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Al-Si-Cu alloys for high pressure die casting: Influence of Fe, Mn, and Cr on room temperaturemechanical properties
University of Bologna, Italy.
University of Bologna, Italy.
University of Bologna, Italy.
University of Bologna, Italy.
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2016 (English)In: La Metallurgia Italiana, ISSN 0026-0843, no 6, 77-80 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Al-Si-Cu alloys with high Fe content are widely employed in high pressure die casting (HPDC). Even if Feis usually considered an impurity in secondary aluminum alloys, leading to the formation of harmfulintermetallic compounds, it helps in mitigating or eliminating the problem of die soldering. As a result,secondary Al alloys with Fe content of about 1 wt% are commonly employed for the production of HPDCcastings. Aiming to change the morphology of harmful Fe-bearing phases towards less detrimentalmorphologies, proper alloying elements may be added to the alloys. Mn and Cr (both present in thealuminum scrap), as instance, are reported to prevent from the formation of the acicular β-Al5FeSi phase,leading to the formation of more compact and polygonal intermetallics. Such phases are usually referredto as “sludge” particles. The influence of sludge particles on mechanical properties of Al -Si-Cu castings isstill under investigation. The present work aims at evaluating the effect of impurities (Fe, Mn and Cr)typically present in secondary Al alloys on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the A380 (Al -Si-Cu) alloy. Samples with different Fe, Mn and Cr content were produced and processed through adirectional solidification equipment to obtain specimens with controlled SDAS (~10 μm). Hardness androtating bending fatigue tests were carried out at room temperature. Mechanical properties of the alloyswere then related to the microstructure, analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Milano: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia , 2016. no 6, 77-80 p.
Keyword [en]
High pressure die casting, HPDC, Al-Si-Cu alloys, sludge, fatigue, microstructure
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-31423Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84993960856Local ID: JTHMaterialISOAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-31423DiVA: diva2:954297
Conference
High Tech Die Casting 2016, Venice, 22-23 June, 2016.
Available from: 2016-08-22 Created: 2016-08-22 Last updated: 2017-08-21
In thesis
1. On the influence of imperfections on microstructure and properties of recycled Al-Si casting alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the influence of imperfections on microstructure and properties of recycled Al-Si casting alloys
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There are great energy savings to be made by recycling aluminium; as little as 5% of the energy needed for primary aluminium production may be required. Striving to produce high quality aluminium castings requires knowledge of microstructural imperfections, which is extra important when casting recycled aluminium that generally contains higher levels of imperfections compared to primary aluminium. Imperfections include amongst others Si, Fe, and Mn as well as oxides. Si is needed for castability, but it may also initiate fracture. There are different types of Fe-rich intermetallics influencing properties of castings, generally in a negative direction. Oxides constitute cracks and they are elusive because they are difficult to quantify.

This thesis aims to increase knowledge about imperfections in recycled aluminium castings originating from alloying elements and the melt. Experiments were performed in advanced laboratory equipment, including X-radiographic imaging during solidification and in-situ tensile testing in a scanning electron microscope. Experiments were also performed at industrial foundry facilities.

The experiments showed that the nucleation temperature of primary α-Fe intermetallics increased with higher Fe, Mn, and Cr contents. Primary α-Fe are strongly suggested to nucleate on oxides and to grow in four basic morphologies. Lower nucleation frequency of α-Fe promoted faster growth and hopper crystals while higher nucleation frequency promoted slower growth rates and massive crystals. Results also showed that a decrease in the size of the eutectic Si and plate-like β-Fe intermetallics improved tensile properties, foremost the elongation to fracture. In β-Fe containing alloys the transversely oriented intermetallics initiated macrocracks that are potential fracture initiation sites. In alloys with primary α-Fe foremost clusters of intermetallics promoted macrocracks. In fatigue testing, a transition from β-Fe to α-Fe shifted the initiation sites from oxides and pores to the α-Fe, resulting in a decrease of fatigue strength. Oxides in Al-Si alloys continue to be elusive; no correlations between efforts to quantify the oxides and tensile properties could be observed.

Abstract [sv]

Genom att återvinna aluminium kan stora energibesparingar göras eftersom återvinning kan förbruka så lite som 5% av den energi som behövs för produktion av primär aluminium. Vid gjutning av högkvalitativa aluminiumprodukter krävs förståelse för defekter i mikrostrukturen och denna kunskap är extra viktig vid användning av återvunnen aluminium, som i regel innehåller mer defekter än primär aluminium. Defekterna består bland annat av Si, Fe och Mn samt oxider. Si behövs för gjutbarhet men kan också initiera brott. Järnrika intermetaller kan ha olika morfologier som generellt påverkar gjutna komponenter negativt. Oxider, som kan utgöra sprickor, är gäckande då de är svåra att kvantifiera.

Denna avhandlings syfte är att öka kunskapen om defekter i gjutna komponenter av återvunnen aluminium. Experiment utfördes med avancerad laborationsutrustning så som röntgenfotografering av prover under stelning och dragprovning i svepelektronmikroskop. Experiment utfördes också i industrimiljö.

Experimenten visade att kärnbildningstemperaturen steg för primära α-Fe intermetaller med ökade andelar av Fe, Mn och Cr. Resultaten tyder starkt på att primär α-Fe kärnbildas på oxider och att de växer i fyra olika morfologier. Lägre kärnbildningstäthet av α-Fe främjade snabbare tillväxt av kristaller med håligheter men högre kärnbildningstäthet främjade långsammare tillväxt av massiva kristaller. Resultaten visade också att minskad storlek av eutektiskt Si och β-Fe intermetaller ledde till förbättring av dragprovsresultaten, främst brottförlängningen. I legeringar med β-Fe ledde transversellt orienterade intermetaller till makrosprickor vilka kan initiera brott. I legeringar med primär α-Fe var det främst kluster av intermetaller som orsakade makrosprickor. I utmattningsprovning orsakade modifiering av β-Fe till α-Fe förflyttning av sprickinitieringen från oxider och porer till α-Fe, vilket resulterade i en reducerad utmattningshållfasthet. Oxiderna i Al-Si-legeringar fortsätter att gäcka; ingen korrelation mellan försök att kvantifiera oxiderna och draghållfasthet kunde påvisas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Engineering, 2017. 67 p.
Series
JTH Dissertation Series, 28
Keyword
Imperfections, Recycled Al-Si alloys, Fe-rich intermetallics, Melt quality, Fractography, Defekter, Återvunna Al-Si legeringar, Fe-rika intermetaller, Smältakvalité, Fraktografi
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-36963 (URN)978-91-87289-29-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-09-15, E1405 (Gjuterisalen), Tekniska Högskolan, Jönköping, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2017-08-21Bibliographically approved

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