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  • 1.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Chen, Shengbin
    College of Ecology and Environment, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China.
    Sun, Shou-Qin
    Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu, China.
    Molau, Ulf
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bryophyte cover and richness decline after 18 years of experimental warming in Alpine SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Bryophytes in the Arctic and Alpine regions are important in terms of biodiversity, cover and biomass. However, climate change and widespread shrubification of alpine and arctic tundra is predicted to increase in the future, with potentially large impacts on bryophyte communities.

    2. We studies the impact of 18 years of experimental warming with open top chambers (OTCs) on bryophyte cover, richness and diversity in an alpine mesic meadow and a heath plant community in Northern Sweden. In addition we investigated the relationship between deciduous shrubs and bryophytes.

    3. Cover and richness of bryophytes both declined due to long-term warming, while diversity did not show any significant responses. After 18 years, bryophyte cover had decreased by 71% and 26 in the heath and meadow, while richness declined by 39% and 26%, respectively.

    4. Synthesis. Decline in total bryophyte cover in both communities in response to long-term warming was driven by a general decline in many species, with only two individual species showing significant declines. Although most of the species included in the individual analyses did not show any detectable changes, the cumulative change in all species was significant. In addition, species loss was slower than the general decline in bryophyte abundance. As hypothesized, we found significant negative relationship between deciduous shrub cover and bryophyte cover, but not bryophyte richness, in both plant communities. This is likely due to a more delayed decline in species richness compared to abundance, similar to what was observed in response to long-term warming.

  • 2.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Čuchta, Peter
    Academy of Science of the Czech Republic.
    Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 18161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness.

    The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change.

  • 3.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Molau, Ulf
    Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 10197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

  • 4.
    Ali, Arshad
    et al.
    East China Normal University.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bai, Yang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Qatar University.
    Diversity-productivity dependent resistance of an alpine plant community to different climate change scenarios2016In: Ecological research, ISSN 0912-3814, E-ISSN 1440-1703, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 935-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report from a experiment imposing different warming scenarios [control with ambient temperature, constant level of moderate warming for 3 years, stepwise increase in warming for 3 years, and one season of high level warming (pulse) simulating an extreme summer event] on an alpine ecosystem to study the impact on species diversity–biomass relationship, and community resistance in terms of biomass production.

    Multiple linear mixed models indicate that experimental years had stronger influence on biomass than warming scenarios and species diversity. Species diversity and biomass had almost humpback relationships under different warming scenarios over different experimental years. There was generally a negative diversity–biomass relationship, implying that a positive diversity–biomass relationship was not the case.

    The application of different warming scenarios did not change this tendency. The change in community resistance to all warming scenarios was generally negatively correlated with increasing species diversity, the strength of the correlation varying both between treatments and between years within treatments. The strong effect of experimental years was consistent with the notion that niche complementarity effects increase over time, and hence, higher biomass productivity over experimental years. The strongest negative relationship was found in the first year of the pulse treatment, indicating that the community had weak resistance to an extreme event of one season of abnormally warm climate.

    Biomass production started recovering during the two subsequent years. Contrasting biomass-related resistance emerged in the different treatments, indicating that micro sites within the same plant community may differ in their resistance to different warming scenarios.

  • 5.
    Butros, Simon
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Sustainable Development and Science education.
    Lager, Tim
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Sustainable Development and Science education.
    Plussummespela hela vägen till hållbar utveckling – En studie om ”Europas grönaste stad”: Hur Internationella samarbeten driver hållbar utveckling framåt i staden. 2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental threat is a stressing concern which must be addressed immediately. The urbanization has been growing in a rapid pace the past years. Today, more than 50 percent of the world’s population lives in cities, and the forecast tells us that it will increase to 70 percent in 2050. This puts pressure on actors like states, organizations, companies, and municipalities who must work to meet the urbanization immediately. The UN, the EU and WWF amongst others advocates that international cooperation between these actors is the best way to go, and that cities must be prepared for the problem that occurs today and the challenges for tomorrow. In spite of this, there is no substantial research on this topic, on what international environmental cooperation between cities could mean to a city or what the results could be. Växjö is one of few Swedish cities who work internationally with local as well as global ecological sustainable development. This study intends to discover the international cooperations in the topic of environmental sustainable development in the city in Växjö. The purpose is to see what impact the international cooperations have in the environmental work of Växjö, and to see whether environmental sustainable development is being urged on by international collaborations. By using a positive–sum game as a theoretical starting point, a case–study has been conducted, where interviews were made with representatives from Växjö municipal. The result of the study shows that the effects Växjö has obtained through these cooperations, do promote environmental sustainable development. If the collaborations take the form of a positive–sum game, all actors benefit from it and the environment as well. Since the international cooperations bring exchange of knowledge and sometimes external financial means to put into different projects, the city’s environmental sustainable development improves.

  • 6.
    During, Heinjo J.
    et al.
    Utrecht University.
    Verduyn, Betty
    Utrecht University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Biomechanical properties of the terrestrial mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Pogonatum japonicum Sull. & Lesq. along altitudinal gradients in northern Japan2015In: Arctoa: A Journal of Briology, ISSN 0131-1379, Vol. 24, p. 375-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altitudinal gradients along mountain slopes provide valuable opportunities to study variation in plant traits in response to changes in environmental conditions along such  gradients. This study focused on biomechanical traits of two moss species, the more or less horizontally growing Pleurozium schreberi and the erect-growing Pogonatum japonicum, along altitudinal gradients on two mountains in Hokkaido, northern Japan.

    We measured stem diameter in two directions to determine the second moment of area I, used three-point bending tests with free stem ends to determine the slope of the force-deflection curve dF/dx, and used these data to calculate Young’s modulus and flexural rigidity of the stems. Both species showed much variation in all traits among replicates in the samples at each altitude. Environmental variation associated with altitude had more effect on the biomechanical traits of P. japonicum than on those of P. schreberi. Stems of P. japonicum were thicker (larger I) than those of P. schreberi and had a larger Young’s modulus and flexural rigidity. Stems tended to become thinner (lower second moment of area) and less rigid (lower flexural rigidity) at increasing altitude in both species.

  • 7.
    Ekane, Nelson
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mertz, C. K.
    Decision Research (DR), Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decision Research (DR) and University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Kjellén, Marianne
    Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Risk and benefit judgment of excreta as fertilizer in agriculture: An exploratory investigation in Rwanda and Uganda2016In: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, ISSN 1080-7039, E-ISSN 1549-7860, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 639-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the use of psychometric techniques to improve understanding of psychological mechanisms underlying judgment of excreta as fertilizer in agriculture including other excreta related activities. Participants consisted of environmental health students, smallholder farmers and traders in rural and urban Rwanda and Uganda. The finding reveals an inverse relationship between risk and benefit judgments. This relationship holds for the three groups of participants with significant risk-benefit correlations of p<.0001. This finding is consistent with other studies showing that affect plays a key role in risk perception, judgment and decision making.

    Building on this finding, we conclude that individuals with high risk and low benefit judgment for excreta related practices would eschew them or emphasize strict standards. Individuals with a high benefit and low risk judgment would engage in excreta management practices regardless of the actual risks involved. This finding is relevant for risk communication and risk management as it indicates that individuals do not rely only on risk management information they receive concerning excreta and related risks but also depend to an extent on their feelings about these substances when making judgments and decisions regarding the purpose for using excreta as fertilizer and the level of exposure they can tolerate and manage.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Media, Literature and Language Didactics.
    What constraints does animal communication place on human language origins?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Kudo, Gaku
    Hokkaido University.
    Variation in responses to temperature treatments ex situ of the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt.originating from eight altitude sites in Hokkaido, Japan2014In: Journal of Bryology, ISSN 0373-6687, E-ISSN 1743-2820, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 209-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal acclimatisations are important for the survival and growth of individuals and populations but seldom studied for different populations of bryophytes. The aims of this study were to (I) investigate if responses to temperature treatments were independent of the site sampled or if the intra- and interpopulation variation in responses were larger than the responses to the temperature treatments (control, press, and pulse), and to (II) examine if experimental responses varied, depending on the sampled sites.

    We collected samples of the circumpolar bryophyte species, Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt., originating from eight altitude sites on Mt. Oakan in Hokkaido, Japan, and exposed them to three different temperature treatments ex situ for four weeks. Thermal acclimatisation was estimated by measuring responses in growth length increase, biomass increase, number of branches, and the maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm). We found that responses to temperature treatments were dependent of the site sampled, and that differences were most pronounced in the length increase. Results also shows that the responses to experimental treatments may differ between sites. Our results therefore raise important concerns regarding the general validity of both ex situ and in situ experiments when performed on a single or a limited number of sites.

  • 10.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Dead or alive? Testing the use of C:N ratios and chlorophyll fluorescence in vertical shoot profiles to determine depth of vitality and point of senescence in populations of bryophytes2015In: Lindbergia, ISSN 0105-0761, E-ISSN 2001-5909, Vol. 38, p. 4-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bryophytes with indeterminate growth rarely exhibit clearly identifiable modules or age segments, but can be vertically divided into different physiologically active zones, since physiological activity normally declines vertically along the shoot profile depth. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to use C:N ratios (C/N)and/or parameters from chlorophyll fluorescence measurements (e.g. Fv/Fm, Fm or qN)to determine if bryophyte tissue is alive, senescent or dead, and at what distance along the shoot segment profile the moss tissue cease to live. Variation in C:N ratios and chlorophyll fluorescence between sites was also examined. This study shows that it is possible to separate alive, senescing and dead parts of the moss shoots in Pleurozium schreberi, and that chlorophyll fluorescence is a good method to use, whereas C/N varies between sites and species (for Hylcomium splendens and Racomitrium lanuginosum)and does not seem to reflect physiological activity to the same degree.

  • 11.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Effects of LED lighting on animals and in the natural environment and recommendations to minimize the impact2019In: Proceedings of the 8th Professional Lighting Design Convention, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 23-26 October 2019, 2019, p. 98-99Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Calluna AB, Linköping.
    LED-belysningens effekter på djur och natur med rekommendationer: Fokus på nordiska förhållanden och känsliga arter och grupper2018Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Level of knowledge of sustainable development (SD) in the master’s program Sustainable Building Information Management (BIM)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development (SD) is essential to reduce and mitigate climate change impacts, environmental deterioration and to increase social sustainability. SD is therefore highly relevant for the engineering profession and is today found integrated with the higher education of specific engineering programs. This paper investigated the knowledge of SD for students entering the master’s program in Sustainable Building Information Management (BIM) by comparing levels of knowledge at the start and end of the first course Sustainability, Analyses and Simulations. The level of knowledge of SD was analyzed by classifying students’ conceptions of sustainability using SOLO taxonomy and the spectrum of liminality and the threshold concept. Students written responses to the question “What do you know about sustainability?” and written group project reports were used for analyzing levels of knowledge of SD. Levels of knowledge of SD was classified as pre (pre-liminal or pre-structural); uni-structural, multi-structural, relational and post-stages (extended abstract or post-liminal). In total, 68% of the students entering the master’s program in 2017 and 88% in 2018 showed a pre-structural, uni-structural and multi-structural SD knowledge. In general, few students entering the program showed relational and post-stages of SD knowledge, 32% and 12% of the students in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The students at the post-stage were able to express themselves more individually and creatively compared to previous levels in that they could connect the dimensions of SD to the context of SD of buildings, but also argue why SD of buildings was important and they could also suggest actions or tools for improved SD that engineers should use. Only one group of five (in 2017) showed a post-stage level of knowledge in the group project report. It is likely that the student’s general approach to the work with the reports was to mainly cope with the course requirements which is a sign of surface approach to learning. It, therefore, seems reasonable that future developments of the course should ensure that the students use the scientific literature in their group project reports to make it easier for them to understand the relationship between software use and the connection to green buildings certificate systems and SD of buildings. By making it mandatory to include scientific literature in the reports the students will be encouraged to read and think critically, and deeper, and to put the practical implementation of the software analysis results into a scientific context of SD and BIM.

  • 14.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Campus Gotland, Uppsala Universitet.
    Native roadside vegetation that enances soil erosion control in boreal Scandinavia2014In: Environments, ISSN 2076-3298, Vol. 1, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on identifying vegetation characteristics associated with erosion control at nine roadside sites in mid-West Sweden. A number of vegetation characteristics such as cover, diversity, plant functional type, biomass and plant community structure were included. Significant difference in cover between eroded and non-eroded sub-sites was found in evergreen shrubs, total cover, and total above ground biomass. Thus, our results support the use of shrubs in order to stabilize vegetation and minimize erosion along roadsides. However, shrubs are disfavored by several natural and human imposed factors. This could have several impacts on the long-term management of roadsides in boreal regions. By both choosing and applying active management that supports native evergreen shrubs in boreal regions, several positive effects could be achieved along roadsides, such as lower erosion rate and secured long-term vegetation cover. This could also lead to lower costs for roadside maintenance as lower erosion rates would require less frequent stabilizing treatments and mowing could be kept to a minimum in order not to disfavor shrubs.                                                                                                             

  • 15.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Kudo, Gaku
    Hokkaido University.
    Short-term responses in maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) to ex situ temperature treatment of populations of bryophytes originating from different sites in Hokkaido, Northern Japan2016In: PLANTS, E-ISSN 2223-7747, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 455-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge available on the thermal acclimation processes for bryophytes, especially when considering variation between populations or sites. This study investigated whether short-term ex situ thermal acclimation of different populations showed patterns of site dependency and whether the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) could be used as an indicator of adaptation or temperature stress in two bryophyte species: Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid.

    We sought to test the hypothesis that differences in the ability to acclimate to short-term temperature treatment would be revealed as differences in photosystem II maximum yield (Fv/Fm). Thermal treatments were applied to samples from 12 and 11 populations during 12 or 13 days in growth chambers and comprised: (1) 10/5 °C; (2) 20/10 °C; (3) 25/15 °C; (4) 30/20 °C (12 hours day/night temperature).

    In Pleurozium schreberi, there were no significant site-dependent differences before or after the experiment, while site dependencies were clearly shown in Racomitrium lanuginosum throughout the study. Fv/Fm in Pleurozium schreberi decreased at the highest and lowest temperature treatments, which can be interpreted as a stress response, but no similar trends were shown by Racomitrium lanuginosum.

  • 16.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    et al.
    Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Kudo, Gaku
    Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Molau, Ulf
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Effects of neighboring vascular plants on the abundance of bryophytes in different vegetation types2012In: Polar Science, ISSN 1873-9652, E-ISSN 1876-4428, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 200-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the climate change, vegetation of tundra ecosystems is predicted to shift toward shrub and tree dominance, and this change may influence bryophytes. To estimate how changes in growing environment and the dominance of vascular plants influence bryophyte abundance, we compared the relationship of occurrence of bryophytes among other plant types in a five-year experiment of warming (T), fertilization (F) and T + F in two vegetation types, heath and meadow, in a subarctic–alpine ecosystem. We compared individual leaf area among shrub species to confirm that deciduous shrubs might cause severe shading effect. Effects of neighboring functional types on the performance of Hylocomium splendens was also analyzed.

    Results show that F and T + F treatments significantly influenced bryophyte abundance negatively. Under natural conditions, bryophytes in the heath site were negatively related to the abundance of shrubs and lichens and the relationship between lichens and bryophytes strengthened after the experimental period. After five years of experimental treatments in the meadow, a positive abundance relationship emerged between bryophytes and deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs and forbs. This relationship was not found in the heath site. Our study therefore shows that the abundance relationships between bryophytes and plants in two vegetation types within the same area can be different. Deciduous shrubs had larger leaf area than evergreen shrubs but did not show any shading effect on H. splendens.

  • 17.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, VTI, S-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Molau, Ulf
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Ecol & Genet, S-62167 Visby, Sweden..
    Community and species-specific responses to simulated global change in two subarctic-alpine plant communities2015In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 6, no 11, article id 227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term observational studies have detected greening and shrub encroachment in the subarctic attributed to current climate change, while global change simulations have showed that community composition and productivity may shift drastically in arctic, subarctic, and alpine tundra plant communities in the future. However, responses to global change can be highly species-and context-dependent. We examined community-level and species-specific responses to a six-year factorial temperature and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) amendment experiment in two alpine plant communities in northern Sweden: a species-poor dwarf shrub heath, and a more species-rich meadow. We hypothesized that abundance responses to global change would be variable within commonly defined vascular plant functional groups (e.g., forbs, evergreen shrubs, deciduous shrubs) and that new species would appear in experimental plots over time due to the ameliorated growing conditions. We found that within most functional groups, species were highly individualistic with respect to the global change simulation, particularly within the forbs, whereas within the shrubs, responses were neutral to negative and widely variable in magnitude. In the heath community the response of the graminoid functional group was driven almost entirely by the grass Calamagrostis lapponica, which increased in abundance by an order of magnitude in the combined temperature and nutrient treatment. Furthermore, community context was important for species' responses to the simulations. Abundance of the pan-arctic species Carex bigelowii and Vaccinium vitis-idaea responded primarily to the temperature treatment in the meadow community whereas the nutrient treatment had stronger effects in the heath community. Over six growing seasons, more new species appeared in the experimental plots than in control plots in the meadow community, whereas in the heath community only one new species appeared. Our results from two closely situated but different plant communities show that functional groups do not predict individual species responses to simulated global change, and that these responses depend to a large extent on pre-existing physical conditions as well as biotic interactions such as competition and facilitation. It may be difficult to apply general trends of global change responses to specific local communities.

  • 18.
    Melin, Daniéla
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    "Nedskräpning förbjuden": Elever på mellanstadiet resonerar kring nedskräpning, källsortering och föroreningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study is, through focus group interviews investigate what pupils in grades 5-6 can and reason about waste sorting, littering and pollutions. The study examines how sustainable development is presented in the curriculum's introductory parts and curricula, how the three dimensions of sustainability are defined and previous research within the subject. The result that emerged visualizes how 20 pupils at an Eco-School and a non-Eco-school look at littering and sorting waste. The results of the survey indicate that the pupils are well acquainted with today's environmental problems, and they know how to counteract with these. The pupils on the Eco School did remarkably not show more knowledge about for example sustainability. However, it is demonstrated that the majority of the pupils at both schools hold a nonchalant approach to the problems, place these on other individuals and postpone the problems before them. Finally, the study discusses the introduction of a new topic in the curriculum, who carries the responsibility and how the teachers can engage their students to work for a better planet.

  • 19.
    Zwettler, Emelie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Ljungberg, Johanna
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Männsklighetens framtid: Elevers uppfattningar om förutsättningar för männiksans överlevnad2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att beskriva hur fritidshemselever ser på förutsättningarna för mänsklighetens framtid. Då ekosystemtjänster har en viktig roll i människans framtida överlevnad, är frågeställningar således: Vad uppfattar eleverna som nödvändigt för människans överlevnad? Vilka ekosystemtjänster uppfattar eleverna som centrala för människans överlevnad?

    Studien bygger på data insamlade från sju fritidshemselever i årskurs fyra. Data har samlats in genom fotografier som eleverna tagit samt gruppintervjuer som har sin utgångspunkt i elevernas fotografier. Resultatet har analyserats dels utifrån Costanzas et al. (1997) kategorisering av ekosystemtjänster och dels med en fenomenografisk ansats utifrån våra frågeställningar.

    Resultatet indikerar bland annat att eleverna inte ser samband mellan människans överlevnad och beroendet av naturtillgångar samt ekosystemtjänster. Dessutom visar resultatet att eleverna uppfattar familj och boende som mer betydelsefulla för människans överlevnad än vissa naturtillgångar, exempelvis solen. Trots att frågeställningarna berör människans överlevnad talar eleverna främst utifrån ett vi-perspektiv där de ofta utgår endast från sig själva och sin närmiljö. 

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