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Children's experience of going through an acute radiographic examination.
Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. (CHILD)
Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Mälardalens Universitet.
Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. (CHILD)
2012 (English)In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 18, no 2, 84-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Children’s experience of radiographic examinations remains largely unexplored, although most radiog- raphers examine children on a daily basis. In order to provide the high quality care that meets the needs of patients it was considered important to undertake research focused upon the patients’ experience of radiographic practice.

The aim of the study was to investigate children’s experiences undergoing a radiographic examination for a suspected fracture.

Inclusion criteria were Swedish-speaking children between 3 and 15 years of age who were submitted for a radiographic examination with an acute condition of the upper or lower extremity. Patients were informed of the study and together with the escorting parent or relative asked for consent to participate.

During the examination the child was videotaped and immediately after, the child was interviewed in a nearby facility. The interview contained open-ended questions and was conducted while watching the videotape together with the child and their parent or relative and the researcher.

Qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the collected data. The analysis resulted in two categories e “feeling uncomfortable” and “feeling confident”. The subcategories contained in these categories were “pain in relation to injury and examination”, “the waiting time is strenuous”, “worries for the future and consequences of the injury”, “confidence in parental presence”, “confidence in radio- graphic staff and examination procedure”, and finally “recognition entails familiarity”.

The results revealed that for the younger children, the experience of undergoing an acute radiographic examination was associated with pain and anxiety, but for the older children, the anxiety was more connected to whether the injury had caused a fracture and any anticipated future consequences or complications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 18, no 2, 84-89 p.
Keyword [en]
Children, experience, radiographic examination, content analysis
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-17996DOI: 10.1016/j.radi.2011.10.003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-17996DiVA: diva2:523903
Available from: 2012-04-26 Created: 2012-04-26 Last updated: 2017-02-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Children in the Radiology Department: a study of anxiety, pain, distress and verbal interaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children in the Radiology Department: a study of anxiety, pain, distress and verbal interaction
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation focuses on children’s experiences of going through an acute radiographic examination due to a suspected fracture. The findings from interviews with children aged 3-15 years showed anxiety, pain and distress to be a concern in conjunction with an examination (Paper I). These initial findings entailed empirical studies being undertaken in order to further study children’s pain and distress in conjunction with an examination (Paper II) as well as children’s anxiety, pain and distress related to the perception of care in the periradiographic process (Paper III). Finally, the verbal interaction between the child and radiographer during the examination was studied (Paper IV).

The research was conducted through qualitative, quantitative and mixed method studies. The data collection methods comprised interviews (Paper I), children’s self-reports (Papers II and III), drawings (Paper III), questionnaire (Paper III) and video recordings (Papers I, II and IV). Altogether, 142 children (3-15 years) and 20 female radiographers participated in the studies.

Children aged 5-15 years were observed and they completed selfreports on pain and distress. The children were also provided with an opportunity to express their perceptions of the peri-radiographic process and to make a drawing that was analysed with regard to their level of anxiety. Finally, the verbal interaction between the child and radiographer during the examination was analysed.

Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews and the written comments in the questionnaire (Papers I and III). The Child Drawing: Hospital Manual (CD:H) was used when analysing the children’s drawings (Paper III), and the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) was used when analysing the verbal interaction derived from the video recordings (Paper IV). Non-parametric statistics were applied when analysing the quantitative data (Papers II, III and IV). The findings showed that children aged 5-15 years reported pain on the Coloured Analogue Scale (CAS) and distress on the Facial Affective Scale (FAS) above levels at which treatment or further intervention is recommended. These findings corresponded to the observed pain behaviour measured on the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Scale (FLACC) and anxiety expressed through drawings (CD:H). The children’s perception of the care being provided in the peri-radiographic process, was not related to the experience of anxiety, pain and distress however. The children were confident in the radiographers, who they perceived to be skilled in the task and sensitive to their needs. These findings are supported by the analysis of the verbal interaction (RIAS), which showed that the radiographer adjusted the communication when balancing the task-focused and socio-emotional interaction according to the child’s age.

The findings point to the conclusion that children going through an acute radiographic examination should be assessed regarding the anxiety, pain and distress they experience. This is a prerequisite for the radiographer to provide care according to the child’s ability and preferences when interacting with children in the peri-radiographic process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: School of Health Sciences, 2014. 94 p.
Series
Hälsohögskolans avhandlingsserie, ISSN 1654-3602 ; 51
Keyword
Children, radiography, experiences, anxiety, pain, distress, verbal interaction, examination
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-23732 (URN)978-91-85835-50-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-05, Forum Humanum, HHJ, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2014-04-29Bibliographically approved

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