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Psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the short form of The Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID-5): a validation study
Department of Health and Social Sciences, Institute of Health and caring Science, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1884-5696
Department of Health and Social Sciences, Institute of Health and caring Science, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York City, New York, USA.
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2019 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 2, article id e022903Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To assess the psychometric properties of the short form of The Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID-5) in Norwegian adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey design.

METHODS: Participants (n=143) were included from three Western-Norway endocrinology outpatient clinics. Demographic and clinical data were collected in addition to questionnaires concerning diabetes-related distress, fear of hypoglycaemia, symptoms of depression, emotional well-being and perception of general health. Psychometric evaluation of the PAID-5 included confirming its postulated one-factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and assessing convergent validity, discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The retest questionnaire was sent out 35±15 days after the initial assessment to those who agreed (n=117).

RESULTS: The CFA for the PAID-5 scale showed excellent one-factor structure, and there was high internal consistency (α=0.89) and good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, ICC=0.81). The PAID-5 correlated positively with fear of hypoglycaemia (r=0.598) and depression (r=0.380) and negatively with emotional well-being (r=-0.363) and perception of general health (r=-0.420), thus satisfying convergent validity. Patients who had experienced episodes of serious hypoglycaemia in the past 6 months had a significantly higher PAID-5 mean score (7.5, SD=4.95) than those who had not had these episodes (5.0, SD=4.2 (p=0.043)).

CONCLUSION: The Norwegian PAID-5 was shown to be a reliable and valid short questionnaire for assessing diabetes-related distress among people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, its ability to discriminate between groups needs to be tested further in larger samples. The PAID-5 scale can be a particularly valuable screening instrument in outpatient clinics, as its brevity makes it easy to use as a tool in patient-provider encounters. This short questionnaire is useful in the national diabetes registry or population cohort studies as it enables increased knowledge regarding the prevalence of diabetes-related distress.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2019. Vol. 9, no 2, article id e022903
Keywords [en]
diabetes, distress, problem areas in diabetes, psychometric properties
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43336DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022903ISI: 000471124600038PubMedID: 30796115Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85062020674Local ID: GOA HHJ 2019;HHJADULTISOAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-43336DiVA, id: diva2:1295999
Available from: 2019-03-13 Created: 2019-03-13 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved

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