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Development and psychometric evaluation of the radiographers’ competence scale
Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
2012 (English)In: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, Vol. 2, no 2, 85-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Assessing the competence of registered radiographers’ clinical work is of great importance because of the recent change in nursing focus and rapid technological development. Self-assessment assists radiographers to validate and improve clinical practice by identifying their strengths as well as areas that may need to be developed. The aim of the study was to develop and psychometrically test a specially designed instrument, the Radiographers Competence Scale (RCS). A cross sectional survey was conducted comprising 406 randomly selected radiographers all over Sweden. The study consisted of two phases; the development of the instrument and evaluation of its psychometric properties. The first phase included three steps: 1) construction of the RCS; 2) pilot testing of face and content validity; and 3) creation of a web-based 54-item questionnaire for testing the instrument. The second phase comprised psychometric evaluation of construct validity, internal consistency reliability and item reduction. The analysis reduced the initial 54 items of the RCS to 28 items. A logical two-factor solution was identified explaining 53.8% of the total variance. The first factor labelled “Nurse initiated care” explained 31.7% of the total variance. Factor 2 labelled “Technical and radiographic processes” explained 22.1% of the total variance. The scale had good internal consistency reliability, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.87. The RCS is a short, easy to administer scale for capturing radiographers’ competence levels and the frequency of using their competence. The scale was found to be valid and reliable. The self-assessment RCS can be used in management, patient safety and quality improvement to enhance the radiographic process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 2, no 2, 85-96 p.
Keyword [en]
Competence Scale, Instrument Development, Management, Nursing, Psychometric Evaluation, Radiographer, RCS
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-19707DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2012.22014OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-19707DiVA: diva2:563260
Available from: 2012-10-29 Created: 2012-10-29 Last updated: 2012-11-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Radiographers’ Professional Competence: Development of a context-specific instrument
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radiographers’ Professional Competence: Development of a context-specific instrument
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aims: The overall aim of this thesis was to explore and describe radiographers‟ professional competence based on patients‟ and radiographers‟ experiences and to develop a context-specific instrument to assess the level and frequency of use of radiographers‟ professional competence.

Methods: The design was inductive and deductive. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The data collection methods comprised interviews (Studies I-II) and questionnaires (Studies III-IV). The subjects were patients in study I and radiographers in studies II-IV. In study I, 17 patients were interviewed about their experiences of the encounter during radiographic examinations and treatment. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. In study II, 14 radiographers were interviewed to identify radiographers‟ areas of competence. The critical incident technique was chosen to analyse the interviews. Studies III and IV were based on a national cross-sectional survey of 406 randomly selected radiographers. Study III consisted of two phases; designing the Radiographer Competence Scale (RCS) and evaluation of its psychometric properties. A 42-item questionnaire was developed and validated by a pilot test (n=16) resulting in the addition of 12 items. Thus the final RCS comprised a 54-item questionnaire, which after psychometric tests was reduced to 28 items. In study IV, the 28-item questionnaire served as data. The level of competencies was rated on a 10-point scale, while their use was rated on a six-point scale.

Results: In study I, the female patients‟ comprehensive understanding was expressed as feelings of vulnerability. The encounters were described as empowering, empathetic, mechanical and neglectful, depending on the radiographers‟ skills and attitudes. Study II revealed two main areas of professional competence, direct patient-related and indirect patient-related. The first focused on competencies in the care provided in close proximity to the patient and the second on competencies used in the activities of the surrounding environment. Each of the two main areas was divided into four categories and 31 sub-categories that either facilitated or hindered good nursing care. In study III the analysis condensed the 54-item questionnaire in two steps, firstly by removing 12 items and secondly a further 14 items, resulting in the final 28-item RCS questionnaire. Several factor analyses were performed and a two factor-solution emerged, labelled; “Nurse initiated care” and “Technical and radiographic processes”. The psychometric tests had good construct validity and homogeneity. The result of study IV demonstrated that most competencies in the RCS received high ratings both in terms of level and frequency of use. Competencies e.g. „Adequately informing the patient‟, „Adapting the examination to the patient‟s prerequisites and needs‟ and „Producing accurate and correct images‟ were rated the highest while „Identifying and encountering the patient in a state of shock‟ and „Participating in quality improvement regarding patient safety and care‟ received the lowest ratings. The total score of each of the two dimensions had a low but significant correlation with age and years in present position. The competence level correlated with age and years in present position in both dimensions but not with the use of competencies in the “Nurse initiated care” dimension.

Conclusion: This thesis has shown that professional competence is important in the encounter between patient and radiographer. It has also demonstrated that radiographers‟ self-rated professional competence is based on nursing, technological and radiographic knowledge. From a radiographer‟s perspective, „Nurse initiated care‟ and „Technical and Radiographic processes‟ are two core dimensions of Radiographer Competence Scale. The 28-item questionnaire regarding level and frequency of use of competence is feasible to use to measure radiographers‟ professional competence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: School of Health Sciences, 2012. 100 p.
Series
Hälsohögskolans avhandlingsserie, ISSN 1654-3602
Keyword
Professional competence, Radiographer perspective, Patient perspective, Nursing, Radiography, Instrument development, Self-assessment, Psychometric evaluation, RCS
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-19717 (URN)978-91-85835-33 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-11-09, Forum Humanum, Barnarpsgatan 39, 553 18, Jönköping, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-10-30 Created: 2012-10-30 Last updated: 2012-11-13Bibliographically approved

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