar (reinforcement) and cellular plastic production.

    Method: The methods chosen for the implementation of the thesis were Literature Studies and Interviews. The purpose of the literature study was to educate the authors on the subject and collect various results from current research. The interviews contributed to the necessary information to be able to carry out the analyses at work.

    Findings: The thesis has resulted in a total amount of CO2eq emissions in four different stages in the concrete manufacturing process. Cement proved to be the biggest contributing factor to CO2eq emissions. There are several different measures to reduce CO2eq emissions in the concrete manufacturing process. The measures discussed the most frequently concern the cement production, which is favourable for the concrete production as a whole. The discussion also highlights measures taken in action at a concrete factory level.

    Implications: This study shows that cement accounts for the majority of the total CO2 emissions for concrete production. Therefore, much focus placed on improving the cement production with consideration to CO2 emissions is necessary. This does not mean that less focus should aim on research for green transport, insulation production and steelmaking. All productions stages have potential for improvement. Hence, it is important to continue the research to reduce the total CO2 emissions in the production of prefabricated concrete elements.

    Limitations: The study was limited to the manufacturing process of prefabricated concrete. A specific project HUS F was analysed for CO2 emissions in four production stages; concrete, reinforcement, insulation materials and transport.

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  • 11.
    Andreasson, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Sparring, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    MILJÖCERTIFIERINGENS PÅVERKAN PÅ ARBETSGÅNG I STOMBYGGNAD OCH STOMKOMPLETTERING2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Environmental certifications strengthens a contractors environmental profileand means sustainability in regards to the environment. It is of interest to establishwhich obstacles and differences in workflow that environmental certifications cancause and thereby imply challenges in construction. The purpose with this paper is toexamine what impact the environmental certification Miljöbyggnad Silver has on acontractors work in the construction stage with focus on structure and frameworksupplement.

    Method: To reach the purpose of this paper empirical data have been collected throughinterviews, private documents, and observations of building construction. This researchemploys a qualitative method to get a comprehensive understanding of Miljöbyggnadin construction, where respondents with different occupations and extents of experiencewith Miljöbyggnad have been chosen for interviews.

    Findings: This research shows that the indicators in Miljöbyggnad that mainly have animpact on construction is Moisture safety, Documentation of building material andPhasing-out of harmful substances. The research shows that the biggest differencebetween conventional construction and construction with Miljöbyggnad is the amountof documentation that is needed. Construction with Miljöbyggnad also differsdepending on what occupation one has.

    Implications: The conclusion of this research is that there are no great obstacles withMiljöbyggnad Silver in construction. Indicators from Miljöbyggnad impactsconstruction with additional obligations for site management and does not implicate adifference in already established ones. Recommendations following this research is toinvolve and encourage Miljöbyggnad for everyone involved in construction.

    Limitations: This research is limited to big contractors and the environmentalcertification Miljöbyggnad Silver where focus have been structure and frameworksupplement. Through analyses of indicators and interviews the authors have concludedthat it is structure and framework supplement where impact following Miljöbyggnadexists. The result of this research and its conclusions are considered to apply with othercontractors with similar routines and work flow.

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  • 12.
    Axell, Robert
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Hellqvist, Gustav
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Införandet av BIM i ett medelstort entreprenadföretag2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 13.
    Backström, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Wikström, Ludvig
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Effektivisering av ekologisk dagvattenhantering i stadsmiljö2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the city of Jönköping problems with the irregular flow, erosions and transport of sediment materials are recurring in the brook Strömsbergsbäcken. The problems is somewhat caused by an increased flow of storm water in the brook, which leads to high flow peaks in some parts of the brook since the original furrow is not dimensioned for the increased amount of water. The purpose of this project work is to make ecological drainage management in urban environments with a high amount of storm water discharge more efficient. The objective with the report is to create valuable material of how to accomplish ecological drainage management in urban areas and that the report will be useful for future similar connections. To fulfill the objective, the following three questions have been designed as a significant part of the final project report:

    • How can the load on the general drainage system be reduced?
    • How can the pollution effects of storm water runoff in urban areas be reduced?
    • Which treatments are appropriate to enhance the ecological storm water management in Strömsbergsbäcken ?

    The methods that have been used to solve these questions are document- and literature studies, and also a case study.The thesis results shows that the storm water flows from four of the nine areas that has its outlets in Strömsbergsbäcken, need to be treated through some kind of a solution or method that delays the water flow. The treatment could be performed in the area, before the storm water reaches the storm water network, which leads to Strömsbergsbäcken. The storm water flows can also be reduced by treatments adjacent to the outlets in the brook, where the largest flow peaks occurs. For example an essential solution to decrease the flows in Strömsbergsbäcken is to reconstruct the old dam located near one of the outlets into a basin, which will delay the stormwater flows.

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    Effektivisering av ekologisk dagvattenhantering i stadsmiljö
  • 14.
    Berntsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Lager, Sandra
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Energieffektiviseringsstödet till kommuner: Utfall & framtidsutsikter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Environmental and climate issues are constantly on the agenda. At the climatechange conference in Paris, it was decided that the global average temperature shouldnot increase more than 2°C. This means that the energy consumption must be reduced.With the EU's 2020 targets as a basis, national goals have been set, which means thatSweden will achieve a 20 %increase of the energy efficiency by 2020. The public sectorshould act as a role model, therefore the Swedish Energy Agency was handing out asubsidy between 2010 and 2014 as a contribution to local governments for improvingenergy efficiency in its own organization. The goal of this study is to analyze how theenergy efficiency subsidy has helped municipalities in their work to reduce the energyuse in its real estate, and what remains to do to reach the 2020 target.Method: To reach the goal both a qualitative and quantitative study has been made.The data collection methods was interviews, a document analysis and a literaturereview. A case study has been made together with Herrljunga municipality.Findings: The energy efficiency subsidy has several positive effects. The energy usehas been reduced by 8% between 2009 and 2014 for the whole country and the casestudy object has been reduced by 12%. This can be refer to that the municipality hasprioritized the issue of energy higher. Other positive effects include improved indoorclimate and user behavior and that they have better control over energy consumption.The energy work is proceeding in many municipalities after the subsidy, the work willbe financed with own funds. To achieve the goal they should continue the work thatthey began but also complete it with other actions. This may be, for example: replaceheating- and ventilation systems, train the user group and renovate energy smart.Implications: The study shows that the subsidy has provided a push to energy issuesin the municipalities, the subsidy has resulted in a decreased energy use. After thesubsidy stopped many municipalities continued to work when they have seen thebenefits. The study also shows that it is possible for Sweden's municipalities to achievea reduction of energy use by 20% by 2020 in their real estates. To reach this Swedishmunicipalities needs to continue to work actively with energy issues and make newenergy efficiency measures.Limitations: This study has been limited to the municipality's own real estates. Theresult of the study is not valid for all the municipalities that received the subsidy asindependent but it provides an overview of the outcome of the municipalities together. Every municipality can learn from this report.

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  • 15.
    Björk, Evelina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Fast, Kim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Effektivisering av energianvändningen i en förskola2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This rapport contains an examination of the energy consumption of a kindergarten, which areas that have the largest impact on the energy consumption and what can be done to reduce those areas in ways that are relatively easy and profitable. It is also analyzed if it is possible to reduce the energy consumption from today’s consumption to a consumption that fulfils the demands placed on low energy houses by FEBY.

    The focus has been on reducing the energy consumption of the areas ventilation, heating system and hot water system, since those seemed to be the easiest ones to affect and since the building is quite recently built.

    There are different kinds of ventilation systems, at the moment the building have a CAV-system, which means that the ventilation is too high during large parts of the day. There are different ways to manage the ventilation system, for example presence detection, humidity sensors, CO2 sensors, temperature sensors and season adjustment. Many of those are in the end dependent on CO2 sensors to guarantee a good indoor climate, therefore the focus have been placed on this system.  

    The building is heated through district heating which is relatively easy to connect to a couple of sun panels to contribute to the heating system and hot water system. There are different ways of connecting district heating with solar panels and those are described, as well as the cost and the repayment time. A comparison with a building with an electric heating system has been made as well.

    It is important to get solutions that are profitable, that the repayment time isn’t too long. Solar cells and wind turbines are examined as well, but the repayment time for solar cells are too long at the moment. The repayment time for solar cells varies between 42 - 75 years, while the expected lifetime is 25 years. Concerning ventilation, a reduced ventilation of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % have been examined. With only reduced ventilation the demands on low energy houses could not be matched, but it was possible in two cases with the use of solar panels. The usage of a wind turbine meant that the ventilation had to be reduced even less to match the demands on low energy houses. The repayment times for the solar panels and the wind turbine are both around 14 years. 

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  • 16.
    Björklöf, Angelica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Davidsson, Ida
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Vägledande belysning på stationsområden: Särskilt utformed för personer med synnedsättning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a field study of how the platforms are seen during the dark hours by people with and without visual impairment cataract. The field study was carried out with both qualitative and quantitative data as a basis.

    The qualitative data was collected through a visual assessment of the platforms in four out of five station classes that Swedish Transport Administration has. The observations were made with and without simulated visual impairment to provide a comprehensive picture about the orientation and visual comfort for all travelers. Photometric data were collected with an illuminance meter to see how the platform met the requirements for its associated lighting class and whether there was any connection between the illuminance on the surface, and the experience of the environment visually.

     

    The questions answered in this report, if five lighting classes are necessary and how the platforms are experienced by travelers with and without visual impairment. Earlier research on the guidance route and contrasts confirmed the results of the study in which observations of platforms shows that orientation in environments without contrasts between surface colors will be difficult to get around in for people with visual impairment. There is little difference in visual comfort and orientation of the various station classes. The results show that the most important thing for a person with cataract is a uniform illumination and clear guidance route. Without loss of vision it seems that the quality of light and how well maintained the facility is perceived to be affecting the sense of security more than surface colors and light contrasts.

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  • 17.
    Björkén Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Hansson, Jennifer
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    En jämförelse av två arbetsmetoder för framtagning av rumsbeskrivningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: BIM have been criticised as a standalone framework and the believe is that the next step in BIM development is cloud computing. The technology simplify planning of a sustainable construction and hasten the building process through a collaborative friendly information management among different project actors. The implementation of the technology hasn’t been that noticeable since companies are struggling to understanding the technologies contribution. The goal of this research is therefore to investigate the potential of using cloud technology in architects daily work with room finish schedule.

    Method: To answer the goal of the study, interviews about room finish schedules have been made with five architect companies to collect empirical data. The company's internal documents of room finish schedule have been analysed and the research also makes a literature study and an observation of the cloud service BIMeye.

    Findings: The study shows that the main differences between an analogue and digital approach are: the link to the model, input of information and management of revisions. The companies have generally a positive attitude towards the technology, but there are doubts about changing their way of working. The cloud service BIMeye meets the companies needs and has great potential to make several tasks, that are considered time consuming in today´s work, more efficient, such as lay-up of rooms, input of information, review of conflicting documents and management of revisions. This mainly through the database's connection to the model and the database's way of managing information more automated.

    Implications: The conclusion that can be made is that great potential is seen with cloud services as a working method for producing room finish schedules. The transition process to cloud services implies a change of working method but not in the final result. Where cloud services entail additional work in the model to enable a connection to the description, but at the same time contributes to an automatic input of information about rooms. Another change in working method is the ability of cloud services to create parameters that differs from the otherwise analogue paper-work. Revisions in the database get a break through throughout the whole description, in contrast to individual adjustments in the document. Recommendations as a result of the study is to inform companies about the possibilities and impact the technology has on their work. In order to achieve an overall perspective in the industry, new solutions are required so that companies see internal profits with the implementation.

    Limitations: The result is considered to be applicable to other architect firms since it has appeared from interviews and document analyses that the companies work in similar ways. However, whether the result of the test of BIMeye can be applied to other cloud services is uncertain. The research’s limitation to disregard investment cost has restrict the study as it is a significant factor when implementing new technology.

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    En jämförelse av två arbetsmetoder för framtagning av rumsbeskrivningar
  • 18.
    Blockgren, Håkan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Illustrationsplaneförslag för Trönningebjär, Varberg2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the purpose is to create an illustration plan for a new neighbourhood there arelots of things to think about. In this report follows a description of the three differentplan modells SCAFT/TRÅD, garden city and ekological planning. SCAFT is aplanning model that were used in the 1970s. It contains proposals how to make thetraffic enviorment safer. TRÅD replaced SCAFT in 1982 and it contains also adviceshow to make the traffic enviorment safer. Garden city was an expression witch wasinvented in the late 1900th century by a man named Howard Ebenezer. This way toplan a city is about creating buildings in a reasonable size where every house has itsown garden. There is beyound this several other qualitys specific for garden citys.When it comes to ecological planning the lack of obvious choises of inspirationmodels is overwhelming. Many citys applys part of the ecological thinking but fewuses the whole concept.The territory that this report is about is geographicly oriented in the northeast ofVarberg in the outskirts of a village called Trönninge. The territory has earlier beanused for agriculture purposes. During the process of making the illustration planmodels over this property the topografic condition has been payed attention to. Allthree of the illustration planpreposals has been gone througt seperatly to acive thecaracter of its inspiration model. The area of a nursury school with a landrecomondation of 5000 m² exists in all three proposals.During the planning accordig to SCAFT/TRÅD adaptation of its traffic planningsolution has been used as far as it is possible. The final proposal contains a relativelyseparated plan where the different areas has its own caracter concerning buildingtypes. The illutsration plan proposal with inspiration collected from the garden citycontains a much more mixt building planning but it contains a more pronouncedquarter fealing than the other proposals. In the proposal inspierd by ecologicalplanning the point of the compass determined the location of the buildings. The bestlocation to receive the most sun as possible is east-west whith one of the buildigslongest sides facing the south.To be abel to understand the illusration plan proposals better they nead to bereachable when the description is overviewd. The area has a couple of geographicdeviation in form of two cliffs wich create intresting conditions and has been keeptintact in all three of the illustation plan proposals.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Borefur, Christoffer
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Berggren, Emma
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Klimatanpassa marksanering: Förbättringsförslag för ökad tillämpning av biologiska marksaneringsmetoder2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In Sweden, there are area that are polluted and in need of remediation. However, soil remediation processes have a negative secondary impact on the climate. There are various soil remediation methods to apply, of which dig and dump are the most frequently used. The method involves although high emissions of carbon dioxide. By increased use of alternative soil remediation methods, such as biological soil remediation methods, can lead to reduced impact on the climate. When choosing a remediation method, sustainability is increasingly integrated, but most decisions are still based on other factors. Psychological, social and institutional barriers are considered to have counteracted the assumption of a sustainable behaviour. Therefore, further research on stakeholder attitudes may promote the implementation of such behaviour. The aim of the work is to present suggestions for improvement on how the climate impact can be reduced in soil remediation projects.

    Method: The study was performed as a qualitative survey. Empirical data was obtained in verbal form through the methods literature review, document analysis and interview. From an available group, six respondents were selected who represent significant stakeholders in soil remediation projects. Stakeholders were private and public clients, contractors, consultants and regulators. Analysed documents were reports from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency that is about the post-treatment of contaminated areas in Sweden.

    Findings: The study indicates that biological soil remediation methods have a lower impact on the climate than dig and dump. Furthermore, it appeared that the main factors in choosing a soil remediation method was type of contamination, time for remediation and when contamination is detected in projects. According to this background, biological methods are less applied than dig and dump. However, the study presents suggestions for improvements of how biological alternatives can be encouraged, for instance are more reference objects needed where biological soil remediation methods have been applied.

    Implications: One conclusion from the study is that existing regulations should be changed to make landfill more difficult and to facilitate re-use of polluted masses, and the fees for landfill should be increased. In addition, more reference objects need to be generated in Sweden that validate that biological soil remediation methods achieve acceptable levels of pollution. Furthermore, stakeholders in soil remediation projects should cooperate more, even across national borders, and together venture to try biological soil remediation methods.

    Limitations: The result is only valid for biological soil remediation methods and dig and dump for organic pollutants in soil. The study includes few respondents from av geographic limited available group, which means that the result cannot be generalized with certainty. Therefore, the study should be regarded as exploratory and the results thereafter.

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  • 20.
    Borg, Ester
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Nolmark, Victor
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Klimatfotavtryck med återbruk av fönster2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Buchnev, Kirill
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Ontologibaserad Information Management att förbättra interoperabilitets och datas tillförlitlighet i AEC industi2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A high level of fragmentation within the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction industry leads to the use of various tools and making it challenging to enforce consistent standards. The use of ontologies, a core component of Semantic Web technologies, along with Linked Data, can significantly improve the interoperability, reliability, and searchability of product data. This research expands and enriches an ontology of a light fixture product named Notor (Kebede et al., 2022) which aligns the properties of the product with properties from CEN/TS 17623:2021 standard. This broader ontology named Notor Product Properties Ontology (NPPO) allows to enhance the utility of the ontology in the construction sector and facilitate defining Information Requirements. In this study, the ontology was enriched by mapping its terms to equivalent entities using the buildingSMART data dictionary and the Swedish CoClass classification system, expanded with Building Product Ontology and Building Topology Ontology, and specifies the connection of the model of a light fixture to a room type where this model could be installed. A case study was conducted to simulate the process of analysing the lighting performance in a conference room using NPPO. Results show the practical applicability of the ontology in real-life situations where the light specialists can use the SPARQL queries to find the information about a relevant model of light fixture which is stored in an external manufacturer’s database. This approach of ontology-based information flow could improve interoperability and reliability of data in the AEC industry and increase manufacturers' ability to offer their products universally.

  • 22.
    Cedenblad, Matilda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Mellin, Emilia
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Den geografiska klimatfaktorns inverkan på energiberäkningar över ett varierande klimat2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017, the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning changed the calculation method for calculating a building's energy performance. The main difference is the change from specific energy use to primary energy. The change brought, among other things, a new factor, the geographical adjustment factor Fgeo. The new adjustment factor aims to calculate energy performance to give a more even result to be able to compare different buildings more easily across the country. Previous research on the new calculation method has been done and disadvantages of this method have been expressed, both by municipalities and private individuals. However, the criticism is directed at other parts of the calculation formula than the geographical adjustment factor. The efficiency of the geographical adjustment factor is therefore tested to see if the variable is reliable regardless of geographical position when calculating the primary energy. The building's primary energy in relation to requirements is also compared with the specific energy use and its requirements. The comparison is made for both district heating and electricity as energy supply for the building.

    The work is based on a document study which is then used and applied in a planned experiment. The experiment uses the program Revit to build a building to calculate energy performance in four Swedish locations. Specific energy use is calculated in Bv2, conversion to primary energy is done in Mathcad. 

    Results are given in both primary energy and specific energy use. The results show that the building's primary energy differs between the selected locations and their different climates and depending on the energy source. 

     

    The calculation of primary energy gives a difference in results for both energy sources. It is shown that the utilization rate for primary energy is lower than specific energy use in relation to the respective requirements when the building is supplied with district heating. In rock heating, it is shown that the utilization rate for primary energy is greater than for specific energy use. 

    The work discusses the produced result and its analysis. Why there is a difference between the two different calculation methods is discussed and further questions are asked about the result produced.

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  • 23.
    Cizmeli Utsel, Hülya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Sjögren Brolinsson, Fredrika
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    En jämförelse mellan samverkansbjälklag och bjälklag av Grön betong med avseende på klimatpåverkan2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka skillnaderna mellan bjälklag av Grön betong och ett samverkansbjälklag med traditionell betong och KL-trä med avseende CO2-ekv. Syftet har även varit att identifiera i vilka skeden i en livscykel som skillnaderna i koldioxidutsläppen är som störst mellan dessa bjälklag samt presentera förbättringsförslag för att minimera utsläppen.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie genomfördes av tidigare forskning kring miljöpåverkan av de ingående materialen i de utvalda bjälklagstyperna. Dokumentanalys av LCA-data utfördes för att inhämta data för varje delmaterial och identifiera skillnaderna med avseende på koldioxidutsläpp. Likaså utfördes intervju samt fallstudie för att besvara frågeställningarna i denna studie.

    Resultat: Ett betongbjälklag av Skanskas Gröna betong släpper ut 16 885 kg CO2-ekv och samverkansbjälklaget med KL-trä och traditionell betong släpper ut 10 395 kg CO2- ekv under skede A1-A4 i en livscykelanalys enligt utförd fallstudie. Skillnaderna mellan bjälklagen är som störst i skede A1-A3. Förbättringsarbeten som kan utföras för att reducera koldioxidutsläppet i respektive bjälklagstyp är bland annat att återanvända betong som ballast i nya betongframtaganden enligt Skanskas tekniska specialist.

    Konsekvenser: Ett betongbjälklag av Skanskas Grön betong släpper ut mer CO2-ekv än ett samverkansbjälklag av traditionell betong och KL-trä. Fallstudien påvisar att utsläppen mellan bjälklagstyperna är störst under skede A1-A3. Resultaten från denna studie kan tillämpas som en indikator i valet av bjälklagsort eller betongsort.

    Begränsningar: Denna studie har varit begränsad till att endast behandla skede A1-A4 i en livscykelanalys. Med avseende miljöpåverkan har endast CO2-ekv beräknats och analyserats

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  • 24.
    Engdahl, Jenny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Hedlund, Madeleine
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    BIM för Hållbart Byggande2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to facilitate sustainable building by the use of BIM. The goal is to determine which aspects of sustainable building, which can be analyzed mainly with BIM tools, but also other aids.

    The study is based on literature studies and interviews. The literature review examines aspects important for sustainable building by studying environmental certification systems applicable in Sweden, as well as the BIM tools available on the market to analyze these aspects. The literature also includes the concepts of BIM and sustainability in order to provide a clearer view of its meaning. The interviews have brought the study's overall understanding of the industry and guidance on the subject.

    The results are presented in a table, where the aspects relevant to sustainable building are listed. It can also be read which aspect the certification systems raise. Overall, the study shows 132 aspects distributed across seven areas: Site, Water and Wastewater, Energy and Pollution, Materials and Waste, Indoor and Wellbeing, City Design and finally Implementation and Management.

    The table also suggests BIM tools and other aids, which can be used in the analysis of a specific aspect. The study shows a slight majority of the aspects, 55 percent, are possible to analyze with BIM tools. The Site is the area with most aspects, which can be analyzed with BIM tools, 95 percent. And Materials and Waste resulted in least aspects with only ten percent. Overall, the study examined 35 different BIM tools. The aspects that require other means of analysis often generates important information about the project, from a sustainability point of view, and in many cases the information can be integrated in the BIM model manually. In the end, the project gets a packed BIM model with useful information, which follows the project all the way into management and later demolition and recycling.

    The study shows that sustainable building demands a holistic approach where several aspects should be considered in order to achieve sustainability. To analyze the aspects of sustainability requires that relevant and accurate information about the project be collected. Various proposals can be drawn and compared to generate the most sustainable option. A tool for this is BIM. BIM is defined partly as a method of work, building information modeling, but also as a virtual model, building information model. BIM facilitates the coordination of information gathering, both as a working method and a technical tool. This will contribute BIM to achieve the purpose sustainable building. 

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    BIM för hållbart byggande
  • 25.
    Eriksson, Ted
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Almersved, Simon
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    EN JÄMFÖRELSE MELLAN TEGEL- OCH SEDUMTAK UTIFRÅN ETT MILJÖ- OCH KOSTNADSPERSPEKTIV2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The housing demand remains high in Sweden and according to Boverket (2017) approximately 600 000 homes need to be built from 2017 to 2025. In order to make this a value-creating investment, the focus should be on trying to meet sustainable social, economic and environmental goals. The life cycle perspective should be the starting point for analyzing buildings. Analyzes such as LCA and LCC can be good tools for examining buildings from an environmental and cost perspective. These analyzes can be used to provide a broader basis for decision making in the future. The analyzes can also increase the likelihood of meeting the aforementioned social, economic and environmental goals. 

    The aim of the study is to investigate which roof type that performs best from an environmental and a cost perspective between the ceramic roof tiles and sedum roof. The goal is also to provide a basis for companies and customers in the construction industry for decision making. The research questions in the study are as following; 

    • How does ceramic roof tiles and sedum roofs perform from an environmental perspective? 

    • What does the cost of ceramic roof tiles and sedum roofs look like during construction versus their entire service life? 

    • What does a comparison of both roof types look like based on the above analyses? 

    Method: To reach the goal, the methods literature studies, document reviews and interviews has been used. These have then been supplemented with a life cycle analysis (LCA), a life cycle cost analysis (LCC) and a multi-criteria analysis (MKA). 

    Findings: From an environmental perspective, the sedum roof had lower carbon dioxide emissions and used primary energy than the ceramic roof tiles, in contrast, the ceramic roof tiles performed better with the emissions that affects the ozone layer. From a cost perspective, the sedum roof performed better at the time of construction while the ceramic roof tiles performed better when considering the whole life cycle. When comparing the roof types with the help of weightings from an expert group in Europe, the ceramic roof tiles performed better and was ranked number one among the alternatives. 

    Implications: Conclusions drawn from the study is that sedum roof performs better in a life cycle analysis and thus have a less negative impact on the environment. Sedum roofs are cheaper compared to ceramic roof tiles in the first two years, then the ceramic roof tiles become cheaper until the year 30. From year 30 until demolition, the sedum roofs are cheaper and finally after demolition the ceramic roof tiles becomes the cheapest. In a multicriteria analysis, the ceramic roof tiles perform a bit better from an environmental and cost perspective. 

    Limitations: The study is limited to only two different roof types and doesn´t consider the differences required for the construction under the roofing felt. Transport is not included in the calculations while the working hours to climb the roof for maintenance of the sedum roof and the costs for repairs to irregular damage to the ceramic roof tiles are also not included in the lifecycle cost analysis. 

    Keywords: Lifecycle Analysis, LCA, Lifecycle Cost Analysis, LCC, Multicriteria Analysis, MKA, COPRAS, Analytic Hierarchy Process, AHP. 

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  • 26.
    Espinosa Gispert, Diego
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Development of Ontology-based Asset Information Model for Predictive Maintenance in Building Facilities2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Asset Information Model (AIM) is a key technology for predictive maintenance in building facilities. AIMs face interoperability issues that can be improved through an Ontology, however, there is a lack of investigation in the use of Ontologies for predictive maintenance in building facilities. The current study proposes the development of an ontology-based AIM to enhance predictive maintenance practices in building facilities. The AIM acts as a centralized repository of information about the building facility's components, systems, and operations, although it faces data interoperability hindrances. To address data interoperability challenges, an Ontology-based AIM for a digital twin platform is proposed to facilitate effective information management. This study explores the processes, data integration, and potential benefits of the ontology-based AIM through a scoping review, ontology development, and interviews with experts. The findings indicate that while the development of ontology faced challenges in defining missing entities and relations in the context of predictive maintenance, insights gained from the interviews enabled the establishment of a comprehensive framework for ontology-based AIM adoption in the Facility Management (FM) sector. The research contributes to a practical guide for ontology development processes and presents a framework of an Ontology-based AIM for a Digital twin platform. The proposed ontology-based AIM has the potential to enable proactive and data-driven decision-making during the Operation and Maintenance (O&M)process, optimizing predictive maintenance practices, and ultimately enhancing energy efficiency and sustainability in the building industry. 

  • 27.
    Fransson, Sarah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Lagerroth, Stina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    EN FALLSTUDIE OM MÖJLIGHETERNA ATT MINSKA KLIMATAVTRYCKET FRÅN VA-ENTREPRENADER2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction (and aim) – In today's society, the climate is an important issue and the building and construction sector accounts for large amounts of carbon dioxide emissions. This research aims to study how the climate footprint from water and sewer contracts can be reduced. Method – To accomplish the study, a water and sewer contract carried out by Skanska has been studied through a case study. In the study data has been collected through internal documents and interviews. Results – The documents show that “local mass handling” and the use of HVO as fuel instead of diesel, generates reduced carbon dioxide emissions in the project and the interviews confirm the information. Also mentioned in the interviews is that green asphalt is used to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Possibilities for reducing the climate footprint in the future that are brought up include electric-powered excavators and transport as well as bio-binders in the asphalt. The obstacles that are mentioned in the interviews to reduce the climate footprint are, among other things, lack of environmentally friendly plastic materials for water and sewer enterprisers, charging of electric machines and the extra cost of working in an environmentally friendly way. Analysis – The climate adaptations that are used today is seen as relatively simple technologies, while the possibilities for reducing emissions in the future are currently stopped by the increased cost and that certain technologies are not developed sufficiently. Discussion – The study shows that the use of HVO and green asphalt are ways to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and that these are supported by previous research. Local mass handling is also a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions but has been difficult to confirm by previous studies. The possibilities of reducing emissions through electric excavators and transports are confirmed by previous research, and the use of bio-binders instead of bitumen in the asphalt is also confirmed. The lack of environmentally friendly plastic material for water and sewer enterprisers is confirmed in previous studies, also the additional cost of HVO compared to diesel is confirmed.

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  • 28.
    Friberg, Rebecca
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Rödfyr - En utredning avanvändningsområden och hantering med fokus på ekonomi och miljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Burnt alum shale is mining waste derived from combustion of the same rock. It exists in several places in Västra Götaland. Alum shale was previously used as filling but nowadays the use is limited thus the material is leaching heavy metals. The amount of waste normally put in landfills shall now be diminishing. Therefore the possibility to landfilling alum shale is limited. The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge of how alum shale can be dealt with in an environmentally safe and economically beneficial way. The goal is to bring out suggestions for applications of use and ways of handling the excavations to contribute to a better environment and to achieve better financial conditions. By investigate what claims need to be achieved for the possibility of using Alum shale, useful areas of use and suitable management where brought forward. This study has been composed as a mean to get a bachelor degree in engineering, with the benefitial partner Skövde kommun.

    Method: Literature study, document analysis and interviews where used as research methods. Research on waste, alum shale and remediation techniques where studied in the literature study. In the document analysis, environmental study were analysed to retain knowledge of leachate. The interviews presented information of the authorities work with alum shale and experts’ suggestions of how alum shale can be used and handled.

    Findings: This study showed that there is other applications than landfills, and that there is methods to limit the leachate. If to be used, knowledge of the alum shale’s propensity of spreading due to stirring and relocation must be known. To inhibit leachate van be achieved by encapsulate the alum shale by waterproofing. This means that the alum shale can be used as a resource. Areas will be available for exploitation, it will not affect people in the surroundings, and the leachate to the groundwater will diminish.

    Implications: At minor sensitive land use, alum shale can be used as filling material, such as industrial areas and roads. This implicates waterproofing of the material. Asphalted surface, in combination of waterproofing the top surface and the vertical sides limits the leachate of metals considerably. The haul is often ruling the possibility to relocate the shale. If the alum shale, at disposal, could be used for filling purposes, the cost of purchasing new material, and outlet of new raw material does not need to burden the environment.

    Limitations: The alum shale studied is the one of Skövde County. The study should though be applicable to the whole of Västra Götaland. Not having the time to expand the interviews and include more people with research experience and expertise, is one of the limitations of this study. Also, carry out leachate tests could have contributed with more knowledge.

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  • 29.
    Granath, Kaj
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Lugna långgator2003In: Arkitektur: byggnad, interiör, plan, landskap, ISSN 0004-2021, no 6, p. 34-35Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Granath, Kaj
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Med ansiktet mot havet2003In: Göteborgs-Posten, ISSN 1103-9345, Vol. 03, no 26Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Granath, Kaj
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Tillbaka till framtiden2002In: Göteborgs-Posten, ISSN 1103-9345, no 7/13Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med anledning av Elizabeth A. T. Smiths bok Case study houses: the complete CSH program 1945-1966, om lösningen av bostadsproblem i södra Kalifornien.

  • 32.
    Granath, Kaj
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Tillvalsarkitektur för bryggseglare2002In: Göteborgs-Posten, Vol. 06, no 20Article, book review (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 33.
    Granath, Kaj
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Built Environment.
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Built Environment.
    Verifiering av krav och värden: Förstudie2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med denna förstudie är att inventera dagsläget och framtida möjligheter för verifiering av krav samt analyser av värden genom använda IKT och BIM. Detta ger nya möjligheter för byggherrar att skapa en mer värdedriven byggprocess med målet att optimera byggnadsverkets totala värde för dess ägare, brukare och samhället som helhet.

    Resultaten visar att verifieringar av krav och analyser/simuleringar av värden används i ganska begränsad utsträckning idag. De verifieringar som utförs är fokuersade på grundläggande information om utrymmen, t ex att rätt utrymmen finns med samt att de har ungefär rätt storlek. När det gäller analyser och simuleringar så är det kostnadsberäkningar och energianalyser som används i flest skeden.

    En av de främsta drivande faktorerna i utvecklingen av analyser och simuleringar är hållbarhetsdiskussionen. Användningen av miljöklassificeringssystem har blivit utbrett i byggbranschen. Litteraturstudien visar att det redan idag går att verifiera med hjälp av BIM att ett flerbostadshusprojekt kommer upp till LEED-guld (71 % av teoretiskt maxvärde). I en mer övergripande studie utgick man ifrån 132 hållbarhetsaspekter, och identifierade programstöd som kunde analysera 55 % av dessa aspekter.

    Regelbaserade kontroller av BIM-modeller har redan fått stort praktiskt genomslag, främst för kollisionskontroll. Ju mer utvecklade BIM-modellerna blir desto mer går att kontrollera. En av de mest använda programvarorna som använder denna teknik är Solibri Model Checker. Studier av denna programvara visade att tekniken skulle kunna användas för att automatiskt verifiera de flesta byggherrekrav, om relevant information finns i BIM-modellen.

    För en fortsatt utveckling behövs fortsatt implementering av verifieringar och analyser samt erfarenheter från praktisk användning. Men det behövs också att mer information läggs in i BIM-modellerna samt att brister i interoperabilitet (informationsöverföring) mellan BIM-programvaror byggs bort. Kvaliteten på analyserna är helt beroende av kvaliteten på indata, och att modellen är korrekt uppbyggd.

    Litteraturstudien gav ett antal indikationer på framtida inrikningar: Ett större fokus på tidiga skeden och en mer holistisk syn på hållbarhet är två sådanan tydliga trender. Det finns också en trend mot att verifieringar och analyser bör vara en del av en evidensbaserad produktframtagningsprocess där användarscenarier är en central del och där utvärdering av byggnadens användning samt verifiering och validering av människors upplevelser är en annan.

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  • 34.
    Göthberg, Albin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Rosander, Fanny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    UTVÄRDERING AV ETT FÖRÄNDRAT DIGITALT ARBETSSÄTT UTIFRÅN TEKNOLOGISKA REFERENSRAMAR2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's society is increasingly shaped by new digital technologies and digital work practices. We live in an era that is rapidly changing, and this poses demands on Sweden's industries to meet the requirements and needs of our industrial society. One industry that has struggled to keep up with the pace of digitalization is the construction industry. The construction industry is characterized by high complexity and numerous processes involving various stakeholders, as each building project has its own unique conditions and requirements. In addition to this, the stakeholders have their own conditions and needs related to technology and the use of digital tools. In order to fully leverage the opportunities of digitalization, it is important for actors to be aware of their own, as well as their co-actors', conditions and needs related to technology, especially when implementing new technology and digital work practices, to ensure the implementation is as successful as possible. 

    This study has been conducted within a project consulting firm with the aim of analyzing differences and similarities in perceptions among actors and groups during the implementation of a changed digital work practice. To achieve this goal, a case study was conducted using data collection techniques such as document analysis, observation, and semi-structured interviews, with the interviews serving as the significant source of empirical data. 

    Once the empirical data was collected, it was categorized based on how the respondents agreed with each other within their own respondent group and in comparison to another respondent group. Overall, the authors did not find any inhibiting differences in the respondents' answers regarding implementation. However, concerns were raised regarding how the consulting firm's payment models were adapted to the new digital work practice. 

    After the study, the authors concluded that, in this case, they did not find significant differences in the respondents' answers that could hinder implementation for the consulting firm. The differences that existed were rather due to variations in the respondents' depth of understanding regarding technology. The main challenge highlighted with the new work practice was how the company would charge for the new technology. To fully utilize the opportunities of digitalization and keep up with the ongoing development, one of the suggestions for further research is the payment models of companies. 

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  • 35.
    Hafezparast Moadab, Nima
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Smart lighting in apartments: ‘Energy and lighting simulation of different user scenarios’2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36.
    Haglund, Petter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Kallin, Rickard
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Informationsbehov ur en BIM-modell för användning i fastighetsförvaltning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: As buildings become more complex, property management becomes increasingly complex. New demands are made on buildings environmental performance, risk management and new technology is introduced, which changes the property management industry. Problems with current property management methods are that the information for an efficient maintenance is difficult for the trustee, and the lack of interoperability between architects, constructor, client and trustee. The digital divide between trustees and other actors helps the trustee to reject the idea that BIM can be used in management. The aim for this rapport is to determine what information is to be required from a BIM-model to be to any use in the management process. Method: This work has been done through interviews and document analyses to answer the goal. Findings: There is a drive from trustees to switch to BIM, but the main obstacles are the lack of knowledge and influence at the start of construction projects, which means that the right requirements regarding the development and detailing of a BIM model can’t be set properly. Trustees know what information they need, but not how to set the right requirements without a specific standard. Implications: A lack of competence and knowledge about BIM at the trustees implies the need for a standard on the BIM-models level of detail and development for at all stages in the project, and all actors and researchers involved in the work. However, the trustees is aware of the information they need in their management system, which should be taken into account when a standard is being made. Limitations: The interview respondents came from different types of management companies, such as profit-making and non-profit-making, smaller and larger management companies, as well as trustees of residential, office, hall buildings and campus properties. Interviews with clients had helped make the work more relevant as it appeared from interviews conducted that the client plays a major role when demanding a BIM-model in a construction project. 

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    Informationsbehov ur en BIM-modell för användning i fastighetsförvaltning
  • 37.
    Halilic, Jasmin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Magnusson, Elin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    INFLYTANDET AV CERTIFIERINGEN MILJÖBBYGGNAD INOM ENERGI FÖR NYBYGGNATIONER2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Global greenhouse emissions are a major issue for both the country and the world. Therefore, one has to find alternatives and solutions to produce renewable energy. A vision for renewable energy is to produce property-related renewable energy. The aim of the study was to investigate renewable energy for self-production in new construction, taking into account the certification for Miljöbyggnad to contribute to a more positive development in environmental work.

    Method: The study is a qualitatively oriented research. To succeed in answering questions and attaining the objective of the study, data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and document analysis. The selection of respondents was based on the professional role of the chosen company. The documents that were analyzed were a checklist and an internal manual available in the cooperating company as well as documents from the Sweden Green Building Council that deals with Miljöbyggnad.

    Findings: The work on renewable energy is something that is prioritized despite the high one-time cost, as there is long-term profitability. Communication is therefore important during the design process, but there is a lack of factors in the finishing work. You do not necessarily need to install electricity production facilities in Miljöbyggnad as it is only part of the requirement for the Gold level. From a sustainability perspective, one should nevertheless install it in new production and supplement it with measuring instruments for the plants in order to follow up the result.

    Implications: The economic aspect has a major role in the design as it can prevent sustainability solutions. Therefore, financial support in energy issues is a good incentive for companies. Miljöbyggnad is then a good support in project planning for new production since a certification process is not always necessary. To develop the employee work structure, knowledge transfer should be given more priority.

    Limitations: The study is limited to Miljöbyggnad where only energy indicators have been studied. The case study is limited to apartment buildings to reduce the scope of the study. The results and recommendations presented are generally valid for those companies that have similar working methods and routines.

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  • 38.
    Hallner, Emelie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Gunnarsson, Alice
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Kalkylskedets möjlighet till påverkan vid miljöcertifiering enligt Miljöbyggnad2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Environmental impact by humans has increased significantly, with the construction industry accounting for 40% of the world's energy consumption. In order to counteract this, the world's demands on sustainable buildings have increased. There are a number of environmental certification systems to help, where Miljöbyggnad is the most common in Sweden. The possibilities for influencing a project are greatest in the early stages, which also applies for environmental work. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate how a project classified according to the Miljöbyggnad Silver affects the bidding process for a construction project, in comparison with a similar project without environmental certification requirements.

    Method: A literature study which aims to form a theoretical framework, a document analysis of a reference project based on provided documents and semistructured interviews with calculation engineers at Serneke Bygg AB in Gothenburg.

    Findings: The results of the document analysis and interviews contradict each other to some extent. The document analysis shows several aspects that can be influenced by the calculators' work, while the respondents mention only a few differences between a project with or without certification according to Miljöbyggnad Silver. Respondents consider themselves lacking knowledge about environmental construction, while at the same time they are uncertain of how much that is needed. The document analysis, on the other hand, indicates that additional knowledge is required to ensure that the above mentioned aspects are taken into account in the calculation phase in order to ensure that the bid meets the requirements for Miljöbyggnad Silver.

    Implications: In order to ensure that the environmental building requirements are met in the tender phase, the recommendation is that the calculators, or one employee, will acquire knowledge about Miljöbyggnad. However it depends on the company's ambition regarding the accuracy of the tender if this will be implemented. Their attitude will have significance to how the work process and time aspect will be affected with the increased requirements of knowledge.

    Limitations: Only one type of environmental certification and one individual project have been selected. The study's goals are considered to be met, but the results and conclusions could have been further strengthened if more projects were studied and interviews had been conducted with the head of the department.

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  • 39.
    Hansson Tengberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Adlerborn, Andreas
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Design of an Assembly System at AERCRETE INDUSTRIES2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The forming of an assembly system is a complex task, which should be considered as never ending. In order to successfully plan and implement an assembly system it is of vital importance that the obstacles and preconditions that have an impact on the system are identified and evaluated. This together with the necessary support activities and the attributes of the product to be assembled constitutes the starting point for the forming of the assembly system.

    The aim of this thesis is to link the theoretical findings with the issues stated above, and through this explain a best practice approach when forming the assembly system. The theoretical work aims at describing the nature and activities within assembly and manufacturing systems and explains these in three different levels of strategies divided into Manufacturing strategies, Layout, material flow and design strategies and finally Logistic, material handling and quality strategies. Then the obstacles and preconditions found are discussed and evaluated which set the basis for the forming of the assembly system and by linking these with the relevant theory, conceptual design proposals for the assembly system and the Logistic support system are formed.

    These are then evaluated and finally a proposal for the detailed layout of the assembly system is given. This proposal is then to be used as a guideline for the company Aercrete when forming their assembly system.

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  • 40.
    Heldic, Elvis
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Svensson, Isak
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Arbetsmiljö i schakt: En studie av NCCs säkerhetsarbete vid arbeten i schakt2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Byggbranschen är en utav de mest skadedrabbade verksamheterna på svensk arbetsmarknad. Länge har arbetsmiljöverket och stora byggföretag arbetat för att förbättra arbetsmiljön vid schaktarbete, målet är att uppnå en nollvision vad gäller antalet arbetsplatsolyckor. De har kommit en bra bit på vägen men mycket mer finns att göra för att förebygga schakt relaterade olyckor.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att undersöka och utvärdera hur företaget i dagsläget jobbar med arbetsmiljön och personalens säkerhet vid arbeten i schakt. Studien ska även belysa yrkesarbetares attityd och kunskap kring sin egen säkerhet vid arbeten i schakt.

    Metod: En kvalitativ metod användes, för att uppnå studiens syfte och mål genomfördes datainsamling via en dokumentstudie, observation och intervjuer. Författarna har valt att använda sig av så kallad triangulering för att få så hög trovärdighet som möjligt av datainsamlingen. Sju intervjuer genomfördes med tre olika yrkeskategorier. Författarna genomförde två observationer på olika schaktningsarbeten.

    Resultat: Företaget följer de lagar och regler som Arbetsmiljöverket och företaget själva har implementerat för att kunna motverka att säkerhetsrisker uppstår. Respondenterna är medvetna om de risker som finns vid arbete med schakt men upplever att de ibland tar risker då de är så vana vid arbete eller att säkerhetsföreskrifterna inte kan följas till punkt och pricka. Resultatet av observationerna var att det finns brister i säkerheten på arbetsplatsen som beror på olika parametrar såsom beteende, brist på kännedom och enskilt isolerat misstag.

    Konsekvenser: Intervjuer gjordes för att få fram data om beteenden, attityder och säkerhet, frågorna som ställdes var öppna och breda. Konsekvenserna av vald undersökningsmetod är att man inte alltid får korrekta svar från respondenterna. Detta kan göra det svårt att analysera resultatet då respondenterna använder olika språk när dem ska beskriva sina åsikter och upplevelser. Slutsatsen av studien är att kunskap inom säkerhetsarbetet finns, dock är kunskapen bristfällig och appliceras inte alltid på arbetsplatsen.

    Begränsningar: Denna studie fokuserar enbart på arbetsmiljö och säkerheten kring arbete i schakt. Studien granskar endast den insamlade data från företaget och inga andra jämförelser kommer göras mot andra företag. Corona pandemin, tid och pengar kan ha påverkat studiens resultat på så vis att författarna inte har kunnat genomföra en ännu större mängd intervjuer och observationer.

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  • 41.
    Håkansson, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Ulfsson, Robert
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Energiinventering av en äldre byggnad med hjälp av livscykelkostnad och erfarenhetsåterföring2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The survey is carried out in collaboration with the reconstruction department at Riksbyggen who is a cooperative corporation and one of Sweden’s largest property managers. Riksbyggens customers are housing cooperatives, companies and public property owners. The construction sector emitted 21% in 2019 of Sweden's greenhouse gases and 49% of all apartment buildings were built between 1951 – 1981 (2021), these buildings consume much energy, especially the ventilation systems. Documentation of knowledge from different projects can be none or substandard, which makes knowledge about energy renovation difficult to manage. The goal is to assess the economic profitability and environmental impact of energy saving measures in an apartment building from 1959. And to investigate Riksbyggens external energy specialists use of knowledge transfer to reduce lifecycle costs and pay-off time. To achieve the goal, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods is used. Empirical data is collected through interviews, measurement data, calculations and documents and drawings provided by Riksbyggen. The calculations are used to answer how profitable the energy saving measures are and the interviews are used to map how knowledge transfer is used regarding savings of costs and energy. To answer the cost measures and energy savings of energy measures, a quantitative analysis method is. To map the feedback of experience, the interviewees' answers compare with each other and with the theoretical framework, both suppliers and customer are interviewed to get both perspectives. According to the performed calculations, the planned measures save a total of about 380 MWh district heating / year and increase the electricity demand by about 55 MWh/ year, the cost savings per year are about 248 000 SEK. The pay-off period of the heating pump is 8,4 years and heating pump combined with solar cells goes up to 9,1 years. The pay-off period including the replacement of new windows goes up to about 27,6 years.

    From the interviews it appears that knowledge transfer is mainly done orally in the daily work. The results are in line with the theory and the most rewarding knowledge transfer is according to the interviewees, the knowledge transfer their own organization with staff with different types of employment. It promotes development and research in the industry according to the theory and to reduce costs and energy. Interviewees spend a lot of time documenting financial gain and this is also the main driver for development according to the theory. The financial savings and pay-off period are calculated to be more expensive than expected, which is probably due to the historically high energy prices. But despite high prices, the energy-improving measures are profitable and installing both solar cells and an exhaust air heat pump, as in this investigation, provides security that solar cells become more profitable with higher electricity prices and heat pumps with lower electricity prices.

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  • 42.
    Håkansson, Olof
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Käck, Simon
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Assessing the Value of BIM: A Contractors Perspective2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BIM has been claimed to be a revolution for the construction industry and contractors are sure about the value that BIM use brings even though no one has been able to prove them. Multiple studies have been made by academics trying to create methods to either quantify or identify the value with BIM, however none of these methods are being used in practice. The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of how contractors assess the value of BIM and the reasoning behind their assessments. This is done through nine semi structured interviews with respondents from three big sized contractors in Sweden. The data from the interviews was coded and thematically analyzed. It was concluded that depending on the respondents´ perception of BIM, the value of BIM was seen as different and subsequently both the performed and aspired assessment processes. Based on that, a matrix was created, outlining the two perceptions: BIM as part of something bigger i.e. BIM as a prerequisite or BIM as a mean in of itself. Furthermore, the matrix displays four dimensions of BIM assessment: the tangibility focus, the structured approach, the intangibility focus and lastly, the non-action approach.

  • 43.
    Ivansson, Signe
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Starck, Kajsa
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Operativa beslut inom byggsektorn med hjälp av LCC-utvärdering2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a lack of knowledge of translating environmental cost to a monetary value. Sientcis has during the last decades studied and researched the field and developed several methods and tools within the Life cycle cost (LCC). The researchers are wondering why these are not used in the industry? The goal in this study is to develop a working method on how to build better for the climate using Life cycle assessment (LCA) and LCC.

    Method: The methods used to reach the goal of the study are mail interviews, observations, document analysis and literature review.

    Findings: The result of the study describes that municipal housing companies do not use LCC a lot. A case study is done on two houses in Kv. Vingpennan 2 in Kungsängen, Jönköping. The study presents, based on the case study a method for working with LCC with a environmental cost translated into a monetary value by using LCA.

    Implications: Since municipal housing companies at present do not work with LCC analyses to the extent that would be needed, some kind of demands from the municipality could be relevant. The construction sector is emitting a lot of carbon dioxide that is why some kind of tax should be calculated in the beginning of a new building project. There are many reasons why LCC is not so much in use. The uncertainty factors for estimating a monetary value for the environmental cost within the LCC might be a contributing factor. If the requirements that we propose would be put to the decision makers they would be forced to learn how to and work with LCC. The new ISO standard 14008:2019 could be the beginning of work methods for LCC where the environmental cost could be calculated.

    Limitations: The choice of methods and strategies for this study has been appropriate. The limitation is that the case study has only been studied over a shorter time of the studied projects time and that there is a lot of different programs for making a LCA and the materials in those programs is not always the exact same as in the real project. The uncertainties in an LCC could make the results variate a lot depending on who makes it.

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    OPERATIVA BESLUT INOM BYGGSEKTORN MED HJÄLP AV LCC-UTVÄRDERING
  • 44.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Vaxjo, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Johansson, J.
    Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Mahapatra, K.
    Linnaeus University, Vaxjo, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology, Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Developing a decision-making framework for resolving conflicts when selecting windows and blinds2019In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 357-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Windows and blinds play a significant role in both shaping energy consumption and enhancing indoor comfort. But there are still difficulties with selecting windows and blinds due to the existence of potential conflicts between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life-cycle cost. A literature review was conducted with the purpose of developing a decision-making framework that resolves the conflicts, and allows selecting a window and blind design based on trade-off between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life-cycle cost. The decision-making framework was developed by integrating non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II as an optimization algorithm with analytical hierarchy process as a multi-criteria decision-making method. The optimization algorithm considers different window and blind design variables and analyses multiple designs, while the multi-criteria decision-making method ranks the optimization results and selects a trade-off design. An operating package enabled the decision-making framework to be automated. The operating package was obtained by coupling EnergyPlus as a simulation tool and modeFRONTIER as an integration platform. The decision-making framework was developed to select a trade-off window and blind design through intelligent use of simulation in analysing big-data in built environment, energy and cost sectors. Application of the framework ensures the minimum visual and thermal comfort thresholds with the lowest energy demand and cost. Architects and designers can use the framework during the design or renovation phase of residential and commercial buildings.

  • 45.
    Jamshidi, Ali
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science. Jönköpings Universitet Kandidat student inom Byggnadsmekanik.
    Björk, Rasmus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science. Jönköpings Universitet Kandidat student inom Byggnadsmekanik .
    Energieffektivisering av villor: En fallstudie med fokus på investeringsbeslut baserat på energi- och ekonomiska analyser2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduktion (och mål) - Mänskligheten lever idag i en ohållbar värld och ställning tillmänsklighetens påverkan på jorden bör tas. Byggbranschen är en bov i denna fråga dåden står för cirka en tredjedel av värdens slutenergi. Världen står inför en kritiskenergiförbruknings omvändning där en övergång till energieffektivare lösningar äressentiella, ändå visar forskning på att denna övergång är saktfärdig. Samtidigt ser vien nedåtgående ekonomi med högre elpriser och lägre villapriser. Studien avser attåskådliggöra om ett analysverktyg med möjlighet till val av uppgraderingar haderesulterat i att flera kunder hade investerat i en mer energieffektiv villa.Metod - En fallstudie genomfördes på företaget A-Hus mest sålda villa i samarbetemed potentiella och nuvarande kunder. Studien använde litteratur- och dokumentstudiersamt utveckling av kalkyl- och analysprogram. En enkätinsamling genomfördes ocksåför att få kvalitativa svar om analysverktyget och valmöjligheternas påverkan påinvesteringsviljan.Resultat - Undersökningens resultat visar att en majoritet av deltagarna ansåg attkalkylprogrammet och dess analyser vägledde dem till att investera i en merenergieffektiv villa. En stor del av deltagarna valde att uppgradera sina villor direkteller indirekt med vägledning av kalkylprogrammet och dess analyser. Den mestpopulära uppgraderingskombinationen var att uppgradera väggtyp, fönstertyp, värmeoch ventilation samt solceller med andra ord alla möjliga uppgraderingar. En annankombination som var populär att uppgradera var fönstertyp, värme och ventilation samtsolceller. Analyser från kalkylprogrammet visade att båda dessauppgraderingskombinationer skulle ge en hög avkastning över livslängden avrespektive uppgraderings kombination och uppgraderingarna var lönsamma.Analys - En undersökning gjordes för att ta reda på i vilken utsträckning ettkalkylprogram med analysverktyg för energieffektivisering av hus påverkar potentiellahusköpares beslut. Resultatet visade att kalkylprogrammet med dess analyser ökadesannolikheten för att investera i en mer energieffektiv villa. En stor majoritet avundersökningsdeltagarna (85%) valde att uppgradera på grund av att analysverktygetfanns tillgängligt. De två vanligaste kombinationerna av byggnadsdelstillval sompotentiella husköpare var villiga att investera i var väggtyp, fönstertyp, värme- ochventilationstillval och solcellstillval, samt fönstertyp, värme- och ventilationstillval ochsolcellstillval.Diskussion - Målgruppen ifrågasätts och en mer relevant målgrupp föreslås vara desom aktivt söker att köpa en villa. Medvetenheten hos undersökningsdeltagarna kan hapåverkat resultaten, och det föreslås att skapa realistiska scenarier för att minimerapåverkan. Behovet av en kontrollgrupp för att jämföra resultaten och bedömakalkylprogrammets effektivitet diskuteras också. Studien diskuterar använda metoderför datainsamling och föreslår att triangulering och intervjuer med deltagare skullekunna stärka validiteten. För att öka både den externa och interna validiteten föreslåsatt använda ett större urval och inkludera en kontrollgrupp.

  • 46.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Genell, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Trafikinformation och miljöeffekter: beräkningar av omledningseffekter2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims at calculating the environmental impact of traffic with a new computational model. A list of possible measures to reduce environmental effects using traffic information is given, aiming at improving energy efficiency, air quality, noise, and environmental impact. The use of traffic information to control traffic is growing, especially in urban environments where congestion impacts trafficability, while alternative routes are available. In the road sector The Swedish Transport Administration usually informs the traveller directly, while in the rail sector information is directed to the train companies who then inform travellers/drivers. This affects the ability to manage traffic, and creates problems for the intermodal information. This report focuses on the urgent environmental impact of traffic, although a review of long-term effects are included. Only the change in traffic and driving style affects the calculations. Many environmental impacts are affected by traffic, such as air pollution, noise, greenhouse gas emissions, but also the barrier effects, light pollution, water pollution and soil disturbance in sensitive areas. Calculations with the model show how emissions are affected by driving mode, and how the population exposure is affected. The existing models are highly simplified and development in emission modeling, exposure, effects of exposure, and model implementation is essential.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 47.
    Jansson, Felix
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Erlbacher, Sören
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Ekonomisk och miljömässig jämförelse av logistikhallar byggda i limträ- och stålstomme2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction – The construction industry today accounts for a significant portion ofthe Earth's greenhouse gas emissions, and the need to reduce these emissions issubstantial. Investing more climate-smartly in new construction is increasing, and woodhas become an increasingly popular building material, especially for multi-familyhouses. However, logistic warehouses are still predominantly dominated by steel. Theaim of this study is to investigate the differences in costs and greenhouse gas emissionsbetween glulam timber and steel frames for logistic warehouses. This is done toexamine whether wood is an economically viable and environmentally more efficientstructural material for constructing logistic warehouses compared to a steel frame.

    Method – The chosen method for the study is a case study, as it will encompass both atheoretical examination, a review of quantitative data from a previous project, and anestimation of the cross-sectional size of a timber frame through simulation in astructural design software. The cost and environmental impact of a steel and glulamtimber frame will be determined in order to conduct a comparative analysis of the twostructural materials.

    Results – The frames do not differ significantly in terms of price, but the glulam timberframe results in significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to the steelframe. The cost difference between steel and timber frames was minimal based onmaterial and assembly costs. The steel frame generates almost seven times moregreenhouse gas emissions than the glulam timber frame during the production stage. Inthe transportation phase, laminated timber has a longer transportation distance then steelin this study, which is the main reason for the greater environmental impact of thelaminated timber frame compared to the steel frame at this stage. During the assemblyphase, the steel frame has a larger environmental impact than the timber frame. Acrossthe entire frame during the entire construction and production stages, the steel framehas four times more emissions than the glulam timber frame.

    Analysis – If the cost of the frame is the primary concern for the builder, a steel frameshould not be assumed to be the cheaper alternative. This study considers the widestspan of beams at 24 meters, and for larger spans, the conditions for choosing structuralmaterials might differ. Glulam timber is well-suited as a structural material if the goalis to build with minimal greenhouse gas emissions.

    Discussion – The construction industry plays a crucial role in reducing carbon dioxideemissions and achieving climate goals. Despite the fact that the analyzed timber framemight not be optimally designed, the study still demonstrates significant environmentaladvantages in using glulam timber as a structural material in logistic warehouses, withno major differences in cost.

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    Examensarbete Felix Jansson Sören Erlbacher 2023
  • 48.
    JIANG, KAIYUN
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Use of climate-based daylight models for lighting simulation: A state of the art review of the literature published between 2010 and 20202021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM) development, aiming for appropriate sky modelling, has attracted quite some attention during the last years. Ten years ago, it was a challenge to simulate luminous environment dynamics. Over the years, the accuracy of climate models has improved and the need for high precision daylight simulations has been met along with the development of daylight calculation methods. This paper reviews the latest technologies released between 2010 and 2020 for lighting simulation relevant to building science research. After reviewing the development of climate models, advances in daylight calculation methods are discussed. The results of the study show that the accuracy of simulation results has improved significantly based on high precision daylight simulations, but also pose problems of simulation time and simulation feasibility.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49. Jin, Deng
    et al.
    Marius, Leparda
    The positive act of biophilia in the built and healthy environment from different cultural views2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A biophilic built environment, as a design doctrine, is receiving rising attention. Architects began to pay attention to the local culture and environment, using ecology, the basic principles of building technology science and modern scientific and technological means to reasonably arrange and organize the relationship between the building and other relevant factors, so that the building and the environment become organic. This thesis investigates the impact of biophilic design on the built and healthy environment and if the act of biophilia has a positive impact when viewing from different cultural, social, and economic aspects in an office environment. The study used three questionnaires conducted in China, United States of America (USA) and Europe, to compare the economic, cultural and working environment preferences with the main purpose to investigate whether the building industry would benefit from Green Buildings (GBs). The authors predict that the implementation of biophilia in the built environment will not only improve the building performances but also emphasize considerable benefits for the employees' physical and mental health.

    Keywords: Biophilia, Biophilic Building, Biophilic Design, Green Building, Bionic Architecture, Building information modelling.

  • 50.
    Johansson Leather, Maja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Digital Product Passports for Enabling Circular Economy in the Built Environment2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing sustainability goals, the European Commission has stated the need for transitioning from a linear economy towards a circular economy. This is planned to be implemented by 2050, with new regulations and requirements to be released continuously until then. One of the major requirements is the in- troduction of Digital Products Passports (DPP) as a way of tracking information related to specific products. This paper investigates the potential use cases that DPPs could have, different information requirements, and possibilities for a successful implementation. Further, since DPPs are a relativity new topic, the paper will analyze the current state of the art. A qualitative study based on a scoping review, document analysis, and semi- structured interviews with representatives working in the built environment were used. The findings of the study indicate that the introduction of DPPs can facilitate information flows in the built environment and serve as an effective tool for promoting circularity within the sector. Issues occur due to the current lack of standard- ization and clear definitions, causing confusion about the scope and objectives of DPPs. Regarding information requirements, the data infrastructure instead of specific requirements, has been identified as one of the most important aspects. For this, Product Data Templates (PDT) and linked data were proposed as a solution for presenting and structuring information in DPPs.

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