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Water management and performance on local and global scales: A comparison between two regions and their possibilities of knowledge transfer
Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering School of Architecture and the Built Environment Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7206-1342
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Sustainable development
Sustainable Development
Abstract [en]

The problem to secure safe water supply, good sanitation and a good watercourse and marine environment status has become increasingly complex and at the same time more and more important to meet. It has been recognized, that an integrated approach must be used to meet not only technical and scientific aspects, but the role should also be included of factors such as economics, acceptability, capacity building, and efficient management in the overall view. Integrated approach efforts need to be introduced at different levels, i.e. among the population as well as at municipal, regional (county administrative board, county council, water authority) national and international (EU, global) levels. An important goal is that various activities should follow similar objectives.

One important factor in this respect is the Brundtland report in which the concept of sustainability was highlighted and universally accepted, even though similar ideas had been put forward earlier. Based on the concept of sustainability a common policy has been developed from Agenda 21 at the local level to globally formulated Millennium targets. Independently of the country, general consensus seems to exist on overall goals for water and sanitation. However, there is a big difference in the way the goals have been implemented in different countries depending on priorities to other areas of concern as political systems, economic conditions, and the degree of capacity building. The experience developed in Sweden and in large parts of the Western world has been judged to be of great value to be transferred to other countries with a lower development or lower standards of water and sewerage systems. For this reason, several global and regional agreements are presented, and two regions (the Baltic Sea and the MENA regions) were chosen to assess similarities and differences between them. Obvious differences are the relatively abundant supply of water in the Baltic region, while the MENA region is one of the world's poorest regions with regard to water availability. Major differences also exist between countries within each region. Among the similarities is the need to achieve similar demands on the quality of discharged wastewater in the long run. The Baltic Sea Action Plan controls the stringent requirements of wastewater quality in the Baltic region, and in the MENA region the growing interest in wastewater reuse for irrigation, industrial use and also for reuse as clean water is the guiding factor.

On the national level Sweden and Iraq have been selected for description and discussion and at local level Växjö in Sweden and the cities of Baghdad and Erbil in Iraq and the Kurdistan region of Iraq, respectively. While Växjö municipality has been able to follow a path in line with achieving sustainability the situation of cities in Iraq and Kurdistan are entirely different due to failed investments and maintenance of infrastructure for a long time as well as the effects of war. This is discussed in detail and the actions needed to restore and improve the infrastructure are described.

Abstract [sv]

Problematiken kring att ordna en säker vattenförsörjning, god sanitet och god status för recipienter och för marin miljö har blivit alltmer komplex och samtidigt alltmer viktig att tillgodose. Det har härvid insetts att integrerade synsätt måste användas för att tillgodose inte bara tekniska och naturvetenskapliga aspekter utan även rollen av faktorer, som ekonomi, acceptans, kapacitetsuppbyggnad, och effektiv förvaltning bör också innefattas i helheten.

Insatser i det integrerade synsättet behöver införas på olika nivåer dvs. hos befolkningen samt på kommunala, regionala (länsstyrelser, landsting, vattenmyndigheter) nationella och internationella (EU, globalt) nivåer. Det är ett viktigt mål att de olika insatserna följer likartad målsättning. En viktig faktor har härvid varit Brundtlandrapporten där uthållighetsbegreppet lyftes fram och blev allmänt accepterat även om liknande tankegångar framförts tidigare. Utifrån uthållighetsbegreppet har en gemensam policy kunnat utvecklas från Agenda 21 på lokal nivå till de globalt formulerade milleniemålen.

Oberoende av land förefaller det att finnas en allmän samsyn på övergripande mål för vatten och sanitet. Däremot är det en stor skillnad i hur målen har implementerats i olika länder beroende på prioriteringar gentemot andra angelägna områden, politiska system, ekonomiska förutsättningar, grad av kapacitetsuppbyggnad etc. De erfarenheter som byggts upp i Sverige och i en hel del av västvärlden har bedömts kunna av stort värde att överföra till andra länder med lägre utbyggnad eller standard för va - anläggningar.

Av detta skäl redovisas olika globala och regionala överenskommelser samt utvaldes två regioner (Östersjöregionen och MENA - regionen) för att bedöma likheter och olikheter. Uppenbara olikheter är den relativt rikliga tillgången på vatten i Östersjöregionen medan MENA - regionen är en av världens vatten knappaste regioner. Stora skillnader föreligger mellan olika länder inom respektive region. Likheter finns att man behöver nå liknande krav på kvaliteten på utsläppt avloppsvatten på sikt. I Östersjöregionen styr långtgående krav enligt Baltic Sea Action Plan avloppsvattenkvalitet och i MENA - regionen styr det allt större intresset för återanvändning av avloppsvatten för bevattning, industrianvändning och även för återanvändning som ren vatten.

På nationell nivå har valts att beskriva och diskutera Sverige och Irak och på lokal nivå har valts Växjö i Sverige och städerna Bagdad och Erbil i Irak respektive Kurdistan region i Irak. Medan Växjö kommun har kunnat följa en utveckling i linje med att nå uthållighet är situationen för städer i Irak och Kurdistan en helt annan beroende på försummad investering och underhåll av infrastruktur sedan en lång tid och effekter av krigshandlingar. Detta diskuteras utförligt och de åtgärder som krävs för att återställa och förbättra infrastrukturen beskrivs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology , 2010. , p. 39
Series
Trita-LWR LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2053
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-47863ISBN: 978-91-7415-831-1 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-47863DiVA, id: diva2:1395437
Available from: 2020-02-21 Created: 2020-02-21 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The water and wastewater situation in Iraq – problems and possibilities for counter-measures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The water and wastewater situation in Iraq – problems and possibilities for counter-measures
2004 (English)In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 269-274Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

A summary is given of the water and wastewater situation in Iraq before the Gulf War 1991, the situation after the Gulf War and the recent effects of the conflict in 2003. The access of safe water was halved in certain governorates after March 2003 and half of the sewage works were out of function with a discharge of untreated wastewater into rivers and channels. The supply of electricity was less than 4 hours per day in January 2004 and caused discharges of untreated sewage on streets etc. The leakage from the water net was estimated at 60%. The wastewater system in 3 out of 5 schools was estimated to be out of function and epidemics have especially affected children and caused increased mortality. Special issues like the illegal openings of water pipes and security have worsened the situation. The Swedish knowledge of water and wastewater handling may have an important role in rebuilding water and wastewater handling in Iraq and different possibilities are exemplified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Föreningen Vatten, 2004
Keywords
Iraq, sewage treatment, water administration, water conflicts, water treatment
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-47868 (URN)
Note

This paper is an English translation of: Al-Najjar, N., & Hultman, B. (2004). VA-situationen i Irak – problem och möjligheter till motåtgärder, Vatten, 60:4, 269-274.

Available from: 2020-02-24 Created: 2020-02-24 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved
2. Cost-effective water supply and sanitation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-effective water supply and sanitation
2007 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Water supply and sanitation have about the same goals all over the world. The needs for safe water supply and sanitation are obvious although not generally implemented. This depends often on the economical situation and bad management. Additional factors are effects of war actions and natural disasters as flooding of rivers and tsunamis. The strategies are, however, similar independent of the actual conditions. In this paper the strategies as developed in Sweden are described related to practical implementation of technology and management strategies. The experiences have shown on both mistakes and successful handling. Today, Sweden is involved in both adjusting policies according to European Union rules (as EU Water Framework Directive) and also in sharing experiences to facilitate international implementation of cost-effective methods.

Keywords
Cost-effectiveness; knowledge transfer; sanitation; Sweden, water supply
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-47869 (URN)
Conference
2nd Environmental conference- Water (KECW007), 22-24 April 2007, Dohuk, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Available from: 2020-02-24 Created: 2020-02-24 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved
3. The future water supply of Växjö municipality – evaluation of different alternatives
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The future water supply of Växjö municipality – evaluation of different alternatives
2007 (English)In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 299-312Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The water supply in Växjö municipality has since 1887 been based on surface water from Lake Helgasjön. A water treatment plant was built in 1957 and was extensively reconstructed in 1969 but there are still problems to accomplish with drinking water quality, mainly related to temperature, smell and taste, manganese and aluminium rest. The present water consumption has periodically approached the water treatment plant maximum capacity. A performed risk analysis showed that catastrophic consequences for the water supply could occur due to an accident in a nearby traffic route or discharges from an industrial area. In 1997 Växjö municipality decided to perform a comprehensive investigation of different alternatives for future water supply. Seven alternatives were evaluated including remedial measures at the present water treatment plant. The chosen alternative was based on supply and conveying ground water from the Berga Esker in Ljungby municipality. Re-infiltration of ground water will be used to guarantee the required water quality and quantity and will be implemented in autumn 2008 with a planned supply of 200 l per second delivered to about 70,000 persons in the municipalities of Växjö and Alvesta. The article describes the different alternatives, motives for the chosen alternative and the evaluation procedure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Föreningen Vatten, 2007
Keywords
Iraq, sewage treatment, water administration, water conflicts, water treatment
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-47870 (URN)
Note

This paper is an English translation of: Al-Najjar, N. (2007). Framtida vattenförsörjning för Växjö kommun – bedömning av olika alternativ, Vatten, 63:4, 299-311.

Available from: 2020-02-24 Created: 2020-02-24 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved
4. Water management and technology in Swedish municipalities - assessment of possibilities of exchange and transfer of experiences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water management and technology in Swedish municipalities - assessment of possibilities of exchange and transfer of experiences
2009 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The water and wastewater infrastructure began to be developed in Sweden more than one hundred years ago. Much attention was given, in the beginning, to fire prevention and hygienic problems with water borne diseases. Somewhat later storm sewers (combined system) were constructed to remove storm water and wastewater and then successively more efficient wastewater treatment plants were developed. Today water and wastewater handling is seen as a multidisciplinary subject where also attention is given to possible effects of climate changes and possibilities for resources recovery.

Implementation of advanced water and wastewater systems involves not only different technologies but also effective administration and legislation. The implementation may be on national (also involving EU directives), regional and local scale. As a case study, the local implementation will be illustrated for the municipality Växjö in South Sweden with about 80,000 inhabitants.

Keywords
historical development, management, policies, Sweden, Växjö, water, wastewater
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-47871 (URN)
Conference
The International conference on an International Perspective on Environment and Water Resources, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-7 January 2009
Available from: 2020-02-24 Created: 2020-02-24 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved

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