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Support Maintenance of Design Automation Systems - A Framework to Capture, Structure and Access Design Rationale
Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Product Development - Computer supported engineering design.
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The ability to innovate and launch customized products that are well matched to customer demands is a competitive factor for many manufacturing companies. Development of highly customized products requires following an engineer-to-order business process to allow the products to be modified or adapted to new customers’ specifications, which brings more value to the customer and profit to the company.

Design of a new product variant involves a large amount of repetitive and time consuming tasks but also information handling activities that are sometimes beyond human capabilities. Such work that does not rely so much on creativity can be carried out more efficiently by applying design automation systems. Design automation stands out as an effective means of cutting costs and lead time for a range of well-defined design activities and is mainly considered as a computer-based tool that processes and manipulates the design information.

Adaptation and variant design usually concern generating a new variant of a basic design, which has been developed and proved previously, according to new customer’s demands. In order to efficiently generate a new variant, a deep understanding of the previous design is essential. Such understanding can be achieved by access to the design rationale explaining the reasons and justifications behind the design.

Maintenance of design automation systems is essential to retain their usefulness over time and adapt them to new circumstances. New circumstances are, for example, introduction of new variants of existing products, changes in design rules in order to meet new standards or legislations, or changes in technology. To maintain a design automation system, updating the design knowledge (e.g. design rules) is required. Use of design rationale will normally become a necessity to allow a better understanding of the knowledge. Consequently, there is a need of principles and methods to enable capture, structure, and access design rationale.

In this study, a framework for modeling design knowledge and managing design rationale in order to support maintenance of design automation systems is presented. Managing of design rationale concerns enabling capture, structure, and access to design rationale. In order to evaluate the applicability of the framework, the findings are tested through design automation systems in two case companies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: School of Engineering , 2015. , 75 p.
Series
JTH Dissertation Series, 11, 2015
Keyword [en]
Design automation system, computer supported engineering design, design rationale, and traceability.
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-28172ISBN: 978-91-87289-12-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-28172DiVA: diva2:860970
Presentation
2015-11-06, E1405, Gjuterigatan 5, Jönköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
ImpactAdapt
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2015-10-19 Created: 2015-10-14 Last updated: 2015-10-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Supporting Traceability of Design Rationale in an Automated Engineer-To-Order Business Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting Traceability of Design Rationale in an Automated Engineer-To-Order Business Model
2012 (English)In: DS 70: Proceedings of DESIGN 2012, the 12th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Marjanovic Dorian, Storga Mario, Pavkovic Neven, Bojcetic Nenad, 2012, 1425-1434 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The ability to efficiently and quickly design and manufacture highly customized product can provide a competitive advantage for companies acting on a market with shifting customer demands. A business model based on highly customized product requires advanced application systems for automating the work of generating product variants based on different customer specification. The establishment of a system for automated design and production preparation is a significant investment in time and money and is expected to give revenues over many years. To maintain a design automation system’s usefulness over time, frequent updating of design rules and execution control will normally become a necessity. Reuse of the system encapsulated generic product family descriptions when developing a new product family is also perceived to significantly increase the efficiency in system development. The scope and the purpose of this research originate from industrial problems and needs which have been identified within research projects carried out in near collaboration with industrial partners. New concepts, perceived as prescriptive models, are in this work introduced, evaluated, and refined which is in accordance with the design modelling approach [Duffy, Andreasen, 1995]. The focus of this paper is a case study carried out at a company with long experience of systems for automated variant design. The main objective is to provide a system foundation for modelling and management of product knowledge in design automation systems to support reuse, expansion and maintenance.

Series
Design, ISSN 1847-9073
Keyword
engineer-to-order, design rationale, knowledge management, knowledge modelling, design automation
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-18443 (URN)978-953-7738-17-4 (ISBN)
Conference
12th INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE - DESIGN 2012, May 21st-24th, 2012, Dubrovnik - Cavtat - Croatia
Available from: 2012-06-13 Created: 2012-06-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
2. A Case Study on Implementing Design Automation: Identified Issues and Solution for Documentation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Case Study on Implementing Design Automation: Identified Issues and Solution for Documentation
2013 (English)In: 20th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering / [ed] Cees Bil, John Mo, Josip Stjepandić, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2013, 324-332 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Computer supported engineering design systems are used as support for designers by automating some tasks/activities of design process. From industrial aspect, implementation of a developed prototype system is a critical task. User acceptance is of high importance and strongly related to the access and understanding of the knowledge which requires a high level of system transparency. In addition, integration of the system in the environment or its compatibility with other systems/tools should be considered. Our experiences in industry show that two major issues are usually raised up during implementing a design automation system which are: documentation and organization. Documentation concerns the way of capturing, storing and distributing the information in systems, and organization concerns alignment of the system with other systems or tools as well as communication and collaboration among system participants and users. The focus of this paper is on documentation and the importance of reuse, design rationale and traceability is discussed. In order to align closely with industry practices, the thoughts are presented along with an on-going case study, where the development and analysis of roof racks for cars are being automated, and a number of challenges have been discussed. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2013
Keyword
Computer supported engineering design systems, Documentation, Design Rationale and Traceability
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-21894 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-302-5-324 (DOI)000333272000034 ()2-s2.0-84891680539 (Scopus ID)978-1-61499-301-8 (ISBN)978-1-61499-302-5 (ISBN)
Conference
20th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering, 2-6 September, Melbourne, Asutralia
Available from: 2013-09-09 Created: 2013-09-09 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
3. Capturing, structuring and accessing design rationale in integrated product design and manufacturing processes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing, structuring and accessing design rationale in integrated product design and manufacturing processes
2016 (English)In: Advanced Engineering Informatics, ISSN 1474-0346, E-ISSN 1873-5320, Vol. 30, no 3, 522-536 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Developing customized products is the business case for many manufacturing companies striving to fulfill the customers’ specific needs. When manufacturing customized products it is often necessary to also develop corresponding customized manufacturing tooling. There is a need to support concurrent development of new product variants along with their manufacturing toolsets. The communication between design engineers and manufacturing engineers is hence a key issue that if solved would enable design engineers to foresee how changes in product design affect tooling design and vice versa. To understand the correlation between the design of a product and its corresponding manufacturing tools, access to design rationale of the product and the developed tooling is required. Design rationale provides an explanation of why an artifact is designed in the way it is, including statements (textual, numerical or geometrical), argumentations, and decisions. Since design rationale is composed of information scattered all across the company's repositories in different formats (e.g. in type of a geometry, picture, table, and textual document), representing the design rationale is a challenge for many enterprises. In this paper a method is introduced that enables capture, structure and access to design rationale across product design and tooling design. The system enables representing design rationale in formats such as CAD models, spreadsheets, textual formats, and web pages. The method has been examined by developing a prototype system tested in a case company which develops and manufactures customized car accessories, such as roof racks and bike carriers, for different car models. The company develops and manufactures the products as well as the required tooling equipment. The prototype system includes different software commonly used by engineers during designing a product, for the purpose of making it applicable for other companies.

Keyword
Computer supported engineering; Design for manufacture; Design rationale; Engineer-to-order; Knowledge acquisition
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-28196 (URN)10.1016/j.aei.2016.06.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-84978524650 (Scopus ID)
Note

Included in thesis as submitted manuscript.

Available from: 2015-10-19 Created: 2015-10-19 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
4. Capturing, structuring, and accessing design rationale across product design and FEA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing, structuring, and accessing design rationale across product design and FEA
2016 (English)In: Product lifecycle management in the era of Internet of things: 12th IFIP WG 5.1 International Conference, PLM 2015, Doha, Qatar, October 19-21, 2015, revised selected papers / [ed] A. Bouras, B. Eynard, S. Foufou, K-D. Thoben, 2016, 387-396 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Implementing design automation systems to automate repetitive and time consuming design tasks enables engineer-to-order manufacturers to perform custom engineering in minimum time. To maintain a design automation system, regular updating of design information and knowledge is necessary. Consequently, there is a need of principles and methods to support capturing and structuring associated knowledge, specially, design rationale. In this paper a method for capturing, structuring, and accessing to design rationale in order to support maintenance of design automation systems is presented. The method is tested through a design automation system that develops FEA (finite element analysis) models automatically. The results are evaluated in a case company which is a supplier to the automotive industry serving many brands and car models which each more or less requires a unique solution.

Series
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, ISSN 1868-4238 ; 467
Keyword
Design automation system; Computer supported engineering design; Design rationale
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-28197 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-33111-9_36 (DOI)978-3-319-33110-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-33111-9 (ISBN)
Conference
PLM 15: The IFIP WG5.1 12th International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management, Doha, Qatar, October 18-21, 2015.
Note

Included in thesis as conference abstract, 2015

Available from: 2015-10-19 Created: 2015-10-19 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
5. Supporting Tooling Design of Customized Products by Instant Access to Design Rationale
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting Tooling Design of Customized Products by Instant Access to Design Rationale
2014 (English)In: The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Johan Stahre, Björn Johansson, Mats Björkman, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In an integrated product and production development environment, where changes in tooling design affect the product design and vice versa, access to design rationale of tooling would support concurrent development of new product variants and required tooling. This paper presents an information model that enables easy capture and access to the design rationale of toolings, moreover, supports tracing relevant information within different design software applications. A solution based on integrating SolidWorks, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft Word has been developed and an industrial case study, where the system is introduced and evaluated is presented.

Keyword
Computer supported engineering design systems, design rationale, design rationale accessibility, and design rationale representation
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-24777 (URN)978-91-980974-1-2 (ISBN)
Conference
Swedish Production Symposium 2014
Available from: 2014-09-19 Created: 2014-09-19 Last updated: 2016-08-12Bibliographically approved
6. Design Rationale Management – a Proposed Cloud Solution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design Rationale Management – a Proposed Cloud Solution
2014 (English)In: Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering: Moving Integrated Product Development to Service Clouds in the Global Economy / [ed] Jianzhong Cha, Shuo-Yan Chou, Josip Stjepandić, Richard Curran, Wensheng Xu, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2014, 204-214 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Due to increasing complexity of modern products it is many times impossible for single individual engineers to fully grasp the product they are a part of developing. Valuable time during the product development is therefore spent searching for knowledge about different aspect of the product. To enable engineers finding right knowledge in different situations, the knowledge must first of all exist. Secondly, it needs to be structured and thirdly, it needs to be accessible. In this paper all of these three aspects of design rationale (reasons for why the product is designed the way it is) are addressed with the main focus on the latter one, accessibility. An information model is presented that can be used to structure the design rationale. It also presents a schematic overview of how a cloud solution could be realized using the information model to make a complete system for instantly capturing, filtering and accessing design rationale in a contextual manner.

To enable the instant and contextual capture, filtering and access of the design rationale, the design rationale management systems should be present to the engineers everywhere in the digital environment, ready for service. It should also include functions that make the design rationale shared to all privileged users making sure everyone has updated versions of the stored knowledge.

In this work the main ideas of a method for instant and contextual capture, filtering and access of the design rationale are introduced and a pilot system described as a proof of concept. The pilot system can be used to capture, filter and access design rationale across and within text-documents, spread sheets and CAD-models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2014
Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering
Keyword
Design Rationale, Product Development, Knowledge Management, Design Knowledge Reuse, Information Retrieval
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-24737 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-440-4-204 (DOI)978-1-61499-439-8 (ISBN)978-1-61499-440-4 (ISBN)
Conference
21th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering
Available from: 2014-09-15 Created: 2014-09-15 Last updated: 2016-08-12Bibliographically approved
7. Managing Fluctuating Requirements by Platforms Defined in the Interface Between Technology and Product Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing Fluctuating Requirements by Platforms Defined in the Interface Between Technology and Product Development
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering: Moving Integrated Product Development to Service Clouds in the Global Economy / [ed] Cha, J., Chou, S.-Y., Stjepandić, J. , Curran, R., Xu, W., Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2014, 424-433 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Product platforms play an important role for the efficient customisation and variant forming of products in many companies. In this paper four different companies ranging from OEM to B2B suppliers have been interviewed on how they engage in technology and product development, create and maintain product platforms and how they respond to the changing requirements on the platforms and on the products and product families derived from them. The objective is to find how product platforms are used to meet the demands of efficient product customisation. The companies all have identifiable product platforms and established processes for product development. However, there are differences in how they define technology development, how the platforms are created, maintained, replaced and what the platforms contain. The introduction of new technology into the platforms and how the platforms are used from a Lean product development perspective has been of interest in the survey as reported in the paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2014
Keyword
Product platform, Product development, Technology development, Customisation, Requirements
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-24438 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-440-4-424 (DOI)978-1-61499-440-4 (ISBN)978-1-61499-439-8 (ISBN)
Conference
The 21st ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering, 8-11 September, Beijing, China
Projects
ChaSE
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2014-08-26 Created: 2014-08-26 Last updated: 2017-05-11Bibliographically approved
8. Implementation and management of design systems for highly customized products – state of practice and future research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation and management of design systems for highly customized products – state of practice and future research
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Transdisciplinary lifecycle analysis of systems: Proceedings of the 22nd ISPE Inc. International Conference on Concurrent Engineering / [ed] Richard Curran, Nel Wognum, Milton Borsato, Josip Stjepandić, Wim J.C. Verhagen, 2015, 165-174 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Individualized products, resource-smart design and production, and afocus on customer value have been pointed out as three opportunities for Swedishindustry to stay competitive on a globalized market. All these three opportunitiescan be gained by efficient design and manufacture of highly customized products.However, this requires the development and integration of the knowledge-basedenabling technologies of the future as pointed out by The European Factories ofthe Future Research Association (EFFRA). Highly custom engineered productsrequire an exercising of a very rich and diverse knowledge base about the products,their production and the required resources for design and manufacture. Thedevelopment and implementation of systems for automated design and productionpreparation of customized products is a significant investment in time and money.However, our experience from industry indicates that significant efforts arerequired to introduce and align these kinds of systems with existing operations,legacy systems and overall state of practice. In this paper, support for systemdevelopment in literature has been reviewed in combination with a survey on thestate of practice in four companies regarding implementation and management ofautomated systems for custom engineered products. A gap has been identified anda set of areas for further research are outlined.

Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, ISSN 2352-7528 ; 2
Keyword
Customization, Design Automation, Implementation, Management
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-27969 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-544-9-165 (DOI)000362791800017 ()978-1-61499-543-2 (ISBN)978-1-61499-544-9 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd ISPE-Inc International Conference on Concurrent Engineering, Delft Univ Technol, Delft, Netherlands
Projects
IMPACT
Available from: 2015-09-17 Created: 2015-09-17 Last updated: 2016-02-29Bibliographically approved
9. Managing Risk in the Introduction of New Technology in Products
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing Risk in the Introduction of New Technology in Products
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Journal of Aerospace Operations, ISSN 2211-002X, Vol. 3, no 3-4, 167-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper interviews with staff involved in product development from four different companies is presented. The objective is to find out how the companies manage the technical risk of introducing new technology in products and how they prepare for meeting changing requirements from customers. The companies originates from aerospace, automotive and production engineering. Based on the results of the first study, a case study was carried out at the aerospace company. The studies shows that, the introduction of new technology varies with the risk of failure in the validation of the products. Companies that easily can revert back to the former technology is more risk taking. The types of products and the companies’ place in the supply chain has an impact on technology introduction and requirements handling. The companies have strategies for developing requirement specifications prior to the start of the project. This is most elaborate at the aerospace company where a thorough concept evaluation clarify possible variations in requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2015
Keyword
Product, technology, development, platform, complexity
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-28198 (URN)DOI 10.3233/AOP-150048 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-04-29 Created: 2015-10-19 Last updated: 2016-08-12Bibliographically approved

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Poorkiany, Morteza

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