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Elevers förståelse av likhetstecknet: En studie i årskurs 3
Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Mathematics Education Research.
2016 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Students' understanding of the equal sign : A study in grade 3 (English)
Abstract [sv]

Studiens syfte är att bilda kunskap om elevers förståelse av likhetstecknet och hur undervisning om likhetstecknet i årskurs 3 kan varieras för att bli så effektiv som möjligt. Syftet ska besvaras genom frågeställningarna: vilka variationsmönster som de studerade eleverna kan möta och vilka kritiska aspekter som elever kan identifiera. Kritiska aspekter är det som elever behöver identifiera för att förstå det som ska läras. Variationsmönster innebär att det som är kritiskt i undervisningen ska varieras för att synliggöras. Studien har sin ansats i variationsteorin, där variationsmönster och kritiska aspekter är centrala begrepp.

En lektion observerades i årskurs 3 och sex elever valdes ut och intervjuades om likhetstecknet. Resultatet av studien visar att eleverna mötte sex kritiska aspekter i undervisningen. I varje kritisk aspekt mötte eleverna ett eller flera variationsmönster. Studien visar också att alla de intervjuade eleverna har en relationell och instrumentell förståelse av likhetstecknet. Eleverna har förståelse av en kritisk aspekt, som den observerade lektionen inte hade berört, nämligen att alla tal måste ingå i en uppgift för att lösningen ska vara korrekt. Fyra av sex elever har förståelse av den kritiska aspekten att det ska vara ekvivalens i en kedja av likheter. Resultatet visar också att elevernas förståelse av likhetstecknet inte är beroende av att de möter variationsmönster i undervisningen, men att de möter de kritiska aspekterna på något sätt.

Abstract [en]

The aim of the study is to explore the understanding of the equal sign and how the teaching about the equal sign among third grade students can be varied to be as effective as possible.  The aim will be answered trough the questions: what patterns of variation can the studied students meet and what critical aspects have the students identified. Patterns of variation means that what is critical in the teaching should be varied to become visible. Critical aspects is what students need to identify to understand what should be learned. The foundation of the study is the Variation Theory, where patterns of variation and critical aspects are central concepts.

The observations were accomplished during a third grade lesson and six students were selected for interviews about the equal sign. The result of the study shows that the students met six critical aspects during the lesson. For every critical aspect there were one or several patterns of variation that was exposed to the students. The result also states that the students who were interviewed have a relational and instrumental understanding of the equal sign. The students also have understanding of a critical aspect that they did not meet in the observed lesson, namely that all numbers have to enter in a task. Four out of six students have understanding of the critical aspect that there should be equivalence in a chain of similarities. The result also show that the students understanding of the equal sign is not dependent of that they meet patterns of variation in the teaching, but that they meet the critical aspects somehow.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 41 p.
Keyword [en]
equal sign, Variation Theory, pattern of variation, critical aspects
Keyword [sv]
likhetstecknet, variationsteorin, variationsmönster, kritiska aspekter
National Category
Algebra and Logic
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-30647ISRN: JU-HLK-JU-2-20160168OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-30647DiVA: diva2:939414
Subject / course
HLK, Mathematics for teaching and learnin
Available from: 2016-06-22 Created: 2016-06-19 Last updated: 2016-06-22Bibliographically approved

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