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The digitalised work environment: Health, experiences and actions
Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8196-1289
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The aim of this thesis was to examine the association between technostress, operationalised as information and communication technology (ICT) demands, and indicators of work-related stress, as well as its association with self-rated health. Additional aims were to identify occupational groups at risk with regard to ICT demands, and to describe experiences of technostress and how it was handled by healthcare managers.

Methods: The thesis includes four individual papers. Papers I–III have a quantitative (cross-sectional or prospective) study design and are based on data derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) and collected between 2006 and 2016. Data was analysed by statistical methods, such as linear and logistic regression analysis. Paper IV has a qualitative study design and is based on data from 20 semi-structured interviews with healthcare managers. The data was analysed using the critical incident technique.

Results: ICT demands were correlated with job strain and effort-reward imbalance, especially the demands and effort dimensions of these measures. High ICT demands were associated with suboptimal self-rated health in cross-sectional analyses and in prospective analyses including repeated measurement. Managers, and particularly ‘managers in healthcare and other community services’, followed by ‘managers in education’, had the highest odds ratio of ICT demands, in comparison with both ‘non-managers’ and ‘all other managers’. Healthcare managers’ experiences of technostress could be categorised into the main areas ‘negative aspects of digital communication’, ‘poor user experience of ICTs’ and ‘needs to improve organisational resources’. The actions they took to cope with technostress were categorised into the main areas ‘culture, norms and social support’, ‘individual resources’ and ‘organisational resources’.

Conclusions: Technostress operationalised as ICT demands is associated with suboptimal self-rated health. Occupational groups differ in their exposure to ICT demands by industry and position. Organisational efforts to ensure a sustainable and healthy digital work environment are warranted. ICT demands should be assessed against ICT resources for a comprehensive understanding of their association with health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare , 2020. , p. 74
Series
Hälsohögskolans avhandlingsserie, ISSN 1654-3602 ; 104
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-48231ISBN: 978-91-88669-03-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-48231DiVA, id: diva2:1427727
Public defence
2020-06-05, Forum Humanum, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-04-30 Created: 2020-04-30 Last updated: 2020-05-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Information and communication technology demands at work: the association with job strain, effort-reward imbalance and self-rated health in different socio-economic strata
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information and communication technology demands at work: the association with job strain, effort-reward imbalance and self-rated health in different socio-economic strata
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2016 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 7, p. 1049-1058Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is common in modern working life. ICT demands may give rise to experience of work-related stress. Knowledge about ICT demands in relation to other types of work-related stress and to self-rated health is limited. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the association between ICT demands and two types of work-related stress [job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI)] and to evaluate the association between these work-related stress measures and self-rated health, in general and in different SES strata.

METHODS: This study is based on cross-sectional data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health collected in 2014, from 14,873 gainfully employed people. ICT demands, job strain, ERI and self-rated health were analysed as the main measures. Sex, age, SES, lifestyle factors and BMI were used as covariates.

RESULTS: ICT demands correlated significantly with the dimensions of the job strain and ERI models, especially with the demands (r = 0.42; p < 0.01) and effort (r = 0.51; p < 0.01) dimensions. ICT demands were associated with suboptimal self-rated health, also after adjustment for age, sex, SES, lifestyle and BMI (OR 1.49 [95 % CI 1.36-1.63]), but job strain (OR 1.93 [95 % CI 1.74-2.14) and ERI (OR 2.15 [95 % CI 1.95-2.35]) showed somewhat stronger associations with suboptimal self-rated health.

CONCLUSION: ICT demands are common among people with intermediate and high SES and associated with job strain, ERI and suboptimal self-rated health. ICT demands should thus be acknowledged as a potential stressor of work-related stress in modern working life.

Keywords
ICT demands; Job strain; Effort-reward imbalance; Self-rated health; Socio-economic status
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-29977 (URN)10.1007/s00420-016-1140-8 (DOI)000382703500003 ()27193569 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84969895686 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-1141
Available from: 2016-05-20 Created: 2016-05-20 Last updated: 2020-04-30Bibliographically approved
2. Repeated exposure to high ICT demands at work, and development of suboptimal self-rated health: findings from a 4-year follow-up of the SLOSH study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Repeated exposure to high ICT demands at work, and development of suboptimal self-rated health: findings from a 4-year follow-up of the SLOSH study
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2019 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 5, p. 717-728Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The knowledge about the association between Information and Communication Technology (ICT) demands at work and self-rated health (SRH) is insufficient. The aim of this study was to examine the association between repeated exposure to high ICT demands at work, and risk of suboptimal SRH, and to determine modifications by sex or socioeconomic position (SEP).

Methods

A prospective design was used, including repeated measurement of ICT demands at work, measured 2 years apart. SRH was measured at baseline and at follow-up after 4 years. The data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), including 4468 gainfully employees (1941 men, 2527 women) with good SRH at baseline.

Results

In the total study sample, repeated exposure to high ICT demands at work was associated with suboptimal SRH at follow-up (OR 1.34 [CI 1.06–1.70]), adjusted for age, sex, SEP, health behaviours, BMI, job strain and social support. An interaction between ICT demands and sex was observed (p = 0.010). The risk was only present in men (OR 1.53 [CI 1.09–2.16]), and not in women (OR 1.17 [CI 0.85–1.62]). The risk of suboptimal SRH after consistently high ICT demands at work was most elevated in participants with high SEP (OR 1.68 [CI 1.02–2.79]), adjusted for age, sex, health behaviours, BMI and job strain. However, no significant interaction between ICT demands and SEP regarding SRH was observed.

Conclusion

Repeated exposure to high ICT demands at work was associated with suboptimal SRH at follow-up, and the association was modified by sex.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
ICT demands at work; Occupational health; Work-related stress; Self-rated health; Gender differences; Socioeconomic position
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-42592 (URN)10.1007/s00420-019-01407-6 (DOI)000473828600010 ()30684000 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060727375 (Scopus ID)HOA HHJ 2019 (Local ID)HOA HHJ 2019 (Archive number)HOA HHJ 2019 (OAI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013-1141
Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-01-11 Last updated: 2020-04-30Bibliographically approved
3. Technostress operationalised as information and communication technology (ICT) demands among managers and other occupational groups: results from the Swedish longitudinal occupational survey of health (SLOSH)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technostress operationalised as information and communication technology (ICT) demands among managers and other occupational groups: results from the Swedish longitudinal occupational survey of health (SLOSH)
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-48227 (URN)
Note

Submitted (2020)

Available from: 2020-04-30 Created: 2020-04-30 Last updated: 2020-04-30
4. Healthcare managers’ experiences of technostress and the actions they take to handle it – a critical incident analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Healthcare managers’ experiences of technostress and the actions they take to handle it – a critical incident analysis
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-48229 (URN)
Note

Submitted (2020)

Available from: 2020-04-30 Created: 2020-04-30 Last updated: 2020-04-30

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