Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 72
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Amini, Zenver
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Ruya, Nurcan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Studie utav ett larmsystem ur ett signalteoretiskt perspektiv: Study of a detector by a signal detection theory2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In present-day situation many libraries use detectors so that they can be able to prevent attempts too take out books without registering them. The university library in Jonkoping is one of the libraries that have such a detector. But unfortunately it doesn’t always work correct and can also react on other things a part from books. This is a big problem since the library staff don’t have time to check all signals that comes from detector. This paper will focus to help the university library in Jonkoping to identify the causes of the false alarms.

    This paper have the purpose to help library staff to decrease the false alarms so they can be able to get more time over to examine the essential signals from the detector. To be able to identify the causes of the false alarms two experiments was implemented. 180 persons participated, they were divided into three subgroups. In the other experiment 400 persons participated, of whom 200 was female and 200 male. Astonishing to see was that the outcome of the experiments showed that the cause of the false alarms wasn’t the detector, instead the results showed that it was two other factors that affected the detector. One factor was the books that were send from other libraries in Sweden, they hadn’t been unimagnetised and the other reason was the self-service machine.

    In the conclusion and discussion two simple recommendations have been given to help the personnel:

    • To inform all other libraries that send books about the problems that the university library in Jonkoping has with books that aren’t unimagnetised. In this way they will be more careful before they send away the books.

    • To write a note with information about the self-service machine so that the students learn how to use this service.

    These simple recommendations will help the library to decrease the false alarm.

  • 2.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Effects of Visualizing Missing Data: An Empirical Evaluation2014In: 18th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV) / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Mark W. McK. Bannatyne, Francis T. Marchese, Muhammad Sarfraz, Anna Ursyn, Gilles Venturini, Theodor G. Wyeld, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trutschl, Georges Grinstein, Vladimir Geroimenko, Sarah Kenderdine & Fatma Bouali, IEEE conference proceedings , 2014, p. 132-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirical study that evaluates the effects of visualizing missing data on decision-making tasks. A comparison between three visualization techniques: (1) emptiness, (2) fuzziness, and (3) emptiness plus explanation, revealed that the latter technique induced significantly higher degree of decision-confidence than the visualization technique fuzziness. Moreover, emptiness plus explanation yield the highest number of risky choices of the three. This result suggests that uncertainty visualization techniques affect the decision-maker and the decisionconfidence. Additionally, the results indicate a possible relation between the degree of decision-confidence and the decision-maker's displayed risk behavior.

  • 3.
    Antropov, Eliise
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Czapinska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    The effect of information structure consistency on usability on cross-platform services2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Helldin, Tove
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Understanding Indirect Causal Relationships in Node-Link Graphs2017In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 411-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To find correlations and cause and effect relationships in multivariate data sets is central in many data analysis problems. A common way of representing causal relations among variables is to use node-link diagrams, where nodes depict variables and edges show relationships between them. When performing a causal analysis, analysts may be biased by the position of collected evidences, especially when they are at the top of a list. This is of crucial importance since finding a root cause or a derived effect, and searching for causal chains of inferences are essential analytic tasks when investigating causal relationships. In this paper, we examine whether sequential ordering influences understanding of indirect causal relationships and whether it improves readability of multi-attribute causal diagrams. Moreover, we see how people reason to identify a root cause or a derived effect. The results of our design study show that sequential ordering does not play a crucial role when analyzing causal relationships, but many connections from/to a variable and higher strength/certainty values may influence the process of finding a root cause and a derived effect.

  • 5. Barry, D.
    et al.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Caccamo, Marta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Past digital, post-digital2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Benyon, David
    et al.
    Edinburgh Napier University.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Blended Spaces and Cross-channel Ecosystems2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Creativity and Cognition, ACM Digital Library, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a contribution to creativity and codesign based on applying the theory of conceptual integration (also known as conceptual blending, or blending theory) to creative design and collaboration. Our approach is based on bringing the principles of conceptual blending and applying them to the creation of novel spaces, objects and services in creative industries. We couple this with the conceptualization of actor-driven cross-channel ecosystems as the extended digital / physical places where experiences occur.

  • 7.
    Benyon, David
    et al.
    Centre for Interaction Design, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    User experience in cross-channel ecosystems2017In: HCI 2017 - Digital make-believe: Proceedings of the 31st International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2017), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in information and communication technologies have left interaction design and human-computer interaction (HCI) with something of a conceptual gap. The distinction between physical and digital spaces is increasingly blurred. Cloud-based services have enabled a separation of information content from device so that content can be accessed and manipulated across multiple devices and locations. The user experience (UX) frequently needs to deal with activities that transition across physical and digital spaces and ecosystems of devices and services. Designers can no longer prescribe the journey or curate experiences simply as isolated interactions. Instead, UX must be consistently spread across touchpoints, channels, and device ecosystems. Our contribution to the development of UX, interaction design, and information architecture is to appeal to the notions of cross channel user experiences and blended spaces. Information architecture is the pervasive layer that underlies interactions that cross services, devices and blended physical and digital spaces. Information architecture is the structure within which the UX unfolds. From this perspective, we highlight the importance of creating meaningful places for experience and navigation through blended spaces.

  • 8.
    Berg, Samuel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    User Interfaces and Immersion: The Effect Diegetic User Interfaces Have on Immersion in Third-Person Games2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to discover how the use of diegetic user interfaces (compared to non-diegetic user interfaces) affect immersion experienced in third-person video games. The main research question to be answered is: How does the use of diegetic user interfaces in third-person games affect the immersion experienced by players? To answer the main research question, the question was broken down into five different questions and online experiments were conducted. The experiments included six participants in which all of them played two different versions of the same computer game (one non-diegetic version and one diegetic version) as well as a survey (questionnaire) for each of the games including questions about the participants and numerical rating scales (on scales from 1 to 5) about their experiences with the game versions. In general, there did not seem to be a significant between the two versions of the game in terms of immersion. While the results suggest that the non-diegetic versions of the game causes players to become more frustrated, this could possibly just have been a coincidence due to the small sample size, and the difference was not “extreme” either (2.5 compared to about 1.833). Since the p-value generated was 0.32291 regarding frustration, which is several times more than 0.05, it suggests the statistical significance of the result is low. Enjoyability seemed to be about the same for the two versions of the game as well, and the variance was quite small compared to some other results (about 0.556). The variance regarding the visuals seems relatively small as well (0.25 to about 0.472) which tends to suggest that it might be unlikely that the non-diegetic user interface is heavily disliked. It might even be preferred. Either way, the results do not seem to be statistically significant.

  • 9.
    Bergman, Mikael
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Hertzberg, Tim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    User Experience för mobila applikationer på iPhones med stora skärmar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Smartphone screens have in recent years increased greatly in size. This has created problems for the user experience. Thus, the purpose of the study is:

    How mobile applications for smartphones with larger screens should be developed in the future to provide as good UX as possible.

    In order to answer the purpose it has been broken down into three research questions:

    Which parameters (type of objects) are most affected by different screen sizes?

    Depending on the screen size, are different layouts preferred?

    How much of the screen can be reached by one handed use?

    Method

    A study of literature is made to answer the first research question. It became the basis of a questionnaire in the form of an application, which answered the study's second and third research questions. The test subjects ranked different layouts depending on their perceived user experience. The tests were conducted on an iPhone 4S and an iPhone 6S Plus to evaluate the differences between different screen sizes.

    Findings

    The study concluded that it is important to place essential items within the user’s reach when one hand is used. Items placed at the edges or corners of the screen are often difficult to reach on a larger screen, which means that avoiding such placement is preferred.

    Implications

    The study can both be of service in future research on user experience and reach, but also give recommendations on what is important to take into consideration when developing mobile applications for smartphones with larger screens.

    Limitations

    Since the study was conducted over a limited period of time there was no opportunity for more tests.

  • 10.
    Bulovas, Paulius
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Motion graphics - the future of web UX: How can motion graphics be used as a tool to improve data representation and UX for information comprehension?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of motion graphics being used as a tool for information

    comprehension and user experience altering is examined by studying a case of

    PIM (product information management) system comprehension on Capo AB

    website. The research questions to be answered are how can motion graphics be

    used as a tool to be designed for data representation to improve user experience

    as well as does motion graphics provide better information comprehension for the

    user than text and image. Seven interviewees were given a task to read

    information provided at capo.se website about PIM system and later on watch a

    motion graphic video explaining it. After completing the task, the participants

    were interviewed about their experience while doing the assignment. The data

    transcribed from the interview provided with insight about emotions, attitudes

    and thoughts towards different learning sources for new information. All of the

    interviewees thought that having motion graphic video explaining information

    about company’s service would create a better UX than images and text.

    Nevertheless, the participants said that the combination of both methods would

    provide the ultimate experience, since motion graphics provided the users with

    the ground knowledge about the subject, but written text could help them deepen

    it. The thesis studies the user experience perceived by the participants from

    different learning sources and concludes that motion graphic video can be used as

    a tool to represent information and create better UX for the user, mostly due to

    the fact that users find it easier to comprehend, and more interesting.

  • 11.
    Burford, Sally
    et al.
    University of Canberra, Australia.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Cross-channel Information Architecture for a World Exposition2017In: International Journal of Information Management, ISSN 0268-4012, E-ISSN 1873-4707, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 547-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports an investigation and assessment of the digital information, provided via multiple channels, for the 2015 World Exposition (Expo) in Milan. Using emerging theoretical constructs in cross-channel information architecture as a lens, the researchers examined aspects of the digital information ecology that supported the Exposition event. This study focused, firstly, on how well information and its structure maintain a coherence that is useful and meaningful to its target audience across various technologies and platforms. Secondly, it attended to the means and mechanisms for moving from one information artefact to another and it comments on the ease with which global audiences traversed the multiple channels that formed the information environment of Expo 2015.

  • 12.
    Creutz, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Nilsson, Angelica
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Virtual Teams: A Five Trigger Approach to Technology Adaptation2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    Curtin University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rehnberg, Anette
    The Swedish Transport Administration.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University.
    Visual search strategies of pedestrians with and without visual and cognitive impairments in a shared zone: A proof of concept study2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 57, p. 327-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared zones have gained increasing popularity in urban land use and design as a means of incorporating the needs of multiple modes of transport, while at the same time promoting social interaction between users. Interactions within shared zones are based on a set of informal social protocols, communicated via eye contact and social cues. This proof of concept study utilised eye-tracking technology to examine the visual search strategies of individuals, with and without visual and cognitive impairments as they navigated a strategically chosen shared zone. In total 3960 fixations were analysed and the fixations were distributed across the shared zone and a pedestrian crossing. Those with impairments were more likely to fixate on traffic specific areas and objects compared to those without, suggesting that they required more input ascertaining when and where it was safe to perform tasks. However, the duration of fixation was not significantly different for an object whether it was traffic related or not, indicating a global need for increased processing time of the surrounding environment. Shared zones are claimed to increase driver awareness and safety and reduce congestion, but the implications on participation and safety for those with visual and cognitive impairments is yet to be extensively explored.

  • 14.
    GIllbo, Maja
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Ahlkvist, Linda
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Skeuomorphic vs flat design: A comparison of preferences of design techniques between two generations2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare two visually opposite design techniques:

    skeuomorphic design, recognizable for its realistic presentation, and flat design, an abstract design

    option that has gained popularity in the last years. The two designs were compared using two

    generations of Internet users to find out what the preferences were for each generation. A

    knowledge gap was found in which design that would be the most beneficial to use for each

    generation.

    Methodology: To fulfill the purpose of the study, two methods were used; a literature study and

    an empirical study. The empirical study included experiments, interviews and questionnaires. The

    participants were contacted personally or via social media. All participants were in the age of 20-30

    or 65+.

    Findings: Based on the collected literature and empirical evidence, it was concluded that the older

    generation of users might tend to prefer the skeuomorphic, realistic design online. Bright colors

    and a pedagogical style creates a good visual for elderly eyes and inexpert of using internet. The

    younger generation might tend to prefer the flat and abstract way of design online. A modern

    appeal with less clutter compared to the skeuomorphic style is considered beneficial. This opens up

    for further investigation.

    Implications: The empirical study included 20 people, who all participated in the experiment,

    interviews and answered questionnaires. The study groups consisted of 10 persons at the age span

    20-30 years and 10 persons at the age span of 65+ years.

    Limitations: The study was only focused on two specific age groups with a small population

    found through convenient sampling. This means that in the future, the research could be

    conducted in a broader matter including more age groups and a larger population with a more

    specific sampling. The study's extent was affected by the time period in which it was executed. A

    longer period of time could have contributed to a more extensive study, perhaps with additional

    age groups and more participants in each group.

  • 15.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Understanding situational and mode awareness for safe human-robot collaboration: case studies on assembly applications2019In: Production Engineering, ISSN 0944-6524, E-ISSN 1863-7353, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for humans and robots to collaborate on an assembly line, safety of operations is a prerequisite. In this article, two assembly stations where a large industrial robots collaborate with humans will be analysed with the aim to 1. determine the characteristics of hazards associated with human-robot interaction and 2. design solutions that can mitigate risks associated with these hazards. To support the aim of this article, a literature review will attempt to characterize automation and detail the problems associated with human-automation interaction. The analysis points at situational awareness and mode-awareness as contributing factors to operator and process safety. These underlying mechanisms, if recognised by the risk assessment team as hazards, can mitigate risks of operator injury or production delays. This article details the function of visual and physical interfaces that allow operators to comprehend system-state in order to avoid undesirable situations. 

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, William
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Effects of social media on creativity: How Instagram usage can influence the creativity of graphic designers2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media is growing fast and the usage have become more frequent and well adopted by many industries including the field of graphic design. How social media is influencing the users is a regularly discussed topic with many different standpoints and opinions. This study investigates how the usage of the social networking service Instagram amongst graphic designers can affect creativity. This is a study with an inductive, exploratory approach where a quantitative online survey study and three qualitative semi structured interviews have been carried out in order to gather empirical data. An extensive literature study on research concerning creativity, social media usage and other related subjects are presented in the theoretical background. Several individuals have taken part in the survey study which have laid the foundation for the interview design. The gathered data have been analyzed by using a univariate analysis and a thematic analysis. The findings of the study entails that the usage of Instagram amongst graphic designers can serve to influence, either enhance or undermine, several aspects of creativity and the creative process. This influence can take place through the exposure of content on Instagram, through the relations amongst users and through functionalities presented by the platform. The sampling for the participants have been done with convenience sampling, which have limited the generalization that could be done from the results.

  • 17.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Falkman, Göran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Byttner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nowaczyk, Slawomir
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Supporting analytical reasoning: A study from the automotive industry2016In: Human Interface and the Management of Information: Applications and Services: 18th International Conference, HCI International 2016 Toronto, Canada, July 17-22, 2016. Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Sakae Yamamoto, Springer, 2016, p. 20-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the era of big data, it is imperative to assist the human analyst in the endeavor to find solutions to ill-defined problems, i.e. to “detect the expected and discover the unexpected” (Yi et al., 2008). To their aid, a plethora of analysis support systems is available to the analysts. However, these support systems often lack visual and interactive features, leaving the analysts with no opportunity to guide, influence and even understand the automatic reasoning performed and the data used. Yet, to be able to appropriately support the analysts in their sense-making process, we must look at this process more closely. In this paper, we present the results from interviews performed together with data analysts from the automotive industry where we have investigated how they handle the data, analyze it and make decisions based on the data, outlining directions for the development of analytical support systems within the area.

  • 18.
    Hervall, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Håkansson Lindh, Viktor
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Mobildejting – ett spel på fullt allvar: Den mobila dejtingupplevelsen och hur spelifiering påverkar användarmönstret2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of online dating applications is constantly increasing, and have risen in popularity in Sweden the last years. It has become a tool for people to meet new friends, network, find the love of their lives or just something to pass time with.

    Gamification is a concept that has become increasingly common and widely used and it ́s a tool to engage the user and motivate them by using simple game

    mechanisms.

    With this essay we aim to examine for what reasons young adults on the Swedish market use online dating applications, and what their user pattern looks like. The second main aim is to scrutinize their attitude towards gamification and how it

    affects their user patterns.

    We gathered data via an online survey on purpose of using dating applications and user experience. Based on the result of the survey we conducted two focus group interviews to examine how gamification influence the user pattern. The result is presented through an analysis of the data from the survey and focus group interviews related to scientific theories about the user experience, experience

    design, co-experience, habit formation and gamification.

    The result from our survey reveals that users today have a casual attitude towards dating applications. It is often used to network, meet new friends but also to initiate romantic relationships. Dating applications provides an experience that is open to form after the users own need and purpose of use. Finally, it may also be noted that gamification is an important tool to incorporate in dating applications to enhance the usage of the applications, and for creating addictive user patterns. However, gamification should be applied with some finesse, due to that too much and tangible gamification tend to give a frivolous impression, as well as preventing

    users to interact with each other.

    This study will serve as a general guideline to understand how and why young

    and it may also serve as general guidelines on how gamification could be implemented in the dating applications,

    by viewing it through the eye of the user. 

  • 19.
    Huhnstock, Nikolas Alexander
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Steinhauer, H. Joe
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    An Infinite Replicated Softmax Model for Topic Modeling2019In: Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 16th International Conference, MDAI 2019, Milan, Italy, September 4–6, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Yasuo Narukawa, Gabriella Pasi, Marco Viviani, Springer, 2019, p. 307-318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe the infinite replicated Softmax model (iRSM) as an adaptive topic model, utilizing the combination of the infinite restricted Boltzmann machine (iRBM) and the replicated Softmax model (RSM). In our approach, the iRBM extends the RBM by enabling its hidden layer to adapt to the data at hand, while the RSM allows for modeling low-dimensional latent semantic representation from a corpus. The combination of the two results is a method that is able to self-adapt to the number of topics within the document corpus and hence, renders manual identification of the correct number of topics superfluous. We propose a hybrid training approach to effectively improve the performance of the iRSM. An empirical evaluation is performed on a standard data set and the results are compared to the results of a baseline topic model. The results show that the iRSM adapts its hidden layer size to the data and when trained in the proposed hybrid manner outperforms the base RSM model.

  • 20.
    Jensen, Marina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Conversion Rate Optimization: A Qualitative Approach to Identifying Optimization Barriers2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examined the question “What barriers are preventing Swedish companies from performing a structured conversion rate optimization process?”. As the purpose is to obtain an understanding of what is preventing companies from successfully execute conversion rate optimization (CRO). Given that CRO is an important part in most digital marketing activities. And despite increase in budget and importance in marketing, resource constraint continues to be the biggest obstacle. 

    The method employed to investigate this question was qualitative interviews with participants who worked with websites in seven different companies. An analysis was carried out, estimating the participating companies’ level of knowledge, overall structure, what to prioritize and current obstacles.

    It was established that the interviewees had several different areas of concern with regards to conversion rate optimization. Limited time, budget, priorities, knowledge, ownership, structured approach and interpreting data, were all treated in the analysis. A discussion was carried out to argument the definition of “biggest” barrier, as some barriers were more common than others but easier to overcome. Overall, these obstacles could all be traced back to barriers as prioritization, structure and ownership.

    The conclusion was that companies must have a more structured working process within the area of conversion rate optimization in order for this practice to be prioritized as a substantial part of companies online marketing activities.

  • 21.
    Kiunsi, Domina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Serious gaming as a tool to describe a user-centred design process2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The design of software products or services with good user experience (UX) requires a good understanding of the people the product is intended for. One of the design processes that places emphasis on the needs of the people is the user-centered design process. This study creates a serious game as a tool to learn the user-centered design process in order to create awareness of user-centered design practices among UX and non-UX practitioners. To accomplish this, design science research methodology is adopted to allow creation of the game by describing the problem, defining the game requirements, designing and developing the game and finally demonstrating and evaluating it. The evaluation of the game was conducted in three main areas, one to assess the content of the game, the second to assess the functionality of the game and the third to assess the learning potential of the game. Based on the results of the evaluation conducted it is revealed that the content presented is adequate and the participants are able gain concepts about the user-centered design activities, the roles involved in such a process and the various UX techniques employed.

  • 22.
    Klyn, Dan
    et al.
    University of Michigan, School of Information.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Does form really follow function? Learning from Louis Sullivan2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Kostadinova, Mila Dimitrova
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Embaye, Natalie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Augment App: Potential Implications on E-commerce: A Multi-Case Study on Swedish Online Fashion Retailers2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Retail is shifting from physical shopping experience to a more online experience. However, the transition is not happening without pains and both consumers and companies alike face challenges when it comes to utilizing all the benefits that the flexibility brings. One of the biggest issues that the online fashion industry is facing, is product evaluation and the resulting high returns rate. Customers are unable to fully evaluate the products due to, for example, insufficient information, faulty information and the fact that size guides are not reliable, which are incentives for the customers to send the products back. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to investigate and determine what the key challenges that the online fashion companies face related to their most common product evaluation tools and what effects those challenges have on the companies. Further, this thesis evaluates how implementing an augmented reality tool, the Augment app would affect those challenges. Finally, this study investigates how implementing the Augment app would affect the Swedish online fashion retailers’ competitiveness. To answer these questions, a qualitative multi-case study was conducted with three Swedish online fashion retailers. Conducting an embedded multi-case study allowed for meaningful and generalizable findings as it allowed for both within-case analysis as well as cross-case analysis.

    The results of the study found that companies face challenges in regards to providing quality customer service, ensuring e-satisfaction as well as reducing the high percentage of customer product returns for the Swedish online retailers. Further, the study found that the Augment app could not automatically solve all of the challenges on its own. Rather, the Augment app would act as a complement to the current product evaluation tools and be a most welcome addition. Further, by implementing it, a company could build sustainable competitive advantage.

  • 24.
    Lacerda, Flávia
    et al.
    Brazilian Federal Court of Accounts (TCU), Serzedello Correa Institute (ISC), Brasília, Brazil.
    Lima-Marques, Mamede
    The Modal Institute of Science, Technology and Innovation, Brasília, Brazil.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    An information architecture framework for the Internet of Things2018In: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper formalizes an approach to the Internet of Things as a socio-technical system of systems and a part of the infosphere. It introduces a principle-based, human-centered approach to designing Internet of Things artifacts as elements of contextual cross-channel ecosystems. It connects the Internet of Things to the conceptualization of cross-channel ecosystems from current information architecture theory and practice, positing that the Internet of Things is both a formal, objective superset of any given ecosystem and a contextual, subjective subset of specifically instantiated ecosystems. The paper argues for the necessity of a transdisciplinary theoretical framework to promote a human-centered generative understanding of the Internet of Things phenomena and their consequences, in accordance with the Metamodel Methodology (M3). It proposes a phenomenology-grounded information architecture model detailing a set of 16 principles and secondary heuristics grouped according to an architectural perspective, which identifies guidelines that support the design of Internet of Things artifacts considering their objective characteristics; a human perspective, which identifies guidelines that support the design of Internet of Things artifacts considering subject/object relationships and the production of meaning; and a systemic perspective, which identifies guidelines that support the design of Internet of Things artifacts as relational parts of information-based ecosystems. These principles and guidelines are meant to provide the foundations for a practice-based approach to designing the Internet of Things–enabled information ecosystems.

  • 25.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Thill, Serge
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Interacting with Artificial Agents2015In: Thirteenth Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence / [ed] Sławomir Nowaczyk, IOS Press, 2015, p. 184-185Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lindenfalk, Bertil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Mapping an ambient assisted living service as a seamful cross-channel ecosystem2019In: Service design and service thinking in healthcare and hospital management: Theory, concepts, practice / [ed] M. Pfannstiel & C. Rasche, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 289-314Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we detail a spatial method to map cross-channel ecosystems based on systems thinking and the framing of cross-channel ecosystems as defined in information architecture. The spatial mapping tool is applied on a specific case in the ambient assisted living domain with the goal of exploring how such an approach might further the current understanding of service journeys and their connection to environmental, organizational, and actor-related aspects represented through information flows. Specifically, we discuss how organizations and care institutions could use such an approach to better understand the larger ecosystems in which they are to act in the future. Findings include the strategic role that seams present in the ecosystem map where a thorough design of seams allows to capture possible logical fallacies plaguing the ecosystem. Additionally, seams allow an organization to understand what part of the ecosystem they have influence over and when actors make the organization’s touchpoints an integral part of the activities they intend to perform. Specifically for the services mapped in this chapter, the ecosystem map shows the interplay between tablet and the oven and hob and to which users adhered to the most during service processes.

  • 27.
    Lindh, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Beyond a skeuomorphic representation of subtractive synthesis2018In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Aachen: CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2068, article id 135062Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This proposition paper wants to raise the issue of design ideology within the field of music software that recreates vintage analogue synthesizers using subtractive synthesis. There is a clear dominance of a skeuomorphic design ideology regarding the Graphical User Interface (GUI) within this field. The suggested study aims to research if this is a correct choice in terms us usability, accessibility and intuitiveness. The suggestion is to conduct a series of A/B tests of custom prototype UIs on three predefined groups of users. Group A, with a previous knowledge of analogue hardware synthesizers, Group B, with a knowledge of music software but limited experience with analogue hardware synthesizers and finally Group C, with a limited knowledge and experience of both music software and analogue hardware synthesizers. The prototype GUIs will be made using a skeuomorphic design paradigm as well as a flat design paradigm that also incorporates a couple of new ideas in terms of input controls. The A/B tests will be complemented with semi-structured interviews with the participants.

  • 28.
    Lindh, Matilda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Kihlberg, Emma
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Är Emoji morgondagens marknadsföringsverktyg?: En studie om Emojis påverkan på digitala annonser2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Lindqvist, Gustav
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Processers påverkan på ett gränssnitts användarvänlighet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To see how different processes during the development of a User Interface affect the quality of its user-friendliness.

    Method – Case study with interviews and contextual observations and a design process where several iterations of prototypes was used. Lastly an analys where the process used during the development is studied and the quality of the User Interface is valued from a number of defined factors.

    Findings – The study shows that a design process with a focus on user-friendliness requires a lot of work beforehand and takes longer before an actual result kan be achieved while a process where user-friendliness is not a focus gives faster results but creates problems in the future because of a lower quality on the user-friendliness of the User Interface.

    Implications – The study shows that a while process with a focus on user-friendliness takes more resources and time in the beginning it produces a higher quality of work which saves time and resources in the future. The study therefor other studies of how a user-friendly User Interface can and should be developed.

    Limitations – The study lacked an opportunity to do testing in the User Interface’s real environment and is instead based on theories based on ISO’s definition of Quality in use instead of user tests which could have given a more credible result. The study also only studies two different processes and their result.

  • 30.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Falkman, Göran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    A Teamwork Model for Fighter Pilots2016In: Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 13th International Conference, EPCE 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17-22, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Don Harris, Springer, 2016, p. 221-230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter pilots depend on collaboration and teamwork to perform successful air missions. However, such collaboration is challenging due to limitations in communication and the amount of data that can be shared between aircraft. In order to design future support systems for fighter pilots, this paper aims at characterizing how pilots collaborate while performing real-world missions. Our starting point is the “Big Five” model for effective teamwork, put forth by Salas et al. [1]. Fighter pilots were interviewed about their teamwork, and how they prepare and perform missions in teams. The results from the interviews were used to describe how pilots collaborate in teams, and to suggest relationships between the teamwork elements of the “Big Five” model for fighter pilots performing missions. The results presented in this paper are intended to inform designers and developers of cockpit displays, data links and decision support systems for fighter aircraft.

  • 31.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Falkman, Göran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Elements of team effectiveness: A qualitative study with pilots2016In: 2016 IEEE International Multi-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), IEEE Computer Society , 2016, p. 21-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter pilots performing air missions rely heavily on teamwork for successful outcomes. Designing systems that support such teamwork in highly dynamic missions is a challenging task, and to the best of our knowledge, current teamwork models are not specifically adapted for this domain. This paper presents a model of task performance for military fighter pilots based on the teamwork model “Big Five” proposed by Salas, Sims, and Burke [1]. The “Big Five” model consists of eight teamwork elements that are essential for successful team performance. In-depth interviews were performed with fighter pilots to explore and describe the teamwork elements for the fighter aircraft domain. The findings from these interviews are used to suggest where in the task cycle of mission performance each teamwork element comes in to play.

  • 32.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Saab Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Falkman, Göran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    User Participation in the Design of Cockpit Interfaces2017In: Advances in Ergonomics Modeling, Usability & Special Populations / [ed] Marcelo Soares, Christianne Falcão & Tareq Z. Ahram, Springer , 2017, p. 51-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the nature of user participation in the process of designing fighter aircraft cockpits. The role of the users, i.e. pilots, in the design of cockpit interfaces is explored. We present the results of an on-line questionnaire with twelve designers of cockpit interfaces for fighter aircraft. The results show that the designers have highlighted the need for more opportunities to observe the pilots, and they wish to obtain more information and ideas from them. Moreover, a larger involvement from users as examiners and testers in the evaluation process was desirable. Access to users was considered unproblematic and the risk of misunderstandings was reported to be low. Moreover, the designers did not support the idea that users should design or take design decisions.

  • 33.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Ghost in the Shell: Navigation, meaning and place-making in information space2013In: Classification and visualization: interfaces to knowledge: Proceedings of the International UDC Seminar 24-25 October 2013, The Hague, The Netherlands / [ed] A. Slavic, A. Akdag Salah & S. Davies, Würzburg: Ergon-Verlag, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Space and place are two very different concepts: one, the base experience of embodiment, objective, impersonal, undifferentiated; the other, a way of being “there” that includes memories, experiences, emotions, and behaviours associated with a specific context. While space simply “is”, place is an unstable, transient construct. The author points out that spatial reasoning shapes the way we perceive and understand the world: we not only get around with a map and compass, but we “get out” of difficult predicaments. We also navigate the Web, or “go to Google”. What about places then? If our house is certainly a place, what about Facebook? With an average 25 hrs/week spent online in the EU, does our sense of place stretch out from homes and offices to include our mobile phones, tablets and digital alter-egos in a continuum that permeates every moment of our lives? Should it? And if so, how is this different from the Internet we have known so far? Following this line of thought the author looks into filmic and videogame language, literature, comics, pop references and Japanese anime. He uses a number of examples to explain the transition from digital to postdigital. He argues that the old approach of a literal representation of reality will be replaced with a continuum of abstract grammars which will play a key role in place-making and navigation in complex information environments.

  • 34.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Groundhogs in the Source Code2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Of old, narrative and storytelling were used to weave useful pieces of information into stories that could be handed down orally, generation after generation. These stories were often conceived in the form of quests, rhythmically built on redundancy and interlacement and laid out on a map.

    In the past hundred years, storytelling has progressively distanced itself from this model: mechanical reproduction of music, images, movement, and text has transformed the language of communication across these media and channels, turning seamless immersion into self-conscious reflection, physical struggles into psychological tensions, and traveling the world into traveling emotional landscapes.

    Organizing space to represent or visualize experiences is a fundamental human trait, so, in what is both a predictable but unexpected turn of events, the Web, mobile, and digital media have brought once again spatial thinking, journeys, and quests center stage. Navigable space can both represent physical spaces and the abstract information spaces of Facebook or Uber, but what kind of space are we talking about? Some 21st century version of MS Bob? Some glorified FPS?

    Using such examples as Bram Stoker’s Dracula, published in 1897, camp musical videos from the early 1980s, early 1990s videogames, and Hollywood movies, this talk argues that as digital and physical blend into unstable cross-channel experiences our conceptualizations shift towards direct manipulation and understanding of abstract navigational and place-making grammars, rather than towards literal, skeumorphic representations of the real.

  • 35.
    Resmini, Andrea
    University of Bologna.
    Information Architecture Modeling for Historical and Juridical Manuscript Collections2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    It's the end of the world as we know it (and I feel fine)2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Les architectures d’information (Architectures of Information)2013In: Etudes de Communication, ISSN 2101-0366, no 41, p. 31-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper maintains that in the epistemological shift from postmodernism to pseudo-modernism, technological, economic, social, and cultural elements of change have thoroughly transformed the scenario in which information architecture operated in the late 1990s and have eroded its channel-specific connotation as a website-only, inductive activity, opening the field up to contributions coming from the theory and practice of design and systems thinking, architecture, cognitive science, cultural studies and new media. The paper argues, through a thorough discussions of causes and effects and selected examples taken from the practice, that contemporary information architecture can be thus framed as a fundamentally multi-disciplinary sense-making cultural construct concerned with the structural integrity of meaning in complex, information-based cross-channel ecosystems.

  • 38.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Luoghi ed ecosistemi: Vivere il post-digitale2015In: I media digitali e l’interazione uomo-macchina / [ed] Arcagni, S., Ariccia: Aracne editrice, 2015, p. 111-137Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Making Places2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Mapping Cross-channel Ecosystems2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Per una storia breve dell'architettura dell'informazione2013In: Problemi dell'informazione, ISSN 0390-5195, no 1, p. 63-76Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Placemaking in Information Architecture2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Prufrock, Malbork, and Yorkshire Tea: a conversation on conversations2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Rapid cross-channel prototyping2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Rapid cross-channel prototyping2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Reframing Information Architecture2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information architecture has changed dramatically since the mid-1990s and earlier conceptions of the world and the internet being different and separate have given way to a much more complex scenario in the present day. In the post-digital world that we now inhabit the digital and the physical blend easily, and our activities and usage of information takes place through multiple contexts and via multiple devices and unstable, emergent choreographies.

     Information architecture now is steadily growing into a channel- or medium-aspecific multi-disciplinary framework, with contributions coming from architecture, urban planning, design and systems thinking, cognitive science, new media, anthropology. All these have been heavily reshaping the practice: conversations about labelling, websites, and hierarchies are replaced by conversations about sense-making, place-making, design, architecture, cross media, complexity, embodied cognition, and their application to the architecture of information spaces as places we live in in an increasingly large part of our lives.

    Via narratives, frameworks, references, approaches and case-studies this book explores these changes and offers a way to reconceptualize the shifting role and nature of information architecture where information permeates digital and physical space, users are producers, and products are increasingly becoming complex cross-channel or multi-channel services.

  • 47.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    The Ethics and Politics of Information Architecture2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    The ethics and politics of information architecture2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Three reminders2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When information bleeds everywhere and our digital and physical spaces become one and the same, how do we behave as designers and architects.

    When we think of the future, our imagination conjures images of magic-like interactions while holographic displays glow in shades of blue or green. These will be there in some form, but they will be tactics, not strategy. As much as city planning and architecture are strategic design for physical spaces, in the blended spaces of mature cross-channel experiences wheredigital and physical become one and the same, strategy will have you play ball with information architecture. Information bleeds everywhere and its ​architectures shape, for good or for bad, our conversations, ​our ​ethics​,​ and politics. Crowd control moves from the streets to Twitter. Mobbing gets mobile. Facebook campaigns displace votes and funds​ as we stroll along its invisible boulevards and squares.​​

    ​We have responsibilities, but what​ exactly? Adopting a spatial perspective over the information architecture of blended spaces and using examples spanning from the bewildering narratives of Calvino’s Invisible Cities​ to the deceptive linearity of the Prince of Persia games,  from the Panopticon to reality tv and the Darknet, this talk discusses challenges, opportunities​, and what is at stake when information architectures scale up to the house and the city to organize a space of endless possibilities, and control.

  • 50.
    Resmini, Andrea
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Benyon, David
    Napier University Edinburgh.
    Designing Cross-channel Ecosystems2016In: Proceedings of NordiCHI 16, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 72
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf