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Upper Limb Kinematics of Handwriting among Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder
Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Health Professions, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1129-8071
Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Health Professions, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Health Professions, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
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2022 (English)In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 22, no 23, article id 9224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) often experience difficulties with handwriting legibility and speed. This study investigates the relationship between handwriting and upper limb kinematics to characterize movement patterns of children with DCD and typically developing (TD) children.

Methods: 30 children with and without DCD matched for age, gender, and parent education were compared across handwriting abilities using a standardized handwriting assessment of both copied and dictated tasks (A-A Handwriting). The 3D motion capture system (Qualysis) was used to analyze upper limb kinematics and characterize movement patterns during handwriting and contrasted with written output.

Results: Children with DCD wrote fewer legible letters in both copying and dictation. Children with DCD also showed poor automatization of key writing concepts. Atypical wrist postures were associated with reduced legibility for children with DCD (F (1,27) 4.71, p = 0.04, p = 0.04, p-η2  0.15); whereas for TD children, better legibility was associated with greater variations in movement speed, particularly of the wrist (rho = −0.578, p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Results reflect different movement parameters influencing handwriting in children with DCD. An improved understanding of the movement characteristics during handwriting of these children may assist intervention design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022. Vol. 22, no 23, article id 9224
Keywords [en]
DCD, handwriting, legibility, 3D motion analysis, kinematics
National Category
Neurology Pediatrics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-59008DOI: 10.3390/s22239224ISI: 000896119600001PubMedID: 36501925Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85143831367Local ID: GOA;intsam;844763OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-59008DiVA, id: diva2:1714818
Available from: 2022-11-30 Created: 2022-11-30 Last updated: 2023-01-02Bibliographically approved

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