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Emergency preparedness management and civil defence in Sweden: An all-hazards approach for developed countries' supply chains
Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management (CeLS).
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses the evolving role of supply chain networks in the structures of the emergency preparedness planning. The thesis focuses on the management of planning in emergency preparedness and civil defence in Sweden. Various levels of planning are combined with insights from business and network theories to understand how the civil society actors involved meet demands imposed by complex emergencies and changing threats to civil society. Empirically, the study is based on five case studies that primarily use interviews and secondary materials from observations, documents and research. The combined findings and analyses of the embedded case studies are integrated into a conceptual whole (called kappa) that explains how the roles and relations of actors in emergency planning need to develop over time. The most important finding of this study is that civil society in developed countries must be organised in a completely different way than today to meet the changing demands. The all-hazards approach to planning offers civil society actors a rationale for entering into different networks. The supply chain networks can provide structure to the different types of planning. Moreover, this study shows that civil society actors have strategic capabilities for meeting threats, but these should be addressed in roles and tasks for the safety and security readiness. This capability can be achieved at different levels of planning (tactical, operational, strategic) and in different relations (civil, commercial, military, voluntary), which explains the significant differences between the emergency preparedness management in different response operations. It is suggested that a lack of political willingness or policy readiness to all-hazards planning provides substantial choices in interpreting the role and task of the emergency preparedness management system, through which supply chains networks mainly become a contextualized condition. Two underlying preparedness views are identified that contribute to the planning of actors and their relations when involved in the Swedish safety and security readiness. The civil defence planning for developing civil military relations is considered in networks for structuring, managing and coordinating these relations, on the one hand. The emergency preparedness and all-hazards approach planning, for managing the commercial, voluntary and individual relations, and for delimiting the networks into manageable nets, on the other hand. This thesis contributes to the current understanding of emergency preparedness management and civil defence planning using an all-hazards-planning strategy as objective instead of a fragmented planning objective (in separated systems). This understanding is linked to the evolving role of the supply chain network as the solution to the urgent need of structure of the fragmented preparedness planning to meet the increasingly changing demands. An all-hazards-planning approach helps to describe the managing and planning structures and how supply chain networks need to develop into the preparedness systems as delimited structures over time. Moreover, this thesis contributes to the emergency planning literature by paying attention to a different type of planning for safety and security in two ways: first, by specifying what essential capabilities of civil society actors are linked to the operationalisation of planning; second, by providing insights into civil military coordination along networks over time. Rather than defining the essential differences between actors in the networks, including the military and civil actors (which refers to public authorities and the commercial and voluntary sectors in Sweden), this thesis suggests that civil-military relations public-private collaboration and voluntary involvement in the supply chain network are essential capabilities for any developed country to deal with the risky availability of essential resources. By showing how this different preparedness planning is described and located over time, this thesis discusses emergency preparedness and network theory, all-hazards planning, applicability to other developed countries, safety and security strategies, and the relations among civil society actors to examine the dimensions in supply chain network structures that can support the planning.

 

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen fokuserar på planering och ledning av krisberedskap och civilt försvar i Sverige. I avhandlingen behandlas problematiken med hur olika försörjningsnätverk ska kunna utvecklas och samordnas för att ge en positiv effekt på Sveriges beredskap. Olika försörjningsnätverk identifieras för att ge underlag till strukturer och nivåer i beredskapsplaneringen. Avhandlingen ger exempel på hur olika aktörer som behöver ingå i den nationella planeringen och styrningen behöver koordineras för att möta snabbt förändrade krav på försvar och säkerhet. Olika planeringsnivåer kombineras med lärdomar inom bl.a. logistik och nätverksteori inom näringsliv och militära områden. En viktig del utgörs av förståelsen för hur samhällsaktörer behöver bli involverade för att möta komplexa krissituationer (inklusive krigshot) och förändrade hot mot samhället.

Avhandlingen bygger på fem sammanhängande studier baserade på informationsinsamling via; intervjuer, material från observationer i olika länder och inläsning av relevanta dokument och aktuell forskning. Resultaten och analyserna av studierna är integrerade i en helhet som förklarar hur roller och relationer mellan aktörer i beredskapsplanering behöver utvecklas över tiden med stöd av nätverkens olika komponenter (aktörer, resurser och aktiviteter). Studierna bidrar med kunskap om civil-militär samordning samt samverkan mellan offentlig verksamhet, frivilligorganisationer och näringslivet.

En viktig slutsats i avhandlingen är att beredskapen i det civila samhället i ett utvecklat land som Sverige behöver utvecklas och ”moderniseras” för att samhället ska kunna möta snabbt förändrade hot och olika krav på beredskap. Planering måste omfatta alla sorts risker och hot (även krigshotet) och det ska vara ledande för hur samhällets aktörer behöver involveras i olika försörjnings- och beredskapsnätverk.

Effektivare beredskapsplanering är en strategisk förmåga som innebär att aktörer ska fungera i roller och med de uppgifter som bidrar till Sveriges säkerhet och försvar. Denna förmåga uppnås på olika sätt och på olika nivåer, genom bl.a.; olika sorters planering (taktisk, operativ och strategisk), olika typer av utvecklade relationer (civila, kommersiella, militära, frivilliga), samt samordnade försörjningskedjor över tiden och koordinerade aktiviteter för olika kombinationer av responsoperationer i både fred och krig.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School , 2018. , p. 180
Series
JIBS Dissertation Series, ISSN 1403-0470 ; 121
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39457ISBN: 978-91-86345-83-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-39457DiVA, id: diva2:1206379
Public defence
2018-06-08, B1014, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Emergency preparedness planning in developed countries: the Swedish case
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergency preparedness planning in developed countries: the Swedish case
2016 (English)In: Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2042-6747, E-ISSN 2042-6755, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 145-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the needs of the supply-chain (SC) network when coping with permanent and temporary demands, this paper analyzes the Swedish emergency preparedness SC network. This network comprises planning procedures and resources, as well as numerous organizations and other participants in civil society that take part in the system to cope with threats and ongoing crises. Planning constitutes a critical infrastructure because the system must develop the ability to shift SC functions from permanent to temporary networks in ongoing crises and war.

Design/methodology/approach – A research study is performed based on data gathered by three qualitative methods concerning the SC network of emergency preparedness planning.

Findings – This study demonstrates the relevance of a wide empirical field challenging several theoretical perspectives of the SC network in preparedness planning and the shift to ongoing crises. Further research targeting key capabilities is needed to further improve understanding of the challenges for developed countries in managing potential threats and crises.

Originality/value – Actors taking part in the preparedness system have found it challenging to coordinate. Due, in part, to the lack of a common threat profile, key capabilities remain outside preparedness planning, e.g., military, commercial and voluntary actors as well as unclear and inconsistent regulations. Thus, building the SC network demonstrates the need to target the military, the voluntary and commercial sectors and their ability to develop the networks in preparedness planning. In a reformed system, all actors must strengthen civil defense in an all-hazard approach, which in planning encompasses the entire threat scale, demonstrating key functions and the ability to shift to temporary networks responding to ongoing crises, including war.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keywords
Civil society actors, Emergency preparedness planning, Supply-chain network
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-31217 (URN)10.1108/JHLSCM-10-2015-0039 (DOI)000381906000002 ()2-s2.0-84978526882 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-10 Created: 2016-08-10 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
2. Voluntary sector networks in emergency preparedness in developed countries: the case of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Voluntary sector networks in emergency preparedness in developed countries: the case of Sweden
2017 (English)In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39453 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-05-16
3. Managing military involvement in emergency preparedness in developed countries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing military involvement in emergency preparedness in developed countries
2017 (English)In: Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2042-6747, E-ISSN 2042-6755, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 350-374Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse supply chain network management (SCNM) in the context of emergency preparedness management (EPM). The results of this study revealed that civil-military relations are essential for EPM to function as a coordinated approach to safety and security, and are necessary to respond effectively to complex emergencies and mitigating threats to developed countries. Civil-military relations are still a concern in the context of communication, the exercise of authority, and the coordination of emergency supplies (ES) to emergency operations.

Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative study is based on field observations, with attention focused on the EPM of Sweden, Finland, and Poland. The analysis of a broader SCNM through EPM was supported by semi-structured interviews among civil-military actors in Sweden, information collected from informal conversations known as “hanging out”, and secondary materials. Empirically, the analysis included a variety of civil-military relationships and identified implications for management, policy, and planning that are applicable to developed countries.

Findings: The management of civil-military relations is a meaningful resource when used as an overall approach for safety and security. The integration of civil-military relations in EPM in the planning of ES is a long-standing and complex matter. The management of Swedish civil-military relations in EPM is recognising that implications for management are imbedded in continuous policy changes in, for example, the Swedish policy history. Civil-military relational complications that arise in the field of operations are impossible to anticipate during emergency planning, as those complications are grounded in policy changes.

Originality/value: Escalating threats to developed countries are highlighted. The study underlines the primary measures used in studying military involvement in EPM. An understanding of SCNM as a choice for management can be obtained in future research that focuses on a broader role of the military in EPM. Sweden has emphasised a clearer role for the military by reactivating total defence planning and by evolving common practices and processes with civil actors in civil defence. Meanwhile, Poland and Finland are increasing their focus on supporting the management of civil-military policies on safety and security regarding communication, authority, and developing coordination. Consistent with findings from previous reports on SCNM, civil-military relations are essential for EPM. This study confirmed the importance of civil-military coordination, the management and practice of authority, and shared forms of communication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
Keywords
Changed threats, Civil-military coordination, Complex emergencies, Emergency preparedness management, Emergency supply, Supply chain network management
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38493 (URN)10.1108/JHLSCM-04-2017-0014 (DOI)000418541700007 ()2-s2.0-85036661890 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-13 Created: 2018-01-13 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
4. Managing strategic networks in emergency preparedness: a study of multiple networks from Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing strategic networks in emergency preparedness: a study of multiple networks from Sweden
2018 (English)In: Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2042-6747, E-ISSN 2042-6755Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Purpose – This study analyses the management of commercial actors in strategic networks of emergency preparedness management (EPM) in developed countries and how these strategies connect to the emergency response efficiency. This study uses collaboration, strategy and efficiency to evaluate the private governance of the food, healthcare and transportation sectors and follows an analysis of these sectors’ management that finds an ambivalent impact on the efficiency of the worldwide supply chain network (SCN) system. This study discusses many strategic networks and nets of commercial standards with different management structures and emphasizes illustrating the EPM context, thereby offering directions for future research.

Design/methodology/approach – An empirical research approach and triangulation methodology were adopted to design the selection, evaluation and contribution of the observed data and the humanitarian and business literature. An overview of strategic networks’ role in EPM in Sweden comprises several network approaches and considers the strategic value of three SCNs for response efficiency.

Findings – The study finds that strategic networks are relevant for EPM and response efficiency and can be delimited and adapted to developing countries’ demands. However, growing interest in networks’ strategic value for EPM stresses public-private collaboration as a strategic choice to achieve response efficiency. To offer strategic planning that ties demand with supply, public-private actors must collaborate in SCNs.

Originality/value – The study contributes to the existing literature on strategic networks, e.g., industrial networks, by illustrating their strategic value for developed countries’ SCNs. It also contributes to the business literature, e.g., on strategic net management. The work is original because it adopts a practical perspective involving buyers and suppliers in planning, the delimitation of their capability in nets, and the strategic value of SCN collaboration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Emergency preparedness management; Strategic networks and nets; Supply chain network; Public-private collaboration; Developed countries
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39455 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-05-16
5. Emergency preparedness and civil defence: a strategy approach to safety and security in developed countries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergency preparedness and civil defence: a strategy approach to safety and security in developed countries
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-39456 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-05-16

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