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Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction of Solder Joints in Avionics by Surrogate Modeling: a Contribution to Physics of Failure in Reliability Prediction
Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Manufacturers of aerospace, defense, and high performance (ADHP) equipment are currently facing multiple challenges related to the reliability of electronic systems. The continuing reduction in size of electronic components combined with increasing clock frequencies and greater functionality, results in increased power density. As an effect, controlling the temperature of electronic components is central in electronic product development in order to maintain and potentially improve the reliability of the equipment. Simultaneously, the transition to lead-free electronic equipment will most probably propagate also to the ADHP industry. Compared to well-proven tin-lead solder, the knowledge about field operation reliability of lead-free solders is still limited, as well as the availability of damage evaluation models validated for field temperature conditions. Hence, the need to fill in several knowledge gaps related to reliability and reliability prediction of lead-free solder alloys is emphasized. Having perceived increasing problems experienced in the reliability of fielded equipment, the ADHP industry has suggested inclusion of physics-of-failure (PoF) in reliability prediction of electronics as one potential measure to improve the reliability of the electronic systems.

This thesis aims to contribute to the development of reliable ADHP systems, with the main focus on electronic equipment for the aerospace industry. In order to accomplish this, the thesis provides design guidelines for power distribution on a double-sided printed circuit board assembly (PBA) as a measure to improve the thermal performance without increasing the weight of the system, and a novel, computationally efficient method for PoF-based evaluation of damage accumulation in solder joints in harsh, non-cyclic field operation temperature environments.

Thermal fatigue failure mechanisms and state‑of‑the‑art thermal design and design tools are presented, with focus on the requirements that may arise from avionic use, such as low weight, high reliability, and ability to sustain functional during high vibration levels and high g-forces. Paper I, II, and III describes an in-depth investigation that has been performed utilizing advanced thermal modeling of power distribution on a double-sided PBA as a measure to improve the thermal performance of electronic modules.

Paper IV contributes to increasing the accuracy of thermal fatigue life prediction in solder joints, by employing existing analytical models for predicting thermal fatigue life, but enhancing the prediction result by incorporating advanced thermal analysis in the procedure.

Papers V and VI suggest and elaborate on a computational method that utilizes surrogate stress and strain modeling of a solder joint, to quickly evaluate the damage accumulated in a critical solder joint from non-cyclic, non-simplified field operation temperature profiles, with accuracy comparable to finite element modeling. The method has been tested on a ball grid array package with SnAgCu solder joints. This package is included in an extensive set of accelerated tests that helps to qualify certain packages and solder alloys for avionic use. The tests include -20°C to +80°C and -55°C to +125°C thermal cycling of a statistically sound population of a number of selected packages, assembled with SnAgCu, Sn100C, and SnPbAg solder alloys. Statistical analysis of the results confirms that the SnAgCu-alloy may outperform SnPbAg solder at moderate thermal loads on the solder joints.

In Papers VII and VIII, the timeframe is extended to a future, in which validated life prediction models will be available, and the suggested method is expected to increase the accuracy of embedded prognostics of remaining useful thermal fatigue life of a critical solder joint.

The key contribution of the thesis is the added value of the proposed computational method utilized in the design phase for electronic equipment. Due to its ability for time-efficient operation on uncompressed temperature data, the method gives contribution to the accuracy, and thereby also to the credibility, of reliability prediction of electronic packages in the design phase. This especially relates to applications where thermal fatigue is a dominant contributor to the damage of solder joints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
LiU-Tryck, Sweden , 2013. , 64 p.
Series
Linköping studies in scince and technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1521
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-23017OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-23017DiVA: diva2:685514
Available from: 2014-01-13 Created: 2014-01-09 Last updated: 2014-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. CFD Analysis of an Avionic Module for Evaluating Power Distribution as a Thermal Management Measure for a Double-sided PCB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CFD Analysis of an Avionic Module for Evaluating Power Distribution as a Thermal Management Measure for a Double-sided PCB
2007 (English)In: Twenty Third Annual IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium: SEMI-THERM Proceedings 2007, San Jose, CA USA, March 18-22, 2007, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE , 2007, 233-243 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Thermal design aspects of an avionic module including fully populated PCBs housed in a sealed enclosure have been studied by means of computational fluid dynamics. Effect of power distribution between the sides of a double-sided PCB on the case temperature of surface-mounted components has been investigated within a proposed simulation strategy. Simulation-based guidelines have been developed for thermal design of avionic modules, regarding preferable power configuration on a double-sided PCB, representing an alternative approach to thermal management, as compared to introducing additional cooling devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE, 2007
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Computational Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-6146 (URN)10.1109/STHERM.2007.352429 (DOI)1-4244-09589-4 (ISBN)
Note
Forskningsområdet Robusta inbyggda system bytte namn till Forskningsmiljö Material och tillverkning – Ytteknik 2011-01-01 Research area Robust Embedded Systems changed its name to Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology 01-01-2011Available from: 2007-08-02 Created: 2007-08-02 Last updated: 2017-07-06Bibliographically approved
2. An experimental setup for validating a CFD model of a double-sided PCB in a sealed enclosure at various power configurations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An experimental setup for validating a CFD model of a double-sided PCB in a sealed enclosure at various power configurations
2005 (English)In: Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Micro-Electronics and Micro-Systems, 2005: EuroSimE 2005, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Order Department , 2005, 127-133 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A flexible experimental setup enabling power control of a fully populated double-sided PCB has been realized, and is described in detail. A CFD model of a double-sided PCB housed in a sealed enclosure has been validated in a 19/spl deg/C environment by means of temperature and flow measurement. The difference between simulated and measured component temperatures has been within 10%. Potential errors both in the model and in the experiments have been discussed and their impact on temperatures has been numerically evaluated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Order Department, 2005
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Computational Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-5108 (URN)10.1109/ESIME.2005.1502787 (DOI)0-7803-9062-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Micro-Electronics and Micro-Systems, 2005
Note
Forskningsområdet Robusta inbyggda system bytte namn till Forskningsmiljö Material och tillverkning – Ytteknik 2011-01-01 Research area Robust Embedded Systems changed its name to Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology 01-01-2011Available from: 2008-07-08 Created: 2008-07-08 Last updated: 2017-07-06Bibliographically approved
3. Investigating the effect of power distribution on cooling a double-sided PCB: Numerical simulation and experiment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the effect of power distribution on cooling a double-sided PCB: Numerical simulation and experiment
2005 (English)In: Heat Transfer: Volume 4, 2005, 649- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Anexperimental procedure for investigating the effect of power distribution onthe cooling of a double-sided PCB is implemented. A numberof computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are validated by laboratoryexperiments performed in 19.5°C temperature environment. Case temperatures of surface-mountedcomponents fully populating the PCB sides are measured and monitoredin simulations. Different combinations of power distribution with other coolingmethods, such as a heatsink tooled on a sealed oropen enclosure, at natural or forced convection, are studied. Thermallyefficient uniform and non-uniform power configurations are determined on adouble sided PCB. It is concluded that managing power distributionon a double-sided PCB can be considered as a measureto improve the thermal performance of electronic modules.

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-6032 (URN)0-7918-4734-9 (ISBN)
Conference
ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference 2005
Note
Forskningsområdet Robusta inbyggda system bytte namn till Forskningsmiljö Material och tillverkning – Ytteknik 2011-01-01 Research area Robust Embedded Systems changed its name to Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology 01-01-2011Available from: 2007-08-02 Created: 2007-08-02 Last updated: 2017-07-06Bibliographically approved
4. On thermomechanical durability analysis combined with computational fluid dynamics thermal analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On thermomechanical durability analysis combined with computational fluid dynamics thermal analysis
Show others...
2007 (English)In: Volume 5: Electronics and Photonics, 2007, 233-240 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Results are presented on durability analysis of an electronic module subjected to thermal and power cycles, and vibration. A hierarchical analysis process for analyzing the durability of the module is described. The initial step is a transient thermal analysis of the unit in which the module is located. The three operating modes of the unit are modeled and analyzed using acommercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool. The tool generates a time history of the temperature at all points within the unit and module. The second step comprises exporting temperatures from the transient temperature analysis to a durability prediction tool. The temperatures calculated by the global analysis are mapped to the printed wiring assembly (PWA) mounted within the box, yielding the temperature distribution of the PWA as functions of time. The durability tool utilizes a modified Coffin Manson formula together with the transient temperature profile to estimate the durability of each lead and solder joint included in the module. Thermomechanical fatigue level of leads and solder joints within the unit are reported as a cumulative damage index (CDI). The CDI is the ratio of the number of cycles required for the test item to endure under a life time to the number of cycles the item is predicted to sustain before failure. Durability analysis of solder joint due to vibration is performed separately. The environment is specified according to the location where the unit is mounted. CDI due to vibration is added to form an overall CDI based on Miner's rule.

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-5194 (URN)10.1115/IMECE2007-41254 (DOI)0-7918-4299-1 (ISBN)
Conference
ASME 2007 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE2007) November 11–15, 2007 , Seattle, Washington, USA
Note
Forskningsområdet Robusta inbyggda system bytte namn till Forskningsmiljö Material och tillverkning – Ytteknik 2011-01-01 Research area Robust Embedded Systems changed its name to Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology 01-01-2011 Available from: 2008-01-09 Created: 2008-01-09 Last updated: 2014-01-13Bibliographically approved
5. A computational method for evaluating the damage in a solder joint of an electronic package subjected to thermal loads
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A computational method for evaluating the damage in a solder joint of an electronic package subjected to thermal loads
2014 (English)In: Engineering computations, ISSN 0264-4401, E-ISSN 1758-7077, Vol. 31, no 3, 467-489 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel computational method to evaluate damage accumulation in a solder joint of an electronic package, when exposed to operating temperature environment. A procedure to implement the method is suggested, and a discussion of the method and its possible applications is provided in the paper.

Design/methodology/approach – Methodologically, interpolated response surfaces based on specially designed finite element (FE) simulation runs, are employed to compute a damage metric at regular time intervals of an operating temperature profile. The developed method has been evaluated on a finite-element model of a lead-free PBGA256 package, and accumulated creep strain energy density has been chosen as damage metric.

Findings – The method has proven to be two orders of magnitude more computationally efficient compared to FE simulation. A general agreement within 3 percent has been found between the results predicted with the new method, and FE simulations when tested on a number of temperature profiles from an avionic application. The solder joint temperature ranges between +25 and +75°C.

Practical implications – The method can be implemented as part of reliability assessment of electronic packages in the design phase.

Originality/value – The method enables increased accuracy in thermal fatigue life prediction of solder joints. Combined with other failure mechanisms, it may contribute to the accuracy of reliability assessment of electronic packages.

Keyword
Computational method, Thermal fatigue, Finite element analysis, Electronic package, Lead-free solder, Operating temperature environment
National Category
Materials Engineering Computational Mathematics Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-19483 (URN)10.1108/EC-07-2012-0163 (DOI)000339628800006 ()2-s2.0-84901003795 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-09-19 Created: 2012-09-19 Last updated: 2017-07-06Bibliographically approved
6. Investigation on thermal fatigue of SnAgCu, Sn100C, and SnPbAg solder joints in varying temperature environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation on thermal fatigue of SnAgCu, Sn100C, and SnPbAg solder joints in varying temperature environments
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Microelectronics and reliability, ISSN 0026-2714, E-ISSN 1872-941X, Vol. 54, no 11, 2523-2535 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal cycling tests have been performed for a range of electronic components intended for avionic applications, assembled with SAC305, SN100C and SnPbAg solder alloys. Two temperature profiles have been used, the first ranging between −20 °C and +80 °C (TC1), and the second between −55 °C and +125 °C (TC2). High level of detail is provided for the solder alloy composition and the component package dimensions, and statistical analysis, partially supported by FE modeling, is reported. The test results confirm the feasibility of SAC305 as a replacement for SnPbAg under relatively benign thermomechanical loads. Furthermore, the test results serve as a starting point for estimation of damage accumulation in a critical solder joint in field conditions, with increased accuracy by avoiding data reduction. A computationally efficient method that was earlier introduced by the authors and tested on relatively mild temperature environments has been significantly improved to become applicable on extended temperature range, and it has been applied to a PBGA256 component with SAC305 solder in TC1 conditions. The method, which utilizes interpolated response surfaces generated by finite element modeling, extends the range of techniques that can be employed in the design phase to predict thermal fatigue of solder joints under field temperature conditions.

Keyword
Thermal cycling tests; Lead-free solder; Electronics; Physics of failure reliability prediction; Surrogate modeling
National Category
Reliability and Maintenance Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Computational Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-23014 (URN)10.1016/j.microrel.2014.06.007 (DOI)000346212900027 ()2-s2.0-84911421359 (Scopus ID)JTHMaterialIS (Local ID)JTHMaterialIS (Archive number)JTHMaterialIS (OAI)
Available from: 2014-01-09 Created: 2014-01-09 Last updated: 2017-07-06Bibliographically approved
7. Prognostics of Thermal Fatigue Failure of Solder Joints in Avionic Equipment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prognostics of Thermal Fatigue Failure of Solder Joints in Avionic Equipment
2012 (English)In: IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, ISSN 0885-8985, E-ISSN 1557-959X, Vol. 27, no 4, 16-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A practical method has been suggested for solder joint thermal fatigue prognostics, which enables real-time fatigue calculations based on uncompressed temperature data embedded in a host system that performs safety-critical operations. The accuracy of the prognosticated remaining useful life depends on the level of details captured in the model, and the level of confidence from validation efforts.

National Category
Aerospace Engineering Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-10876 (URN)10.1109/MAES.2012.6203714 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-11-10 Created: 2009-11-10 Last updated: 2014-01-13Bibliographically approved
8. An approach to life consumption monitoring of solder joints in operating temperature environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An approach to life consumption monitoring of solder joints in operating temperature environment
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of 13th IEEE International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2012, Cascais, Portugal, April 16-17-18, 2012, 2012, -8 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper elaborates the 3T-approach to life consumption monitoring of solder joints in operating temperature environment without requiring simplification of operating loads. An overview of the 3T-approach is provided including assumptions made for a proposed realization in an avionic application. Associated implementation routines are highlighted and exemplified for a lead-free PBGA256 package with creep strain energy density (SEDcr) as damage metric. Factors that affect the prediction accuracy are investigated. A data resolution has been determined that delivers response surfaces that provide results comparable to 3-D finite-element (FE) simulations, while bearing two orders of magnitude higher computational efficiency. A stress-free temperature modification routine is proposed and proves to further mitigate accuracy problems.

National Category
Materials Engineering Reliability and Maintenance Computational Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-17252 (URN)10.1109/ESimE.2012.6191699 (DOI)978-1-4673-1512-8 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Conference of Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE), 2012
Available from: 2012-01-19 Created: 2012-01-19 Last updated: 2017-07-06Bibliographically approved

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