Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Left ventricular diastolic function is enhanced after peak exercise in endurance-trained adolescents as well as in their non-trained controls
Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
Department of Clinical Physiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform. The Academy of Health and Care, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden. (maria.faresjo@ju.se)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9819-0468
Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Department of Clinical Physiology, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
2018 (English)In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 1054-1061Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aims of the study were to explore the temporal change of cardiac function after peak exercise in adolescents, and to investigate how these functional changes relate to maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). The cohort consisted of 27 endurance-trained adolescents aged 13-19 years, and 27 controls individually matched by age and gender. Standard echocardiography and colour tissue Doppler were performed at rest, and immediately after as well as 15 min after a maximal cardio pulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a treadmill. The changes in systolic and diastolic parameters after exercise compared to baseline were similar in both groups. The septal E/e'-ratio increased immediately after exercise in both the active and the control groups (from 9·2 to 11·0; P<0·001, and from 8·7 to 10·2; P = 0·008, respectively). In a comparison between the two groups after CPET, the septal E/e'-ratio was higher in the active group both immediately after exercise and 15 min later compared to the control group (P = 0·007 and P = 0·006, respectively). We demonstrated a positive correlation between VO2max and cardiac function including LVEF and E/e' immediately after CPET, but the strongest correlation was found between VO2max and LVEDV (r = 0·67, P<0·001) as well as septal E/e' (r = 0·34, P = 0·013). Enhanced diastolic function was found in both groups, but this was more pronounced in active adolescents. The cardiac functional response to exercise, in terms of LVEF and E/e', correlates with the increase in VO2 uptake. These findings in trained as well as un-trained teenagers have practical implications when assessing cardiac function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018. Vol. 38, no 6, p. 1054-1061
Keywords [en]
E/e′, diastolic function, echocardiography, heart, systolic function, training, youngster
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-41801DOI: 10.1111/cpf.12534ISI: 000446073500019PubMedID: 29947056Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85054186924Local ID: PP HHJ 2019 embargo 12OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-41801DiVA, id: diva2:1254732
Available from: 2018-10-10 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Aspects of regular long-term endurance exercise in adolescents, with focus on cardiac size and function, hormones, and the immune system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspects of regular long-term endurance exercise in adolescents, with focus on cardiac size and function, hormones, and the immune system
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The long-term effects of starting high-intensity training at younger ages are largely unknown. The present studies focused on adolescents who had performed regular endurance exercise for several years at an elite level and compared those subjects with a control group of adolescents of similar age and sex who had not engaged in regular exercise. The knowledges generated by this research will contribute to further understanding of some of the physiological effects of strenuous regular exercise during adolescence.

Aim: The overall aim of this research was to investigate endurance-trained adolescents, focusing on cardiac size and function, hormones associated with growth and metabolism, and impact on the immune system.

Methods: All participants underwent echocardiography at rest as well as immediately and 15 minutes after amaximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. Blood samples were taken at rest and analyzed for biomarkers such as hormones, immune cell surface markers, and secreted cytokines and chemokines. The study design was crosssectional (Papers I, III, and IV) and comparative, with a quantitative approach in all four studies. The evaluationin Paper II used a pre-post test design with measurements of cardiac parameters before and after a maximal treadmill test. The studies in Papers I–III compared endurance-trained (active group) and untrained (controls) adolescents matched by age and sex, whereas the analysis in Paper IV considered differences between the sexes in the endurance-trained adolescents.

Results: Compared with controls, the endurance-trained adolescents showed increased size of all four heart chambers, as well as improved cardiac systolic function at rest. Considering cardiac changes from baseline to immediately after exercise, the systolic and diastolic patterns were similar in both groups, although the diastolic function was more enhanced in the active group. Strong associations between peak oxygen uptake and cardiac size and function could be seen both at rest and after exercise. Circulating hormones at rest did not differ between the two groups. No correlation between insulin-like growth factor 1 and cardiac size was found among the endurance-trained adolescents. Compared with endurance-trained girls, endurance-trained boys exhibited an elevated response to a potent type 1 diabetes-related autoantigen. Conversely, compared with the trained boys, the trained girls showed an increased number of circulating immune cells and increased secretion of C-peptide and proinsulin.

Conclusions: There are many benefits associated with regular exercise, and the present research did not provide any data to oppose that statement. Factors such as increased cardiac size at rest and exercise-related effects on cardiac functions do occur and therefore should be expected in endurance-trained adolescents with high peak oxygen uptake. Indeed, this should be interpreted as a sign of physiological adaptation and not as pathophysiology. The greater cardiac dimensions observed in these subjects could not be related to increased resting levels of hormones associated with growth and metabolism. The endurance-trained adolescents did show some sex-related differences with regard to their immune response at rest.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, 2019. p. 114
Series
Hälsohögskolans avhandlingsserie, ISSN 1654-3602 ; 098
Keywords
adolescence, endurance-trained, cardiac dimension, cardiac systolic function, cardiac diastolic function, growth hormone, immune response, echocardiography, biomarkers, cytokines, chemokines, insulin-like growth factor 1, type 1 diabetes-related autoantigen, proinsulin
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43516 (URN)978-91-85835-97-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-05, Forum Humanum, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden (FORSS)
Available from: 2019-04-23 Created: 2019-04-23 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Fulltext(301 kB)35 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 301 kBChecksum SHA-512
cb3a28d340a44078a4a5d64c707dfdf75b86b8ddb2a8a6d3cad84931871336480ad1992b9e1f4154d460595ac60635d8f8e50bede2680fd9af980553622ed8b8
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMedScopus

Authority records BETA

Rundqvist, LouiseFaresjö, MariaBlomstrand, Peter

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Rundqvist, LouiseFaresjö, MariaBlomstrand, Peter
By organisation
HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and BiomedicineHHJ. Biomedical Platform
In the same journal
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 35 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 100 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf