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Drug list as a cognitive support to provide detailed information on a patient's drug use: A comparison of two methods within the assessment of drug misuse and dependence
Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare. Department of Dependency, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1749-4727
Department of Dependency, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8158-0486
Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Psychiatric Clinic, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
2016 (English)In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 1470-1476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

Background: It is important to identify the type of drugs a patient has used, especially when polydrug misuse has increased and new drugs and patterns of misuse are quickly spread. Objectives: In order to acquire sufficient information about drug use, an effective and simple form of mapping is needed.

Methods: Persons actualized for Opioid Substitution Treatment (n = 135) were interviewed about their drug-history in a two-stage model. First, they were asked to write down the drugs misused, and dot those injected with a felt pen. Second, they were asked to do the same on a drug list provided as a cognitive support. For a subsample of 50 persons, the drug list included four fictive drugs to evaluate possible over-reporting.

Results: The use of a drug list did not take longer than the traditional way of using open questions, i.e. about 5–8 minutes. Using a drug list gave a cognitive support resulting in a much higher proportion/number of reported drugs. The majority, 97%, used more than one drug. None of the patients who were given the drug list that included fictive drug names reported having used any of them. The respondents reported 43 additional substances to the 125 given on the list which improve our knowledge of the drug scene.

Conclusions/importance: Using a drug-list was superior to open questions; it does not take more time and provides additional, clinically relevant information than open questions. Using a drug-list also gives improved knowledge of new drugs entering the local drug scene.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 51, no 11, p. 1470-1476
Keywords [en]
cognitive support, diagnostic instruments, drug anamnesis, opioid substitution therapy, Substance use disorders
National Category
Substance Abuse
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-31258DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2016.1186697ISI: 000382325500008PubMedID: 27355832Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84976385510OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-31258DiVA, id: diva2:953032
Available from: 2016-08-16 Created: 2016-08-16 Last updated: 2019-04-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. En dyster parentes – opiatregeln i svensk LARO-behandling 2010–2016
Open this publication in new window or tab >>En dyster parentes – opiatregeln i svensk LARO-behandling 2010–2016
2019 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
A dismal parenthesis – The opiate rule in Swedish opioid maintenance treatment 2010–2016
Abstract [en]

Opioids are well documented to arouse euphoria, relieve pain, and to have a high dependency potential. Opioid dependence is a serious chronic condition with a high risk of extensive worsened health, relapse and premature death.

Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is well researched and has strong scientific support. In Sweden, OMT over time was subjected to polarised and infected political debate and has been strictly regulated by the National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW). During 2010–2016 NBHW redefined the diagnostic concept of “opiate dependence” in the regulation SOSFS 2009:27. Dependence to only three opioids: heroin, opium or morphine, could give eligibility to OMT (here called the “opiate rule”). The purpose stated was to prevent those dependent to other opioides, e.g. buprenorphine,from receiving OMT. Applicants with severe opioid dependence were thereby divided into two subgroups: those with “opiate” dependence related to heroin, morphine or opium, and those with opioid dependence who lacked documentation in relation to the three opiates. The question is whether there were differences between these groups concerning problem severity or substance-related diagnostics that could justify differences in access to OMT?

A population (n = 127) actualised for OMT during 2005-2011 in Jönköping County is studied regarding severity of problems, diagnostics and trajectories in and out of treatment. In order to provide precise drug use data, a cognitive tool for taking anamnestic information, called the Drug List, was developed.

In Study I, using the Addiction Severity Index, the two groups were found to be quite similar in severity of health problems, social situation and drug problems, including overdoses and injections.

In Study II, the Drug List was found to be superior to a traditional way of taking anamnestic data, more sensitive and giving more precise data, without taking more time. Validity was shown in relation to faked drugs.

In Study III, using a structured diagnostic interview, ADDIS, with the Drug List, showed that both two groups qualified for severe opioid dependence, that opiates and other opioids had contributed equally to the development of opioid dependency, and that the two groups also had similar additional substance dependence problems.

Study IV investigated how “the opiate rule” affected practice by interviewing representatives of OMT clinics as well as a representative of a users’ association. The regulation created dilemmas for clinics as well as for users. Users developed a strategy of getting "negative merits" for being eligible to OMT. Clinicians developed strategies to find ways “around” the regulation in order to admit patients in OMT.

Study V followed those who had applied for OMT and found four trajectory subgroups – those denied OMT, those discharged, those readmitted, and those who remained in treatment. The study provides evidence for a more positive development being related to more involvment in OMT concerning health, social situation as well as substance use problems. Being denied or discharged is related to increased risks of a negative development.

The thesis conclude that there was no support for dividing applicants according to “the opiate rule”. The purpose of top-down control using regulations, is to guarantee uniform and knowledge-based care. In this case the regulation had negative effects in these respects, increasing risks for the applicants, and lost credibility from the profession. The opiate rule in SOSFS 2009:27 is therefore a dismal parenthesis in the history of OMT in Sweden, and could be studied to prevent similar mistakes in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, 2019. p. 152
Series
Hälsohögskolans avhandlingsserie, ISSN 1654-3602 ; 095
Keywords
opiates, opioids, opioid maintenance treatment, methadone, buprenorphine, regulation, National Board of Health and Welfare, opiater, opioider, opioidberoende, buprenorfin, metadon, läkemedelsassisterad behandling, föreskrift, Socialstyrelsen
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43443 (URN)978-91-85835-94-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-10, Forum Humanum, Hälsohögskolan, Jönköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-04-10Bibliographically approved

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Monwell, BodilGerdner, ArneBülow, Per

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