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  • 1.
    Aarts, Mariëlle P. J.
    et al.
    Building Physics and Services, Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Aries, Myriam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Built Environment. Building Physics and Services, Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Diakoumis, Adonia
    Building Physics and Services, Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    van Hoof, Joost
    Fontys EGT—Centre for Healthcare and Technology, Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Shedding a light on phototherapy studies with people having dementia: A critical review of the methodology from a light perspective2016In: American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementia, ISSN 1533-3175, E-ISSN 1938-2731, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 551-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light therapy is applied to older people with dementia as a treatment to reset the biological clock, to improve the cognitive functioning, and to reduce behavioral symptoms. Although the methodological quality of light therapy studies is essential, many aspects concerning the description of the lighting applied are missing. This study reviewed light therapy studies concerning the effects on people with dementia as a way to check the methodological quality of the description of light from a light engineering perspective. Twelve studies meeting the inclusion criteria were chosen for further analysis. Each study was scored on a list of aspects relevant to a proper description of lighting aspects. The overview demonstrates that the overall quality of the methodologies is poor. The studies describe the lighting insufficiently and not in the correct metrics. The robustness of light therapy studies can be improved by involving a light engineer or specialist.

  • 2.
    Aarts, Mariëlle P. J.
    et al.
    Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Aries, Myriam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Straathof, Jochem
    Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    van Hoof, Joost
    Centre for Healthcare and Technology, Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Dynamic lighting systems in psychogeriatric care facilities in the Netherlands: A quantitative and qualitative analysis of stakeholders’ responses and applied technology2015In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 617-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term care facilities are currently installing dynamic lighting systems with the aim to improve the well-being and behaviour of residents with dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of dynamic lighting systems from the perspective of stakeholders and the performance of the technology. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was conducted with the management and care professionals of six care facilities. Moreover, light measurements were conducted in order to describe the exposure of residents to lighting. The results showed that the main reason for purchasing dynamic lighting systems lied in the assumption that the well-being and day/night rhythmicity of residents could be improved. The majority of care professionals were not aware of the reasons why dynamic lighting systems were installed. Despite positive subjective ratings of the dynamic lighting systems, no data were collected by the organizations to evaluate the effectiveness of the lighting. Although the care professionals stated that they did not see any large positive effects of the dynamic lighting systems on the residents and their own work situation, the majority appreciated the dynamic lighting systems more than the old situation. The light values measured in the care facilities did not exceed the minimum threshold values reported in the literature. Therefore, it seems illogical that the dynamic lighting systems installed in the researched care facilities will have any positive health effects.

  • 3.
    Aarts, Mariëlle P.J.
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    van Duijnhoven, Juliëtte
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Aries, Myriam B. C.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Rosemann, Alexander L.P.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Performance of personally worn dosimeters to study non-image forming effects of light: Assessment methods2017In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 117, p. 60-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When determining the effects of light on human beings, it is essential to correctly measure the effects, and to correctly measure the adequate properties of light. Therefore, it is important to know what is being measured and know the quality of the measurement devices. This paper describes simple methods for identifying three quality indices; the directional response index, the linearity index and the temperature index. These indices are also checked for several commonly used portable light measurement devices. The results stresses what was already assumed, the quality and the outcome of these devices under different circumstances were very different. Also, the location were these devices are normally worn has an impact on the results. The deviation range between worn vertically at eye level and the wrist is between 11% (outdoor) to 27% (indoor). The smallest deviation, both in indoor and outdoor, was found when the device was placed on the sides of the eye (7%). 

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  • 4.
    Aasa, Emma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science. Jönköpings University.
    Rosell, Michaela
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science. Jönköpings University.
    Den juridiska statusen för 3D-modeller som bygghandlingar2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction – This thesis in Building Engineering at Jönköping University, in collaboration with Tyréns Sweden AB, examines the issues surrounding 3D models as construction documents from a legal perspective and investigates how digitization affects stakeholders in the construction industry. The goal of the study is to explore a relevant and interesting research area in order to contribute to knowledge development and the advancement of new theories or methods in the field.

    Method – The study will employ qualitative research, including primary data collection through interviews, to address the research questions posed in the report. The authors have chosen this method to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the respondents' perspectives and identify important themes and patterns. The interviews were conducted with participants from various sectors of the construction industry to obtain a broader picture of the subject.

    Results – The study revealed that there are certain legal barriers to the use of 3D models as drawing documentation. These barriers are related to a lack of knowledge and uncertainty in handling the models. This includes issues of copyright, liability, and evidential value. There is a need to update current regulations to facilitate the management of digital models.

    Analysis – The analysis of the results clarifies that industry standards and clearer guidelines would prevent uncertainties and address knowledge gaps in the use of BIM and 3D models. An industry standard could have facilitated a smoother transition to a more digitized construction industry. There is also a need for education in the field for professionals and decision-making stakeholders.

    Discussion – The discussion focuses on possible solutions to the identified problems, such as the development of standards and guidelines, education, and regulatory updates. There is also a need to raise awareness about the legal aspects of using 3D models in the construction industry, as the uncertainty regarding their legal status is high. Legally, it is possible to use 3D models as contractual documents, but the study shows that concerns about the legal aspects are a reason for the weak implementation.

    Keywords – 3D model, 3D design, BIM, Building Information Modeling, construction documents, contractual law, and copyright.

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  • 5.
    Abbas, Ibrahim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Thurann, Alexander
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Implementering av Aerogel-matta vid köldbryggor2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    fulltext
  • 6.
    Abdalla, Jack
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Al-Najem, Tony
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Implementering av det biofila fenomen i utformningen av skolbyggnader2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Today, humanity is trying to develop in all areas of life, so that we can reach a cleaner, more modern, and more sustainable world. This study highlights the importance of architecture to improve areas of life. This report talks about a type of architectural design. It is called biophilic design which means to combine nature with buildings. This study is about biophilic design in school buildings.

    Method: To perform the survey, three different methods were chosen. The first method was a questionnaire sent to college students and high school students, the second method was interviews conducted with knowledgeable architects who have extensive experience in the subject of biophilic design and the last method was literature studies.

    Results: All data collected from the questionnaire, the interviews and literature studies are summarized as follows:Most college students and high school students think that when you are closer to nature it makes you feel better and that it would help improve the teaching process. Architects who were interviewed thought that biophilic design in school buildings has both advantages and disadvantages, but in general they support the idea of using and spreading the idea more in Sweden.

    Analysis: The analyzed data have shown that it is possible to implement biophilic design on the inside and outside of a school building in unusual ways. But many problems will arise, and one must have the will to continue to maintain these materials. It turned out that having these natural elements in school will contribute to a positive effect on the learning environment and the students themselves. For example, as a more creative, calm, and de-stressing environment. Having a green roof seems like an innovative idea but it requires a lot of maintenance.

    Discussion: This study focuses on how to implement biophilic design in a school building and what impact it has on the learning environment. The study addressed what is required to integrate the qualities of nature in the right way to maximize its effects. Studying biophilic design, nature and how it affects people and architecture and its impact on people has helped to lead to a clear result.

  • 7.
    Abdallah, Mohamad
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    El Ammarin, Abdalhadi
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    En studie i användning av BIM i förstudie och bygglovsprocessen inom kommunal verksamhet2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract 

    Introduction: The construction industry is a large industry and like all other industries, it must always develop. The development can involve several factors, but within today's construction industry, Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a central part of the development. Companies and organizations in Sweden have shown for a long time that there are shortcomings in BIM and its use compared to other countries. There are several reasons for this, but above all the high costs and lack of knowledge about BIM. BIM can facilitate and streamline the construction process and it is something that is not fully utilized, which can make the process slower and less efficient. Communication is a big part of BIM as it facilitates communication, which is one of the biggest problems in the construction industry.Method: The method used to present the theories in the study is semi-structured interviews so that the interviewee has the freedom to design their answers. As well as literature implementation from theoretical frameworks that have been the main data collection method.Results: What the study showed after the conducted interviews and the implementation of literature is that there is a lack of BIM use and digital tools. The shortage exists at different levels in the different municipalities and differs even if the municipalities are roughly the same size when it comes to area and population. Some municipalities have taken the first step towards digitization and have succeeded in that step.Analysis: BIM is a tool that can make it easier for municipalities and companies to work. If they use BIM, it can save time, money and resources. the municipalities know about this and want to use BIM in their work system, but they encounter some problems. They have a lack of trained staff and the economy right now makes it difficult to carry out the process.Discussion: The study shows that BIM is used too little within the municipalityaccording to interviews and literature review. Introducing BIM is expected to make work easier for municipalities, but there are challenges for organizations that want to use BIM and participate in technology development.Keywords: BIM, BIM implementation, Pros and cons of BIM, Preliminary study, Client, digitization within municipal operations and digitization of the building permit process.

  • 8.
    Abdulameer, Hasanain
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Chamoun, Kristian
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    BIM i små och medelstora anläggningsföretag.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to improve the usage of BIM in facility projects.

    Method: The methods used for this bachelor thesis are qualitative interviews and literature studies.

    Findings: Free programs will be available for usage where models can be opened, viewed, examined and studied. The small and medium-sized facility companies will not be forced to use resources to cope with the requirements of Trafikverket.

    Implications: Consequences are that the small and medium-sized civil engineering companies understand and follow the requirements.

    • Using more 3D models to gain more experience and skills in the subject.

    • Attend the Trafikverkets industry days when opportunities arise, the authors believe that it was very instructive.

    • Engage in more BIM projects.

    • Older projects where the drawings are in 2D is converted into 3D.

     

    Limitations: How BIM is used during the management process will not be covered.

    Keywords: Productivity, resource, competence, experience, BIM.

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  • 9.
    Abdulkareem, Rawa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Gherghiceanu, Marian
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Evaluations of Product Data Template initiatives2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The AEC (Architecture, Engineering, and Construction) industry has been undergoing a significant digitaliza-tion process in the last years. This transformation implies new challenges and adaptation concerning the ex-change of data between different software applications. Therefore, in response to this problem the benefits of IFC as a solution for the exchange of data have been investigated. However, the current versions of IFC cannot achieve semantic clarity in mapping entities and relationships. Therefore, there have been several attempts to develop solutions and optimizing methods to improve the exchange of information of product data. This paper aims to identify and investigate the challenges of using product data templates (PDT) for exchange of infor-mation and different PDT has been evaluated and compared. The necessary data was collected through literature review and document analysis. Five challenges and five initiatives were identified during the literature review. The five initiatives are Semantic web and linked data, CoClass, Buildingsmart, COBie and Cobuilder. The result showed how these initiatives could solve the identified challenges. 

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    fulltext
  • 10.
    Abdul-Rahman, William
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design.
    Andersson, Viktor
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Product Development, Production and Design.
    Conceptual design and development of an off-road cargo trailer for bicycles2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the conceptual development of an off-road cargo trailer designed for usage in conjunction with bicycles when camping. The objective of the study is to address the limitations of existing cargo trailers and thereafter create a trailer that efficiently can navigate off-road terrains while carrying various types of cargo. The research includes collecting data regarding user behaviours and desired functions an optimal trailer should obtain and was translated into user requirements. The result demonstrates the successful development of an off-road cargo trailer on a conceptual level that offers innovative solutions and improved load-carrying capacity in comparison to the available market, while considering factors such as weight, manoeuvrability, and ease of use. This research contributes to the field by presenting data, which can be used in development and a comprehensive solution that expands the possibilities for bicycle-based cargo transportation in off-road environments. Future work can include further refinements to optimise the trailer’s performance and address additional user requirements based on the data presented.

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  • 11.
    Abi-Khalil, Pierre
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Abdulahad, Zuhair
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Stadsutveckling i mellanstora städer: En studie om förtätning i centrala Norrköping ur ett socialt och ekologiskt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Planners in Norrköping municipality today facing a challenge to meet Norrköping'sneeds in the housing market, while at the same time achieving demand for public places and areas such as parks, squares and nature areas. When existing areas within the city's borders are built, so-called densification takes place in the city, whichcan have both positive and negative consequences. The aim of this study is to investigatehow the densification has affected Norrköping's inner city from a social and ecologicalperspective with a focus on free space, and present proposals for measures forbetter management of the densification in central Norrköping.

    This study has mainly been carried out using a qualitative research method.A qualitative study is based on soft data such as interviews, document analysis and literature studies. The interviews have been conducted with respondents from Norrköpings municipality and the document analysis consists of steering documents obtained from Norrköpings municipality and Pontarius AB. Some data is obtained from documents and studies where results are presented in the form of tables, diagrams, figures and GIS analysis, which means that quantitative methods are also applied.

    To perform a safer densification, it is important that the municipality establishes safe guidelines and steering documents to relate to. These control documents should be used as a framework for efficient exploitation and ensure that the city's freeareas are developed from a sustainable perspective and that a good quality is includedin the development.

    It is advantageous that the development of the densification takes placeaccording to guidelines and documentation prepared by the municipality. To ensure maximum efficiency in exploitation, these guidelines should be followed at an early stage. It is also important that there is a balance of free space size and their quality. Too small a surface leads to a higher load and larger surfaces can be perceived as superfluousand a feeling of unsecure. It is recommended to study how the densification developsin connection with the infrastructure and how it will affect free and green areas in the long run.

    This study is limited to only the inner city of Norrköping. The study also delimits economic and political factors that can influence the planning of the densification and the development of the city’s infrastructure and public transport.

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  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Josef
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Bullerbegränsande åtgärder för byggnation nära befintlig väg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: When cities grow at a faster rate, new places are needed to build housing.The municipalities that are growing tends to choose build sites that previously wererejected due to noise pollution. There are requirements from the state that the noise maynot exceed certain values. The requirements originate from the fact that over twomillion swedes are exposed to noise daily. Noise can lead to health problems, in theform of sleep disorders and cardiovascular disease. To reduce health problems noiseinvestigations are made, where suggestions are made in how noise levels can bereduced. The purpose of the work is to provide the reader with knowledge of whichfactors influence noise investigations and the approach to the choice of noise reductionmeasures so that construction can be made closer to trafficked roads.

    Method: The methods used are literature studies, document analysis and interviews.The literature gathered consists of scientific articles. The documents consist of noiseinvestigations conducted by different companies all over Sweden. Persons to interviewwere chosen from the conductors of the noise investigations documents.

    Findings: To answer the report's purpose, three questions were raised. The firstquestion deals with noise-reducing technologies and which technologies are used today.The report found that there are several ways to reduce noise. In the following order, themost frequently used are: silent facade, noise screen, speed reduction, distance betweenhouse and roads, vegetation, road moving and quiet asphalt. The second question of thereport addresses the factors that influence the choice of noise reduction measure. Fromthe literature study, absorption, reflection and reduction were found to be importantfactors. In the document analysis, surroundings, traffic and speed emerged as importantfactors. In the interviews, aesthetics and price emerged as important in the choice ofwhich reducing action should be taken. The third question deals with the question ofhow construction can be made closer to the road. In the result it appears that all of thesolutions mentioned earlier have the ability to reduce noise, but how effective they areand how well they reduce noise varies from case to case. Surroundings and trafficvolume are of great importance.

    Implications: Making use of the technical solutions previously described, results in areduced noise level and there for construction near road can be made possible.Executing a noise investigation at an early stage means that later and more expensivechanges can be avoided, which means that construction can take place sooner. Thereport suggests therefore that noise issues should be considered early in projects. It isalso important to get a solution that everyone can accept.

    Limitations: The report's results are limited to a smaller selection of noiseinvestigations and interviews. More investigations and interviews could hadcontributed to a larger spectrum. The report does only consider noise outdoors and whatopportunities for noise reduction there are.

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    Bullerbegränsande åtgärder för byggnation nära befintlig väg
  • 13. Abrahamsson, Sam
    et al.
    Rosén, Eric
    Entreprenörer och konsulters hantering av byggmaterialens prisökning och tillgängligheten på byggmaterial i Sverige under Covid-19.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 14.
    Abubakr, Raowa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Patel, Pooja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Packaging systems decision makin; to assure cost efficient transports2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Packaging systems
  • 15.
    Adamsson, Mathias
    Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Sweden.
    Non-image-forming effects of light: Implications for the design of living and working environments2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal variation in mood and subjective well-being are common at geographical locations further away from the equator. The 24-h light-dark cycle is the main time cue for synchronizing the human circadian clock to the external day and night.

    Nowadays, people spend more of their waking day indoors, with less exposure to the natural daylight cycle, relying on artificial lighting which differs to daylight in a number of aspects, including intensity, spectral composition and light exposure pattern.

    In parallel with the technology development that has been mainly driven by energy-saving reasons, it is important to investigate the non-image-forming effects of different properties of the daily and seasonal light exposure.

    The overall aim of the thesis was to identify characteristics of the daily light exposure that are important to support physiological and psychological needs of humans. To achieve this objective a number of research questions were posed concerning daily and seasonal light exposure, seasonal variation in physiological processes and psychological parameters, and evaluation of light exposure with respect to non-image-forming effects. The research questions were investigated in a longitudinal research design with measurements conducted each month during the year at a high latitude with large seasonal variation in day lengths.

    Self-report diaries and instruments for ambulatory- and static measurements were used to examine daily and seasonal light exposure in the working and living environments and for investigating the relationship between different parameters that can be used for evaluating light exposure according to non-image-forming effects of light. Seasonal variation in daily light exposure and regarding the pattern of light exposure was observed. Also, the results indicate a seasonal variation concerning the quality (i.e. spectral composition of the visible radiation) of the exposing light.

    Two biological markers, melatonin and cortisol, were used for investigating seasonal variation in physiological processes relating to the circadian clock. The results showed higher morning melatonin concentrations and peak level of melatonin during the winter although no seasonal change was observed concerning the phase position of the melatonin rhythm.

    Seasonal differences in mood and sleep-activity were studied by means of selfreport diaries and questionnaires. Seasonal variations were observed for both parameters. The results showed higher ratings of mood in the summer, particularly 6 in the evening, and a relationship between bedtime and evening light exposure and photoperiod length. Furthermore, longer sleep times was observed in the winter.

    Appraisal of lighting conditions in the offices during the year was rated by the use of a questionnaire. The results showed some seasonal differences concerning the perceived qualities of the light and some associations between characteristics of the lit environments and positive affect were found.

    Two methods, static- and ambulatory measurements, were used for recording lighting conditions in the working environments. Taken together, the results showed weak associations between the two methods.

    Research have demonstrated an increased need for taking non-image-forming effects into consideration when designing working and living environments, especially at geographical locations with large variations in day length where people are exposed to much of the daily light exposure at the workplace. Laboratory research has provided a good understanding of the basic concepts. However, more field research is needed. Also, current research has demonstrated that new methods of measuring and evaluating lighting conditions are needed.

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    Kappa
  • 16.
    Adamsson, Mathias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Laike, Thorbjörn
    Department of Environmental Science, Fukuoka Women's University, Japan.
    Morita, Takeshi
    Department of Environmental Science, Fukuoka Women's University, Japan.
    Annual variation in daily light exposure and circadian change of melatonin and cortisol concentrations at a northern latitude with large seasonal differences in photoperiod length2016In: Journal of Physiological Anthropology, ISSN 1880-6791, E-ISSN 1880-6805, Vol. 36, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Seasonal variations in physiology and behavior have frequently been reported. Light is the major zeitgeber for synchronizing internal circadian rhythms with the external solar day. Non-image forming effects of light radiation, for example, phase resetting of the circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and acute alerting effects, depend on several characteristics of the light exposure including intensity, timing and duration, spectral composition and previous light exposure, or light history. The aim of the present study was to report on the natural pattern of diurnal and seasonal light exposure and to examine seasonal variations in the circadian change of melatonin and cortisol concentrations for a group of Swedish office workers.

    METHODS: Fifteen subjects participated in a field study that was carried out in the south of Sweden. Ambulatory equipment was used for monthly measurements of the daily exposure to light radiation across the year. The measurements included illuminance and irradiance. The subjects collected saliva samples every 4 h during 1 day of the monthly measuring period.

    RESULTS: The results showed that there were large seasonal differences in daily amount of light exposure across the year. Seasonal differences were observed during the time periods 04:00-08:00, 08:00-12:00, 12:00-16:00, 16:00-20:00, and 20:00-24:00. Moreover, there were seasonal differences regarding the exposure pattern. The subjects were to a larger extent exposed to light in the afternoon/evening in the summer. During the winter, spring, and autumn, the subjects received much of the daily light exposure in the morning and early afternoon. Regarding melatonin, a seasonal variation was observed with a larger peak level during the winter and higher levels in the morning at 07:00.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the results from other naturalistic studies by reporting on the diurnal and seasonal light exposure patterns for a group living at a northern latitude of 56° N, with large annual variations in photoperiod length. It seems to be seasonal variation in the lighting conditions, both concerning intensities as well as regarding the pattern of the light exposure to which people living at high latitudes are exposed which may result in seasonal variation in the circadian profile of melatonin.

  • 17.
    Adamsson, Mathias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Laike, Thorbjörn
    Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Morita, Takeshi
    Department of Environmental Science, Fukuoka Women’s University, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Comparison of Static and Ambulatory Measurements of Illuminance and Spectral Composition That Can Be Used for Assessing Light Exposure in Real Working Environments2019In: LEUKOS The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, ISSN 1550-2724, E-ISSN 1550-2716, Vol. 15, no 2-3, p. 181-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable measurements are of utmost importance when investigating the relationship between light and human reactions. The aim of the present study was to compare two methods for measuring light exposure in real working environments. Ambulatory recordings of illuminance and irradiance were compared with static field measurements of horizontal illuminance at the normal working position, average horizontal illuminance in the room, vertical illuminance at the position of the eye in the normal angle of gaze, and spectral composition of the light radiation at the normal working position and at the position of the eye in the normal angle of gaze. The ambulatory measurements were carried out during a 3-day experimental period and were repeated monthly throughout the year. The static field measurements in the subjects’ offices were conducted five times during the year, in the morning and afternoon during one day. The relationship between the illuminances and irradiances measured with the portable instruments and the static measurements was statistically analyzed. Results from the analyses revealed that more than one third of the static measurements of vertical illuminances recorded were below 200 lx, and only 7% of the measurements exceeded 1000 lx. Measurements of the spectral composition of the light radiation in the rooms suggested that the light, although at a fairly low intensity, included relatively much radiation that can have a non-image forming effect. Furthermore, only a small number of significant correlations between the ambulatory and static measurements were found. Results from the t-tests showed that there were no differences between ambulatory measurements, and static measurements of horizontal illuminance at the normal position, average illuminance in the room and vertical illuminance at the position of the eye during three, five, and seven of the 10 measurements, respectively. There is a need to define appropriate parameters in order to describe the quality of a lit environment with respect to the non-image-forming effects of light radiation.

  • 18.
    Adamsson, Mathias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Laike, Thorbjörn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Morita, Takeshi
    Fukuoka Women's University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Seasonal variation in bright daylight exposure, mood and behavior among a group of office workers in Sweden2018In: Journal of Circadian Rhythms, ISSN 1740-3391, E-ISSN 1740-3391, Vol. 16, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate seasonal variation in mood and behavior among a group of office workers in Sweden (56°N). Thirty subjects participated in this longitudinal study. The subjects kept a weekly log that included questionnaires for ratings of psychological wellbeing and daily sleep-activity diaries where they also noted time spent outdoors. The lighting conditions in the offices were subjectively evaluated during one day, five times over the year. There was a seasonal variation in positive affect and in sleep-activity behavior. Across the year, there was a large variation in the total time spent outdoors in daylight. The subjects reported seasonal variation concerning the pleasantness, variation and strength of the light in the offices and regarding the visibility in the rooms. Finally, the subjects spent most of their time indoors, relying on artificial lighting, which demonstrates the importance of the lighting quality in indoor environments. 

  • 19.
    Adamsson, Mathias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Petersson, Mikael
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Aries, Myriam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    A holistic approach for a natural light variation experience: a pilot study of a practical application for office lighting2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lighting is crucial for vision and has important effects beyond vision, influencing a variety of physiological and behavioral processes. When designing lighting, visual aspects, effects beyond vision, and perception of the environment should be considered together in a holistic approach. As humans evolved under daylight, a lighting protocol, based on a room context and daylight characteristics, was developed and described. The lighting, with customized light levels, spectral composition and light distribution that changed dynamically to evoke a perception of daylight conditions, was realized using commercially available luminaires and a digital control system. The resulting lighting conditions are described by measurements.

  • 20.
    Adanko, Carina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Built Environment.
    Küller, Marianne
    Lunds universitet, LTH, Inst arkitektur och byggd miljö, Miljöpsykologi.
    LED-belysning och brukaren2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lighting research is diversified and includes theory and methodology from disciplines as different as technology, medicine and social sciences. There is also an expectation on research results to be directly applicable in real environments. The introduction of LED has furthermore made previous research on incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps and other light sources, outdated.    New knowledge – and new research – is needed.

    An inventory of current LED-research was made during 2013. The result of this inventory is the basis of the research review here presented. The presentation includes more than 400 articles, reported under the headings: The biological clock; Flicker and dimming of LED: Energy efficiency: daylight and lighting control; Colour rendering; Glare, and finally; Perceived lighting qualities.

    Underlying theoretical considerations as well as actual knowledge are presented in the text of the different sections, and references are given to relevant research publications. All publications have been provided with two or more keywords in Swedish, describing the content of the publication. After the text given under each heading the references supporting this text are presented. In the final section all LED-publications are given in alphabetical order according to author and with keywords. 

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    Adanko, Küller LED-belysning och brukaren
  • 21.
    Afza, Zukhrook
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Förstå BIM acceptans i ett utvecklingsland sammanhang: Fallet med Bangladesh's första BIM konsultverksamhet2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 22.
    Agnesson, Stina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Bagger-Sjöbäck, Josefina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    PREFABRICERADE SMÅHUS PLANLÖSNINGAR: En jämförelse mellan tillverkare och kund2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet är att analysera utformningen av planlösningarna i prefabricerade småhus. Resultatet ska kunna utnyttjas som underlag vid planlösningsutformning och möjliggöra planlösningar med färre kundändringar.  

    Metoder som används är litteraturstudier, intervjuer och en fallstudie. Fallstudien är gjord med material från företaget Anebyhus som tillverkar prefabricerade småhus. Ur en av deras kataloger valdes tre olika hus med snarlika förutsättningar. Det som analyseras är tillverkares och kunders prioriteringar samt de vanligaste kundändringarna. Problemet är att om kunden ska bli nöjd med den slutliga planlösningen måste kunden och tillverkaren ha liknande kvalitetsprioriteringar. Ändringar som återkommer frekvent är ett tecken på en svaghet i ursprungsplanlösningen.

    Resultaten visar att tillverkare av prefabricerade småhus möter kundernas behov och önskemål genom prioriteringar av livslångtboende och flexibilitet i planlösningen. Kunderna visar prioritering av mer bänkytor i köket, vardagsrummet storlek och samband till köket och att alla i familjen ska få varsitt sovrum. De kundändringar som förekommer mest frekvent är minskning av antalet klädkammare, sammanslagning av teknik och klädvård samt att ändra till en U-formad köksuppställning. 

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    fulltext
  • 23.
    Agriam, Pia
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Socialt hållbart boende2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We need more research about what gives man good conditions for quality of life in a home environment. Social sustainability is a topic that is cherished more than ever in the world of architectures. The goal is to develop a knowledge base based on the experiences of users, architects and clients that can be used for the design of residential areas with apartment buildings.

    To achieve the goal there are questions to be answered as: "How is socially sustainable housing valued, according to architects and clients, when residential areas with apartment buildings are designed?" and "How are the values of social sustainability perceived, in residential areas with newly constructed apartment buildings, of the residents?" The questions are answered by means of an survey and several of interviews which together constitute a qualitative research.

    The results show that social sustainability can be seen from different angles. It is common to observe social sustainability from a community perspective and from an urban perspective according to scientific references. As an overall summary it is the beautiful shape and appearance of a building and its functionality weighed in with a reasonable cost that creates a socially sustainable housing according to interviews with architects and clients. It is about balance between beauty, functionality and economy, which together create a housing that lasts over time and confirms the human social dignity. According to those living in the area of Nysäter in Mölnlycke as the studied phenomenon, socially sustainable housing stands for comfort, security, privacy and community. Access to nature and outdoor activities, fresh air and good neighbourship are other factors that are highly valued. Socially sustainable housing has therefore connections to both physical parameters as well as non-physical qualities that needs to be linked with each other.

    The summarized results highlight the essential aspects that should be included in the planning of a new residential complex for it to be socially sustainable for residents. The knowledge base has a logical order from analyzing an unspoilt area with its qualities to analyze how the private residence must meet human needs for well-being.

    The Report is wide in its choice of subject tough it is limited to man's relationship to the dwelling and residential area in social contexts, how individuals perceive their environment both in and outside their home. With additional constraints had a deeper research been able to implement on a specific theme.

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  • 24.
    Ahlander, Alfred
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Ekroth, Pontus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Kommunikationsmodell för APD-plan vid användning av materialrutor och gångstråk2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: On-site construction is a complicated process. A temporary factory, with new zones for materials and workplace area must be established for each new project, which complicates the process further. Material management stands for a big saving opportunity in building projects and 40 % of the time lost on a construction site can be attributed to material management.  To overcome this waste connected to material management a well-processed logistics planning, god communication as well as experience feedback from previous projects is required. The aim for this thesis is therefore to identify improvement measure regarding the use of material-dedicated buffer zones and walking paths, and as well as create a model of communication that supports experience feedback.

    Method The thesis is a case study on two projects within the organization of NCC.  A qualitative data collection with literature review, interviews, document analysis and observation has been conducted. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted and includes seven respondents with different position within the construction industry.

    Findings: The thesis has produced factors that should be taken into consideration when material zones and walking paths are planned. The result shows that resources and structured processes are required if experience feedback should work during the construction project. To succeed with the use of material-dedicated buffer zones and walking paths, good communication of the construction site plan is needed. Furthermore, the thesis has resulted in a model of communication that supports experience feedback.  

    Implications: It’s during the purchase and delivery planning that the conditions for the material-dedicated buffer zones and walking paths are set, therefore the construction site planning should be involved more in this phase. A prerequisite for using dedicated material zones and walking paths are resources which supports the construction management with planning and performance. By using logistic resources within the organization facilitates planning and management of material at the construction site, enables that collected experience can be conveyed between projects. In the production there should be a responsible receiver of material deliveries, who is extra briefed in the constructions site plan and the material-dedicated buffer zones through continuous communication with the construction management and logistic resource.

    Limitations: Since the thesis only includes two building projects, there is a limitation of the factors and arguments that are treated. Although the result is based on two building projects the fundamental processes and course of events are similar and can therefore be applied on other building projects. 

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  • 25.
    Ahlberg, Oskar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Hultgren, Patrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    KL-träbyggnad utan heltäckande väderskydd - Ett mer fuktsäkert förfarande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to produce a template for how to design CLT buildings moisture-safer and to make recommendations for a moisture-safe working method. CLT is a new building material where there is a need for standardization to meet the requirements and recommendations that exist. Greater consideration needs to be given to moisture in order for people's hygiene and health not to be affected.

    Method: By collecting data using a case study of a multi-story house in CLT, material handling as well as design of framework and weather protection are shown. Design of framework appears through document analysis of design documents for three CLT house projects. Furthermore, the industry's approach and experience are disclosed through interviews of people with different subject-relevant knowledge.

    Findings: By, in the early design stage, prioritizing moisture safety for both construction- and use stages the risk of moisture-related problems is reduced. Furthermore, it should be continuously and jointly worked with moisture safety between disciplines in the project. Building components to take special account of and measures to do this are presented as well as recommendations for a more moisture-proof working method.

    Implications: The results of the study should be a complement to ByggaF, this is because the result specifically addresses CLT. Through implementation, the hope is that the result will reduce the risk of moisture-related problems in CLT buildings. Furthermore, higher requirements should be set on moisture safety in CLT construction, as the result of the current working method is unknown and the precautionary principle should be applied.

    Limitations: The study's result, in form of the design template that is generated, are mainly applicable to architects and designers as only the framework is investigated. The result is generally applicable for new-construction of multi-story buildings in CLT which are constructed in Sweden. Furthermore, measures to reduce the risk of moisture-related problems are being investigated and does not refer to people's influence by microbial growth.

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    KL-TRÄBYGGNAD UTAN HELTÄCKANDE VÄDERSKYDD - Ett mer fuktsäkert förfarande
  • 26.
    Ahlgren, Ahlgren
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Ekblad, Alexander
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Förvaltande byggherrars inställning till BIM2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    fulltext
  • 27.
    Ahlgren, Josef
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Klintenheim, Johannes
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Uppvärmning och miljöpåverkan: -en jämförelse mellan fjärrvärme och bergvärme i villa2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many of todays studies show that district heating is one of the betteralternatives as heating source because of its low environmental load.

    The energy source is often leftovers from other processes producing energy or waste, like garbage or chips.

    Electricity in combination with geothermal heating is another heating system that has increased sharply during the last years, and also this system decreases the discharges that have negative affects

    on the environment compared to several other heating methods.

    This report aims to, concentrated towards these two different heating systems, estimate the amounts of discharges they indirect cause and how the environment is affected.

    We have calculated the mean value for discharges of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulphur oxide and dust generated from electrical power used in Sweden.

    Through interviews and research we have gained data for the same substances that district heating based on combustion of garbage and biofuel generates.

    We have also in cooperation with a housing company chosen a building we see representative for many of the new single-family houses built in Sweden today.

    Based on its shape and appearance we theoretically created three alternatives of the same house, each of them with climate screens different from each other.

    Together with the amounts of discharged environmental affecting substances, these houses were the base for our calculations and studies when investigating the different heating sources environmental effect.

    The results have thereafter been analyzed and discussed from different angles.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 28.
    Ahlstedt, Simon
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Poomann, Siim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Uppgradering av prefabricerad villa till passivhus, baserad på en husmodell från Götenehus AB2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rising energy prices, growing energy use and the current climate debate is a major contributing factor to today's search for new, more economical ways to use energy. The Swedish national building and planning department (Boverket) places greater demands on energy use in new housing. Local governments also place specific requirements on certain residential housing projects in addition to the requirements of Boverket, i.e. only passive houses may be built in certain areas. The terms passive house, zero-energy house and plus-energy house are becoming increasingly common in the construction industry and house manufacturers want  to offer products that meet these new requirements.

    This thesis examines whether it is possible to upgrade a pre-fabricated house so that it meets the requirements to be classed as a passive house according to FEBY (translated - Forum for energy-efficient buildings). The study is based on established calculation and production techniques used in Götenehus AB, a manufacturer of prefabricated homes. A case study based on the upgrade of a house from Götenehus is performed and the results are compared with the original house from energy and economic points of view. The production stage is also taken into consideration to see if the engineering solutions required for the upgrade can be produced with the methods in use today.

    The methodology used to process the subject have been literature studies, a case study, own calculations and consultations with staff at Götenehus and other people, who have knowledge on the subject. Energy calculations have been made using the energy  calculation software TMF-Energy v2.1, which Götenehus currently uses to calculate the energy performance of their houses. The results show that it is possible to upgrade the original house to meet the requirements for passive houses with changes made in the building envelope and heating and ventilation systems. The solution presented includes changes in all parts of the building envelope and replacement of the ventilation and heating systems. Instead of the exhaust air heat pump in the original house, a district heating system in combination with solar panels are used. The ability to combine different systems has been limited to the combinations that were available in the calculation software. The results also show that the investments needed for construction and installations are not financially justifiable. Also, the running costs for the passive house are bigger. The energy consumption for the passive house remains the same as in the original house.

  • 29.
    Ahlstrand, Sanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Bender, Johanna
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Nordström, Linn
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    A more efficient way of building in a developing country, influenced by industrialized building: A case study in Leticia, Colombia2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:The purpose of this study is to approach a solution to reduce housing shortage, by using inspiration from an industrialized building concept, which can lead to the opportunity for underprivileged people to get a livable housing. The aim is to study how knowledge from industrialized building could be used for a more efficient way of building in developing countries similar to Colombia.

     

    Method:Utilizing literature studies for achieving abutment to published research also giving the authors an observant mind. With this knowledge, participatory observations were made as action research to explore the prevailing procedure when establishing a house. Operating analyzes, interviews were held in Leticia for understanding observed decisions. To be able to critically analyze the results from the interviews and observations, collected data were compared with knowledge based on the authors’ reference frames.

     

    Findings:Keystones identified as the overall concept are applicable on establishments in the western world, since the concept is designed after similar conditions. Capital is required designing a building system as well as establishing a factory for prefabrication of elements, conditions limited in developing countries. Climate conditions and prevailing corruption prevents implementation of the concept. Identified weaknesses during the observations, noted repetition of unnecessary and non-value adding activities. One conclusion is not to implement the entire industrial building system, only practice the mindset. Initially keystones are implemented such as planning, exchange of information and reflection of performed projects, in order to improve upcoming projects. These keystones require no direct capital, merely a mindset that should be implemented.

     

    Implications:The outcome of this study is to enlighten the subject, since obvious weaknesses were noticed, with capacity for development. Further research is realistic because, in a long term it will help solving the housing situation. For example, using this result as underlay for education like creating more efficient building, enlightening planning for reducing unnecessary non value-adding activities. As a conclusion of the study, identified weaknesses during the establishment affects the efficiency, creating unnecessary costs. A developing country should focus upon emphasizing reduction of costs, since their economic status is already declining.

     

    Limitations: The observations during the case study have been concentrating on one small-scaled project in Leticia, Colombia. No further observations have been made but complements such as literature studies and interviews. Due to lack of time and language barrier, the amount of collected empirical data was too limited to provide durable conclusions for question formulations. Since only observations were performed on one establishment, a general result cannot be submitted.

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  • 30.
    Ahlström, August
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Elsberg, Mathias
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Nollvisionen om pappersritningar i byggbranschen - Hur kan en 3D-modell bli bygghandling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    bilaga
  • 31. Ahmad, Rojin
    et al.
    Josefsson, Hiba
    Identifying BIM uses for Key Performance Indicators2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a building can be measured using a set of criteria, called Key Performance Indicators (KPI), linked to different features in a project. In the construction industry there are both subjective and objective KPIs, depending on what the main requirements are. The assessment of these KPIs are often related to building information modeling (BIM) which serves as a simulation method for mostly environmental and economical issues, meanwhile less options are available for evaluating qualitative indicators. This study aims to develop a process map in which a project manager can understand when different KPIs occur in a design process and how to make subjective KPIs measurable, thus usable for a BIM tool. Furthermore, an ideal process map is suggested to visualize appropriate BIM uses. The investigation of a case (Solar Decathlon Europe 2019) served as a test bed for identifications of subjective and objective KPIS. Documents analysis revealed a number of subjective KPIs which were further validated through semi-structured interviews with team members and leaders. Results showed that not all KPIs could fulfill the criteria of being comparable, collectable and measurable and it also proved that the evaluations of the different contest areas were subjective. Moreover, the results also indicates that the processes of the competing teams were lacking since not all necessary KPIs were taken into consideration. The overall process model graphically illustrates the process of design including when the KPIs occur and which Level Of Detail (LOD) is required. In conclusion, the contest itself is evaluated based on subjective opinions although most of the contest areas can be measured in a quantitative way. 

  • 32.
    Ahmad, Rojin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Selmani, Antigona
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Arbetsmotivationens påverkan på kvaliteten på flerbostadshus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Several studies show that work motivation in a workplace affects the individual's ability to perform and this may result in construction errors such as unnecessary economical costs and additional work hours. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between construction errors and work motivation as well as its impact on the quality of an apartment building. Method: To complete the objective of this study literature studies, questionnaires and interviews were conducted. The literature study includes scientific articles, doctoral dissertations and encyclopedias. These are taken from, among other things, the university library databases. The surveys consist of 21 questions based on Herzberg's two-factor theory. The interviews are semi-structured and the questions are based on the results of the survey. Findings: The results show that the link between work motivation and construction errors depends on knowledge, experience, commitment, stress and time shortage, communication, chord, salary, benefits and lack of leadership. In the construction companies that were included in this study, there is a lack of motivation among professionals, and the reasons for this are mainly due to benefits from the company and chord wages. The building-related consequences that result from motivation decline prove to be economical and time-consuming. The economic consequences show huge error costs. The time suggests that errors and shortcomings in homes lead to additional working hours in order to correct the errors that occurred during the production period. Restrictions: The study includes ongoing housing projects in Jönköping where supervisors and occupational workers are current. Question one is generally answered when it is not considered corporate, as is the last question. Issue two, on the other hand, only applies to these investigated projects.

  • 33.
    Ahmadi-Naghadeh, Reza
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Liu, Tingfa
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Vinck, Ken
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Jardine, Richard J.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Kontoe, Stavroula
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Byrne, Byron W.
    Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    McAdam, Ross A.
    Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    A laboratory characterisation of the response of intact chalk to cyclic loading2022In: Geotechnique, ISSN 0016-8505, E-ISSN 1751-7656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the cyclic behaviour of chalk, which has yet to be studied comprehensively. Multiple undrained high-resolution cyclic triaxial experiments on low-to-medium density intact chalk, along with index and monotonic reference tests, define the conditions under which either thousands of cycles could be applied without any deleterious effect, or failure can be provoked under specified numbers of cycles. Intact chalk’s response is shown to differ from that of most saturated soils tested under comparable conditions. While chalk can be reduced to putty by severe two-way displacement-controlled cycling, its behaviour proved stable and nearly linear visco-elastic over much of the one-way, stress controlled, loading space examined, with stiffness improving over thousands of cycles, without loss of undrained shear strength. However, in cases where cyclic failure occurred, the specimens showed little sign of cyclic damage before cracking and movements on discontinuities lead to sharp pore pressure reductions, non-uniform displacements and the onset of brittle collapse. Chalk’s behaviour resembles the fatigue response of metals, concretes and rocks, where micro-shearing or cracking initiates on imperfections that generate stress concentrations; the experiments identify the key features that must be captured in any representative cyclic loading model.

  • 34.
    Ahmadi-Naghadeh, Reza
    et al.
    Architecture and Civil Engineering Department, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Toker, Nabi Kartal
    Civil Engineering Department, Middle East Technica University, Ankara, Turkey.
    A new isotropic specimen preparation method from slurry for both saturated and unsaturated triaxial testing of a low-plasticity silt2019In: ASTM geotechnical testing journal, ISSN 0149-6115, E-ISSN 1945-7545, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 854-879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new procedure for the preparation of low-plasticity silt specimens that are isotropically reconstituted from slurry is developed for use in both saturated and unsaturated soil testing. Spatial variations of the water content and grain size distribution were examined to confirm the uniformity of the specimens (regarding void radio and segregation). The new preparation method results in a homogeneous specimen, which has a simple stress history. The repeatability of the proposed method in preparing identical specimens was verified for both saturated and unsaturated soil testing. The strength and volumetric behavior of specimens prepared by the introduced method are compared with those of moist-tamped compacted specimens and one-dimensionally reconstituted slurry specimens by performing consolidated drained triaxial tests. The microstructure of the specimens prepared with different methods was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry. The test results indicate that silt specimens could exhibit either dilative or contractive behavior at normal consolidated conditions, depending on the microstructure.

  • 35.
    Ahmadi-Naghadeh, Reza
    et al.
    Architecture and Civil Engineering Department, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Toker, Nabi Kartal
    Civil Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Exponential Equation for Predicting Shear Strength Envelope of Unsaturated Soils2019In: International Journal of Geomechanics, ISSN 1532-3641, E-ISSN 1943-5622, Vol. 19, no 7, article id 04019061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An exponential equation is introduced to predict the nonlinear variation of shear strength with matric suction for unsaturated soils. The proposed equation involves three constant parameters, two of which are effective shear strength parameters (i.e., ′ and c′). The third parameter is the maximum capillary cohesion, c″max, which is the maximum possible increase in shear strength due to matric suction. A procedure for the determination of c″max from the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) is devised. The proposed equation is validated through a series of constant-suction consolidated drained triaxial tests conducted on specimens reconstituted by isotropic consolidation from the slurry state. In addition, the validity of the equation is investigated by applying it to the test results of five other soils that were available in the literature for the low-suction range (i.e., up to 1,500 kPa). A comparative study on the prediction of shear strength was carried out between the proposed equation and six other shear strength equations found in the literature. The results show that the proposed equation provides reliable predictions of the shear strength of unsaturated soils when the shear strength converges to an asymptotic value at the residual water content.

  • 36.
    Ahmadi-Naghadeh, Reza
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Toker, Nabi Kartal
    Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Volume change measurement in triaxial testing of unsaturated soils2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Ahmadi-Naghadeh, Reza
    et al.
    Civil Engineering Department, Istanbul Aydin University, Küçükcekmece/istanbul, Turkey.
    Toker, Nabi Kartal
    Civil Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Cankaya/Ankara, Turkey.
    Volume change measurement in triaxial tests by monitoring cell fluid volume based on viscoelastic behavior of the test setup2017In: ASTM geotechnical testing journal, ISSN 0149-6115, E-ISSN 1945-7545, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 683-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel procedure was developed to measure the total volume change of the unsaturated soils in triaxial testing. The principle of the proposed method was based on cell fluid volume measurements corrected by the assumption of viscoelastic behavior for the triaxial setup. Calibration and parameter determination procedures of the model are devised, and the presented model is implemented into a MATLAB code. The proposed method was validated through a series of consolidated drained triaxial tests on saturated specimens, by comparing the changes in volume measurement of proposed method and conventional measurement (pore fluid). The accuracy in volume measurement during consolidation and shear stages of these tests was between 0.09 and 0.32 cm3, which is on par with or better than more complex and expensive alternatives found in the literature. Repeatability of the proposed technique in measurement of the volume change was also investigated through a series of suction controlled unsaturated soil tests.

  • 38.
    Ahmadi-Naghadeh, Reza
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, METU, Ankara, Turkey.
    Toker, Nabi Kartal
    Department of Civil Engineering, METU, Ankara, Turkey.
    Ahmadi-Adli, Mohammad
    Department of Civil Engineering, METU, Ankara, Turkey.
    Water content controlled instead of suction controlled strength tests2013In: Life Science Journal, ISSN 1097-8135, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 2023-2030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most soils that concern geotechnical engineering are in the state of partial water saturation. Current practice tries to predict engineering properties of cohesionless soils using data from tests on saturated specimens, regardless of the saturation in the field. Due to complexity of test setups and high technical requirements, unsaturated soil tests are not among the common equipment of soil mechanics laboratory. One of these problems is the existence of suction, which is a function of water content and affects the strength behavior of unsaturated soils. Procedures to keep the water content of the partially saturated specimens constant and homogeneous in conventional soil tests are not well-established. The exception to this is unsaturated test setups, which are costly, complicated and found only in research institutions, hence prohibiting the industry from keeping up with the developments in this field. This study explores simple modifications to conventional methodologies of triaxial and direct shear tests, with the ultimate aim of preventing temporal and spatial variability of specimen water content throughout test duration. For different modifications, specimens of each test are dissected at the end of the test, and water content profiles of the specimens are obtained.

  • 39.
    Ahmadi-Naghadeh, Reza
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Toker, Nabi Kartal
    Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Ahmadi-Adli, Mohammad
    Department of Civil Engineering, METU, Ankara, Turkey.
    Water content variability of unsaturated soil specimens in conventional strength tests2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Ahmadkhani, Ali
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management (CeLS).
    Reverse side of logistics in automotive industry2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The third party logistics (3PL) providers play remarkable function in the business world of today’s; therefore, to investigate their challenges will be a valuable study. This study has investigated the challenges and ways to manage these challenges by a 3PL provide company. The achieved results are in coordination with the literature to some extent.The most important challenges are cost, flexibility, professionalism, and quality ofservices. In managing the 3PL challenges, theoretical views mostly tend to apply distinguished approaches, tools and algorithms. Meanwhile, in the case study, it has not introduced any specific approaches or algorithm, but mostly proposed the traditional approaches, such as doing researches and investigations, or Motivation Management. 

  • 41.
    Ahmed, Mohamed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Hassan Abdi, Nasteho
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Kommunernas planering och arbete med översvämningsrisker i lågstråk vid befintlig bebyggelse2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Many cities in Sweden have many low points in their terrain and areaffected by heavy rain. Urban sprawl often exacerbates the problem by increasing theamount of paved surfaces while reducing available land for stormwater treatment. Thismeans that stormwater flows that need to be managed can be very heavy and drainquickly. It is therefore important that cities achieve long-term sustainable stormwatermanagement that can cope with current and future climate change. This report willexamine how Karlstad and Växjö municipalities are working and planning for theincreased risk of stormwater and study the different solutions currently in use.

    Method: This report began with a literature study to deepen knowledge and get a goodbase. In order to answer the research questions, two case studies and three interviewswere conducted with respondents from the Water and Wastewater Departments ofVäxjö and Karlstad Municipality. One expert was also interview. Document analysiswas then carried out based on the plan description, sustainability index and thestormwater study in order to obtain as comprehensive material as possible.

    Results: The planning and work started with the preparation of a flood mapping and afirst impact assessment. No full action plan has been prepared by the consultedmunicipalities. In order to start the work, Karlstad will employ a rainfall coordinator.Most common solutions used in municipalities are treatment ponds, levellingreservoirs, street management and renewal of the sewerage and stormwater system. Aspecial solution in Växjö is the reduction of stormwater tax. Location, knowledge, laws,time and the cooperation of the water department with property owners and otherdepartments in the municipality are important elements that influence theimplementation of different solutions.

    Analysis: From the results it can be concluded that the municipalities are working andplanning well with the increased risk of rainfall in low-lying areas. However, morework can be done by producing an action plan adapted to these areas. The solutionapplied depends on a number of factors. These factors are adding safety factors tostormwater facilities and increasing the capacity of the pipeline system. The work iscontinued through good cooperation the different technical facilities in themunicipalities but also property owners as it often leads to a good and carefullyprepared solution. The municipalities explain that using cost-effective solutions isimportant because the funding comes from the water and wastewater departments tax.It is speculated that a change in the law allowing the water and wastewater departmentto receive funding for stormwater measures would have minimized flood risks.

    Discussion: The results are considered useful because the municipalities can learn fromeach other's planning and work as well as help each other in developing sustainablestormwater solutions. The result promotes a better understanding of the factorsunderlying the chosen solutions. The generalization of the results can be questioned asit is site-specific. However, it can be applied because it increases understanding of howto address a similar problem in another location or municipality. 

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  • 42.
    Ahrenbeck, Linnea
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Holmström, Josefin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Varför vill inte fler vara skyddsombud på byggarbetsplatser?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A stated problem in the construction industry is to recruit and keep safety officers. The lack of willing and engaged safety officers could result in lower safety at construction sites. The purpose of this report is to examine how the safety officers are currently experiencing their work environment and examine what can be changed to improve the situation. 

    The aim of this thesis is to find out what can be improved for more people to want to be a safety officer. This is examined by the main question: Why do not more people want to be a safety officer? The main question is answered by two sub-questions:

    • Which difficulties exists in the role as a safety officer? 
    • What changes needs to be done to improve the situation?

    Method: To reach the aim of the report a case study was performed. The case is Skanska Hus Väst and is limited to the profession safety officers. The method of investigation is interviews and questionnaires, which are qualitatively conducted. The interviews are conducted with the chief safety officers. The chief safety officers can see the broad picture of the situation since they continuously keep contact with all the construction sites in their district. The questionnaires are sent to all the local safety officers in all the districts in the entire region. 

    Findings: One reason for the lack of engaged safety officers is that they do not receive the necessary respect and response from their coworkers. It makes them feel alone. There is no acceptance for safety work and the time that is needed, which give the safety officers a bad conscience when they are forced to leave their work partner. To improve the situation the safety officer’s must receive more respect from their coworkers. Knowledge and acceptance concerning safety must be improved among all workers on the construction site. The safety officers need to feel that they can, and are allowed to, influence the project. 

    Implications: To solve the problem the current safety officer’s situation must be improved. If the existing safety officers are pleased they will give a positive picture of the role to their coworkers, the potential new safety officers. The safety officers’ situation can be improved by the points that follows:

    • The safety officers must receive more respect from others in the construction site. 
    • The safety officers should advantageously be placed separate from the time plan of the project.
    • The safety officers should be involved in an earlier stage of the project. 

    Limitations: The report has been limited to only examining the role of the safety officer and their own perspective. The views of safety officers from the perspective of other roles at the construction site has been omitted from the thesis. The report does not investigate how to perform the changes.

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  • 43.
    Akdogan, Sibel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Fherm, Marcus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Indigenisera begreppet hållbarhet hos byggföretagen2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Today's society is constantly moving towards a more conscious and committed attitude about working increasingly sustainable. To ensure that the construction industry with both major environmental and societal impact is involved, there are standardized legal requirements and environmental certifications that need to be met by the construction companies. The purpose of the study is therefore to investigate factors for how medium-sized construction companies can best implement sustainability work. The aim of this qualitative study is to focus on ecological and economic sustainability as well as how construction companies can implement increased sustainability work in their daily work. The study was conducted at a medium-sized construction company in the Jönköping area.

    Method: The methods used in this study are proven methods such as literature study, interview study and document observations for data collection. The literature study is used as a bedrock for the interview study and document observation since the early literature study is used as a preliminary study in the subject. Interviews and document analysis are applied to provide information where there is lack of knowledge.

    Results: After the methods have been applied, it is evident that the sustainability work is only applied according to legal requirements when no higher demands are made by the client or the company. The construction company have abstract goals that are difficult to interpret by the recipient, the employee. It is also shown that the knowledge among employees is low and the perceived amount of training in sustainability in the company is low. The case company has no designated "sustainability officer", questions and suggestions can be emailed to an email address, but there is no clear procedure for how these suggestions should be dealt with.

    Consequences: The sustainability work has been passive; the present state is based on the absence of sustainability requirements from the permanent organization. The need of more clear goals and concrete descriptions of how to meet the goals are also needed. There are also no requirements from the permanent project organization. There are rarely requirements from the client, which means that the sustainability work is often only applied to the extent of time and with the site manager's own set requirements and goals. The knowledge about sustainability is thin among the employees concerned, which has meant that own decisions regarding sustainable choices could not be made and possibly affected the commitment to the construction company. Employees felt that it needed fewer choices, clear routines and requirements regarding sustainability work.

    Limitations: The study focuses on ecological and economic sustainability; social sustainability has been excluded as it affects people's conditions in society. In this study, ecological sustainability will not be specified, the study will research commitment and important parameters to successfully sustainability work. The exact direction that the company should take, or has taken, will not be determined in this study. 

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    Indigenisera begreppet hållbarhet hos byggföretagen
  • 44.
    Al Doory, Omar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management. Jönköping University.
    Freytag, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management. Jönköping University.
    Developing waste-to-energi in Brazil: A pre-feasbility study for a waste-to-energi plant in Santa Catarina, Brazil2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 45. Al Hassan, Rami
    Underlätta utvärderingen av digital beläggning genom undersökning av en semantisk datastruktur för BIM-baserad FM2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The operational phase maintains the largest proportion of the building’s lifecycle cost. Moreover, the costs of the operational phase in a building’s lifecycle could be five to seven times higher than the initial investments. However, studies show that energy savings can be between 30-42% by performing occupancy detection in buildings. Therefore, this research paper is focused on assisting and facilitating BIM-based FM integration for occupancy assessment to support various evaluations of a building. The chosen approach to reach the aim of this study is the semantic web technology, considering the advantages it can provide in contrast to other web services such as SOAP or RESTful. A case study was conducted of a room located in the first floor of the school of engineering (JTH) building at Jönköping University. The case study investigated the data structure for the technologies which might be installed in the room later and the geometrical information of it. The used ontology in this study is RealEstateCore (REC). Furthermore, a literature review was conducted to investigate the occupancy information which can be gained by the technologies in that room. Results show that presence, location and count of occupancy can be obtained by CO2, temperature and WiFi positioning technol-ogy. However, every sensor has some exclusive properties and constraints for occupancy detection and estima-tion. Thus, the fusion of various sensors is an advantage as it can significantly increase the efficiency of indoor occupancy assessment. Also, the semantic web provided homogeneous data format that allows for greater in-teroperability between the BIM information and those technologies information. Moreover, REC ontology pro-vided most of the required semantics to describe room A and the CO2 and temperature sensors it might contain. However, the ontology lacked some of the required semantics to satisfy the description of the WiFi positioning system. Thus, extending the ontology to satisfy those required semantics is needed to reach more optimized results of the semantic web.

  • 46.
    Al Masalmeh, Omar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Al Kass Youssef, Daoud
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Construction Engineering and Lighting Science.
    En numerisk analys av olika scenarier som påverkar släntstabiliteten för en del av projekt Lappen 19 i Munksjöstaden2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 47.
    Al Rammal, Monica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Karabeg, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Kartläggning av sex kommuners planering av kollektivtrafiken i nya bostadsområden inom Jönköpings län2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Today we can see a steady increase in population, which calls on the municipalities to plan new residential areas and develop the old ones. This in turn leads to pressure on public transport with a focus on environmental issues and a desire for a different way of transport than by car becomes more and more relevant. The purpose is to give an overview and to understand the planning of public transportation today for six municipalities in Jönköping County.

    Method: The report has been conducted using qualitative studies in the form of interviews and literature studies. Document studies have also been used and have been downloaded from the municipalities' websites. Findings: When planning new residential areas, the municipalities try to bring public transport into account. In some municipalities, public transport has a more significant part in planning. If the municipality fail to achieve the aims of public transport planning, it will mainly result in negative environmental impacts. For the municipality to develop and make sure that the number of inhabitants increases, public transport should be an important part of the planning. When it comes to the cooperation between Jönköpings Länstrafik and the municipalities, they focus on public transport and that It will cover the need for travel in the municipalities. It is important that you already in the early stages of planning make sure that there is room for the public transport that is required.

    Implications: Public transport must continue to be a major part of planning and focus should be on realizing what is planned for public transport. Although the municipalities are planning public transport, there are residential areas that could have a significantly better access to public transport.

    Limitations: As time was not enough for a study covering all 13 municipalities in Jönköping County, it was decided to focus only on six municipalities with different circumstances and varying sizes.

  • 48.
    Alaouir, Taima
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Orahem Gorge, Etana
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Investigating Inventory Management Strategies Within Food Cold-Chain During Crises: Case Study on IKEA Food2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recently, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, supply chains experienced an unprecedented disruption on a global scale, negatively affecting both upstream and downstream organisations. Those disruptions have created operational and demand uncertainty. During the pandemic, restrictions on movements, productions, operations and transportation were experienced in the food supply chain, which affected the flow and processes of food. The primary purpose of inventory is to serve as a buffer between supply and demand, especially when it comes to stochastic demand. Issues that are associated with inventory management are considered to be a challenge for management at many companies. Therefore, it is essential to look into how environmental uncertainty affects inventory and further explore strategies to improve inventory management performance within crises circumstances.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to explore inventory management strategies during environmental uncertainty through inventory techniques, technological innovation, as well as human resources to improve inventory management performance.

    Method: A single case study at IKEA Food was conducted and an exploratory and qualitative research design was chosen for this study. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with eleven individuals from different departments and positions. The data were later analysed with the help of thematic analysis.

    Conclusion: This study has highlighted changes in consumers behaviour under uncertainty and its effect on inventory. Later, an assessment of the three inventory management strategies and their impact on inventory management performance during environmental uncertainty was presented. Lastly, an overarching strategic challenge within all three strategies was identified. 

  • 49.
    Alashkar, Zeen
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Andersson, Stephanie
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Vägnätsanalys i Jönköping: Fokus på cykelvägarna2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In a world with an increased awareness of the harm caused by traffic to the environment and health, it is preferable that more people choose cycling instead of driving. The purpose of this work is to create an attractive city environment for cyclists which will give a greater sense of security and leading to more people considering the use of bicycles. Method: The methods chosen to make the analysis is to check the demands and recommendations from Trafikverket, moreover make observations according to Mini Cycleability Index in order to see if the West Center of Jönköping is attractive to cyclists. Geographical Information systems has been used as a method for data collection and analysis. At last an interview was held with Jönköping municipality to discover what future plans they have regarding the studied area and how relevant the plans are with the findings of this research. Further purpose of the interview with the municipality was to see how they perform a road-network analysis and obtain an opinion on the analysis performed in this paper. Findings: The results show that the road system in Jönköping West Center has roads of shifting qualities. The grades have been split into three; great, good and poor. Great being the highest grade and poor the lowest. The three qualities of roads do exist within the area, however the poor roads appear to be more frequent than the others. The evaluation system is built upon how well the roads perform in the categories: space, safety and continuity. Implications: The conclusion of this work is that there are several roads as graded poor within the area that need to be considered for reconstruction to create an attractive area for cyclists. In the area the results showed that the roads graded as great mostly runs from north to south and few exists from east to west. Due to this it is difficult to bike within the area as the connectivity between the great graded roads are lacking. Limitations: The investigation is limited to the choice of the area (Jönköping West Center) and the aspects analyzed which are safety, space and continuity. Due to the time aspect further limitations on data collection has come, where a measurement of cyclists and a survey could have been useful to do. In order to suit the Cycleability index with the choice of area and the methods available to use, there has been a reduction of the amount categories evaluated

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  • 50.
    Albertsson, Nils
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Isak
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Påföljder av inbyggd fukt i konstruktionselement av korslimmat trä2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In spring 2023, two engineering students from Jönköping University collaborated with GBJ Bygg Jönköping to investigate the impact of moisture on cross-laminated timber (CLT) and its drying process. The study aimed to identify potential issues, damages, and propose mitigation methods. Through measurements and investigations, this study generated in-depth knowledge of moisture effects on CLT, ensuring proper material handling to avoid long-term negative consequences.The methodology involved quantitative investigations to obtain credible results. Experiments simulated the application of wet macadam on a CLT floor slab in a natural environment to measure time to reach an acceptable moisture content. Collaboration with GBJ Bygg provided access to information, materials, and simulation facilities. Two tests were conducted: immediate construction after placing washed macadam and a 9-day drying period before reconstruction. Results showed that direct macadam application led to high timber moisture content, while drying according to industry recommendations resulted in low moisture content without negative consequences. The drying process varied depending on reconstruction timing, and methods like extending macadam drying time were proposed to reduce damages and shorten the drying period.The discussion of results demonstrated data relevance with limited room for misinterpretation. However, the study's time frame limited complete results, and the lack of prior research on timber drying affected connections to previous studies. The clearest answer came from the 9-day drying test, showing a decrease in moisture content. Some measured values deviated, possibly due to measurement errors. Facility climate and construction execution posed potential error sources. Despite limitations, the experiment effectively addressed the study's purpose and research questions.

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    Påföljder av inbyggd fukt i konstruktionselement av korslimmat trä
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