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Cost-effective water supply and sanitation
Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science. School of Technology and Design, Department of Civil Engineering, Växjö University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7206-1342
Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden.
2007 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Water supply and sanitation have about the same goals all over the world. The needs for safe water supply and sanitation are obvious although not generally implemented. This depends often on the economical situation and bad management. Additional factors are effects of war actions and natural disasters as flooding of rivers and tsunamis. The strategies are, however, similar independent of the actual conditions. In this paper the strategies as developed in Sweden are described related to practical implementation of technology and management strategies. The experiences have shown on both mistakes and successful handling. Today, Sweden is involved in both adjusting policies according to European Union rules (as EU Water Framework Directive) and also in sharing experiences to facilitate international implementation of cost-effective methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007.
Keywords [en]
Cost-effectiveness; knowledge transfer; sanitation; Sweden, water supply
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-47869OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-47869DiVA, id: diva2:1395559
Conference
2nd Environmental conference- Water (KECW007), 22-24 April 2007, Dohuk, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Available from: 2020-02-24 Created: 2020-02-24 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Water management and performance on local and global scales: A comparison between two regions and their possibilities of knowledge transfer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water management and performance on local and global scales: A comparison between two regions and their possibilities of knowledge transfer
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The problem to secure safe water supply, good sanitation and a good watercourse and marine environment status has become increasingly complex and at the same time more and more important to meet. It has been recognized, that an integrated approach must be used to meet not only technical and scientific aspects, but the role should also be included of factors such as economics, acceptability, capacity building, and efficient management in the overall view. Integrated approach efforts need to be introduced at different levels, i.e. among the population as well as at municipal, regional (county administrative board, county council, water authority) national and international (EU, global) levels. An important goal is that various activities should follow similar objectives.

One important factor in this respect is the Brundtland report in which the concept of sustainability was highlighted and universally accepted, even though similar ideas had been put forward earlier. Based on the concept of sustainability a common policy has been developed from Agenda 21 at the local level to globally formulated Millennium targets. Independently of the country, general consensus seems to exist on overall goals for water and sanitation. However, there is a big difference in the way the goals have been implemented in different countries depending on priorities to other areas of concern as political systems, economic conditions, and the degree of capacity building. The experience developed in Sweden and in large parts of the Western world has been judged to be of great value to be transferred to other countries with a lower development or lower standards of water and sewerage systems. For this reason, several global and regional agreements are presented, and two regions (the Baltic Sea and the MENA regions) were chosen to assess similarities and differences between them. Obvious differences are the relatively abundant supply of water in the Baltic region, while the MENA region is one of the world's poorest regions with regard to water availability. Major differences also exist between countries within each region. Among the similarities is the need to achieve similar demands on the quality of discharged wastewater in the long run. The Baltic Sea Action Plan controls the stringent requirements of wastewater quality in the Baltic region, and in the MENA region the growing interest in wastewater reuse for irrigation, industrial use and also for reuse as clean water is the guiding factor.

On the national level Sweden and Iraq have been selected for description and discussion and at local level Växjö in Sweden and the cities of Baghdad and Erbil in Iraq and the Kurdistan region of Iraq, respectively. While Växjö municipality has been able to follow a path in line with achieving sustainability the situation of cities in Iraq and Kurdistan are entirely different due to failed investments and maintenance of infrastructure for a long time as well as the effects of war. This is discussed in detail and the actions needed to restore and improve the infrastructure are described.

Abstract [sv]

Problematiken kring att ordna en säker vattenförsörjning, god sanitet och god status för recipienter och för marin miljö har blivit alltmer komplex och samtidigt alltmer viktig att tillgodose. Det har härvid insetts att integrerade synsätt måste användas för att tillgodose inte bara tekniska och naturvetenskapliga aspekter utan även rollen av faktorer, som ekonomi, acceptans, kapacitetsuppbyggnad, och effektiv förvaltning bör också innefattas i helheten.

Insatser i det integrerade synsättet behöver införas på olika nivåer dvs. hos befolkningen samt på kommunala, regionala (länsstyrelser, landsting, vattenmyndigheter) nationella och internationella (EU, globalt) nivåer. Det är ett viktigt mål att de olika insatserna följer likartad målsättning. En viktig faktor har härvid varit Brundtlandrapporten där uthållighetsbegreppet lyftes fram och blev allmänt accepterat även om liknande tankegångar framförts tidigare. Utifrån uthållighetsbegreppet har en gemensam policy kunnat utvecklas från Agenda 21 på lokal nivå till de globalt formulerade milleniemålen.

Oberoende av land förefaller det att finnas en allmän samsyn på övergripande mål för vatten och sanitet. Däremot är det en stor skillnad i hur målen har implementerats i olika länder beroende på prioriteringar gentemot andra angelägna områden, politiska system, ekonomiska förutsättningar, grad av kapacitetsuppbyggnad etc. De erfarenheter som byggts upp i Sverige och i en hel del av västvärlden har bedömts kunna av stort värde att överföra till andra länder med lägre utbyggnad eller standard för va - anläggningar.

Av detta skäl redovisas olika globala och regionala överenskommelser samt utvaldes två regioner (Östersjöregionen och MENA - regionen) för att bedöma likheter och olikheter. Uppenbara olikheter är den relativt rikliga tillgången på vatten i Östersjöregionen medan MENA - regionen är en av världens vatten knappaste regioner. Stora skillnader föreligger mellan olika länder inom respektive region. Likheter finns att man behöver nå liknande krav på kvaliteten på utsläppt avloppsvatten på sikt. I Östersjöregionen styr långtgående krav enligt Baltic Sea Action Plan avloppsvattenkvalitet och i MENA - regionen styr det allt större intresset för återanvändning av avloppsvatten för bevattning, industrianvändning och även för återanvändning som ren vatten.

På nationell nivå har valts att beskriva och diskutera Sverige och Irak och på lokal nivå har valts Växjö i Sverige och städerna Bagdad och Erbil i Irak respektive Kurdistan region i Irak. Medan Växjö kommun har kunnat följa en utveckling i linje med att nå uthållighet är situationen för städer i Irak och Kurdistan en helt annan beroende på försummad investering och underhåll av infrastruktur sedan en lång tid och effekter av krigshandlingar. Detta diskuteras utförligt och de åtgärder som krävs för att återställa och förbättra infrastrukturen beskrivs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, 2010. p. 39
Series
Trita-LWR LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2053
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-47863 (URN)978-91-7415-831-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-02-21 Created: 2020-02-21 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved

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