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Feminina män och... Maskulina kvinnor?: En kvalitativ interkulturell jämförelsestudie av genuskonstruktion i reklambilder i Sverige och USA
Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
2017 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Feminine men and… Masculine women? : A qualitative cross-cultural comparison study of gender construction in the advertising images in Sweden and the US (English)
Abstract [sv]

Den här studien syftar till att genom en kvalitativ metod pröva tillförlitligheten i Geert Hofstedes maskulinitetsdimension (MAS). MAS förklaras ingående i uppsatsens inledande kapitel, men är en del i Hofstedes mer övergripande kulturdimensionsteori, som ämnar att förklara kulturella skillnader mellan olika länder (De Moij & Hofstede, 2010). Kulturdimensionsteorin och MAS har prövats i flertalet tidigare interkulturella jämförelsestudier, där man jämfört medieinnehåll i två eller fler länder. Många av dessa studier har varit av kvantitativt slag, och har genom statistiskt säkerställda resultat kunnat legitimera teorin i flera avseenden (Wiles, Wiles & Tjernlund, 1995; An & Kim, 2007; Stoica, Miller & Ardelea, 2011).

I vår studie har vi med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys jämfört reklambilder publicerade i livsstilsmagasin i Sverige och USA. Vi har genom att titta på hur genus konstrueras i reklambilder i de båda länderna funnit att reklambilder i svenska livsstilsmagasin innehåller mer icke-stereotypa framställningar av män och kvinnor jämfört med reklambilder funna i amerikanska livsstilsmagasin. Studiens teoretiska grund bygger på ett socialkonstruktionistiskt ramverk, där genusteori och stereotyper utgör en fundamental utgångspunkt för studien. Analysen av materialunderlaget har gjorts med hjälp av bland annat Goffmans (1979) klassifikationer för könsframställning, där även feministisk blickanalys har inkluderats i analysverktyget.

Studiens resultat är inte entydiga då det finns många likheter mellan reklambilder publicerade i svenska och amerikanska livsstilsmagasin, men det finns en märkbar skillnad i hur genus konstrueras i reklambilder i de båda länderna, något som går att härleda till den teoretiska grunden i Hofstedes MAS-dimension.

Abstract [en]

This study aims to – through a qualitative method – examine the reliability of Geert Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions. More specifically, we are interested in Hofstede’s dimension masculinity/femininity (MAS), which for one tries to explain differences regarding the view on sex and gender between different cultures – a more thorough explanation of MAS follows in the initial chapter of this thesis. There have been several prior studies testing the reliability of MAS; using a quantitative method they have compared media content and advertising in two or more countries, and the results have in most cases legitimized MAS and the theory of cultural dimensions (Wiles, Wiles & Tjernlund, 1995; An & Kim, 2007; Stoica, Miller & Ardelea, 2011).

In this study we have compared advertising images published in lifestyle magazines in Sweden and the US using a qualitative text/content analysis. Through examining how gender is constructed in advertising images found in magazines from the two countries, we have found that images published in Swedish magazines contain more non-stereotypical portrayals of men and women than those published in American magazines. When we say more, we don’t mean as in a higher frequency, that would take a quantitative method to determine, but there are more unique themes regarding the construction of gender in Swedish advertising images compared to American.

Gender theory and stereotypes have been theoretical foundations of this study, and the actual analysis of images has been conducted using feminist gaze analysis together with Goffman’s (1979) classifications of gender portrayal. The results are not unequivocal since we found similarities regarding gender construction in advertising images in the two countries; however, despite the similarities, there is also a noticeable difference in the construction of gender that can be linked to the theoretical foundation in Hofstedes MAS-dimension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , 60 p.
Keyword [en]
Hofstede, MAS, gender theory, stereotypes, Goffman, advertising, Sweden, USA
Keyword [sv]
Hofstede, MAS, genusteori, stereotyper, Goffman, reklam, Sverige, USA
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-35056ISRN: JU-HLK-MKA-1-20170078OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-35056DiVA: diva2:1073450
Subject / course
HLK, Media and Communication Studies
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2017-02-20 Created: 2017-02-10 Last updated: 2017-02-20Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
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  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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