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The Wealth of Urban Regions: On the Location of Creative Individuals and Firms
Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4560-1905
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This doctoral thesis consists of four individual chapters and an introduction to the thesis. The common feature of the four separate chapters is their focus on the location patterns of creative individuals and firms, the inter-relation between those actors and the regional development and how those actors in the end shape the wealth of urban regions.

The first chapter deals with what happens after a new technology is introduced with a focus on the geographical location and distribution.  The assumption is that new, non-standardized techniques frequently are initiated and promoted in large urban regions. In order to leave space for new activities, standardized and maturing techniques must gradually be moved to medium and small sized regions.

The second chapter analyzes the occupational distribution within Swedish industries, on the basis of characteristics of the individuals they employ. This chapter focuses especially on how to best identify so-called creative industries. It also examines the location patterns of the different types of industries.

The third chapter focuses on the role of different types of talent, as well as on factors that shape the distribution of talent across regions. A main theme is the role of universities, tolerance and service diversity. The chapter also examines the economic effect from those factors in combination with talent and technology.

The last essay investigates the relationship between tolerance and openness on one hand, and regional housing values on the other. It argues that artists, bohemians and gays affect housing values through two kinds of mechanisms: an aesthetic-amenity premium and a tolerance or open culture premium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping International Business School , 2008. , 184 p.
Series
JIBS Dissertation Series, ISSN 1403-0470 ; 53
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-6690ISBN: 91-89164-92-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-6689DiVA: diva2:114090
Public defence
2008-11-14, B1014, Sparbanksaulan, JIBS, Jönköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-12-04 Created: 2008-11-05 Last updated: 2015-11-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Introducing a New Technology: The Location and Diffusion Process of ICT
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing a New Technology: The Location and Diffusion Process of ICT
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper studies the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector in Sweden during its development boom from 1990 - 2000, with a focus on locationand diffusion, using Stockholm and Jönköping as reference leader and follower region. The location and diffusion pattern of firms within the sector is analyzed, based on a telephone interview survey. According to theory, new, non-standardized techniques are frequently initiated and promoted in leader regions. In order to leave space for new activities, standardized and maturing techniques must gradually beremoved from the leading region to follower regions. Also, non-standardized ICT products and ICT services are assumed to be distance sensitive; that is, there is a need for close contacts between buyer and seller for production and consumption, increasing the importance of the nearby local market. The results show that the ICT industry was introduced earlier and faster in the Stockholm region. There was a significant difference in the software/hardware ratio between the regions, and Stockholm had a significantly larger share of its production within the ICT service sector. The Stockholm firms also had considerably more spin-offs and multi establishments.

Keyword
Location, Diffusion, Technology
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-6866 (URN)
Available from: 2008-12-04 Created: 2008-12-03 Last updated: 2015-11-10Bibliographically approved
2. Occupational Distribution within Swedish Industries: An Identification and Market Relation Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupational Distribution within Swedish Industries: An Identification and Market Relation Analysis
(English)Manuscript (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This paper sheds new light on the Swedish industry structure, by defining it through its occupational and educational structure. It is a merge of all Swedish private firmsand all individuals employed within those firms, aggregated over industry, for theyear 2001. Education is separated from creative occupations, and we also identify industries with the largest concentration of service and manufacturing occupations.The growth pattern within the industry segments between 1993 and 2001 is provided, and an examination of the spatial distribution. While there is a closerelation between larger markets and knowledge, creative and service industries, wecan detect a weaker link to the manufacturing industries. The effect from being located in the main urban area within the urban region, as well as within one of the three metropolitan regions, is highly significant for all industries, but relativelyweaker for the manufacturing industry. The results also imply that diversity andcreativity, in terms of the number of establishments, closely relate to the metropolitan regions. The concentration of activities, in terms of the number of employees, is more driven by large markets in general.

Keyword
Occupation, Industry, Creative, Knowledge, Market Size
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-6867 (URN)
Available from: 2008-12-04 Created: 2008-12-03 Last updated: 2015-11-10Bibliographically approved
3. Talent, Technology and Regional Wage Levels in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Talent, Technology and Regional Wage Levels in Sweden
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

While there is consensus on the importance of human capital to economicdevelopment, debate takes shape around two central issues. First, how is humancapital best measured? Second, there is debate over the factors that yield thegeographic distribution of human capital in the first place. With regard to the firstquestion, this work reveals that occupational or “creative class” measures tend tooutperform educational measures in accounting for regional wages per capita acrossour sample of Swedish regions. In view of the second question, universities, servicediversity, and tolerance affect the distribution of human capital, though in differentways and thus play complimentary roles in the geographic distribution of talent.

Keyword
Creative occupations, Human Capital, Technology, Wage Levels
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-6868 (URN)
Available from: 2008-12-03 Created: 2008-12-03 Last updated: 2015-11-10Bibliographically approved
4. There Goes the Neighborhood: How and Why Bohemians, Artists and Gays Affect Regional Housing Values
Open this publication in new window or tab >>There Goes the Neighborhood: How and Why Bohemians, Artists and Gays Affect Regional Housing Values
(English)Manuscript (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

It is often conjectured that artistic, bohemian, and gay populations increase housing values in the neighborhoods and communities in which they reside. But these groups are small, and the evidence of their effect on housing prices is anecdotal and limited. We argue that artists, bohemians and gays affect housing values through two kinds of mechanisms: an aesthetic-amenity premium; and a tolerance or open culturepremium. To examine this, we introduce a combined measure of bohemian and gay populations – the Bohemian-Gay Index. We conduct statistical analyses to test the performance of this measure against other variables expected to affect housing values– income, wages, technology, and human capital. The findings indicate that the Bohemian-Gay Index has a substantial direct relation with housing values across all permutations of the model and across all region sizes. It remains positive andsignificant alongside variables for regional income, wages, technology, and human capital. The Bohemian-Gay Index also has a substantial direct correlation with other key variables, particularly income, indicating an additional indirect effect on housing values.

Keyword
Housing, human capital, creative class, income, gay, artistic, bohemian
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-6869 (URN)
Available from: 2008-12-04 Created: 2008-12-03 Last updated: 2015-11-10Bibliographically approved

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