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From breaking-ice to breaking-out: Integration as an opportunity creation process
Sten K. Johnson Center for Entrepreneurship, Lund University, School of Economics and Management, Lund, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4260-7276
Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9248-3705
Immigrantinstitutet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 880-899Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Sustainable development
Sustainable Development
Abstract [en]

This paper conducts an inductive case study to understand how the opportunity creation process leads to integration. It examines four cases of immigrant entrepreneurs of Cameroonian, Lebanese, Mexican and Assyrian origins who founded their businesses in Sweden. The study relies on process-oriented theory building and develops an inductive model of integration as an opportunity creation process. The model identifies entrepreneurial ‘breaking’ actions occurring in the integration process. This entails that immigrants act when they are socially excluded and discriminated in the labour market by developing business ideas and becoming entrepreneurs. By practicing the new language and accommodating native customers’ preferences, immigrants then reorient their entrepreneurial ideas. Finally, the immigrants tailor their ideas to suit their new customers by strengthening their sense of belonging to the local community. The suggested model shows immigrants’ acculturation into the host society via three successive phases: breaking-ice, breaking-in, and breaking-out. In the breaking-ice phase, immigrants trigger entrepreneurial ideas to overcome the disadvantages that they face as immigrants in the host country. In the breaking-in phase, immigrants articulate their entrepreneurial ideas by bonding with the ethnic community. In the breaking-out phase, the immigrants reorient their entrepreneurial ideas by desegregating them locally. The paper concludes by elaborating theoretical and practical implications of the research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019. Vol. 25, no 5, p. 880-899
Keywords [en]
Entrepreneurship, Immigrants, Ethnic Groups, Opportunity
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42588DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-02-2018-0105ISI: 000479278800007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85062456161Local ID: PP JIBS 2019OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-42588DiVA, id: diva2:1277647
Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-01-11 Last updated: 2020-01-20Bibliographically approved

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Evansluong, QuangRamirez-Pasillas, Marcela

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