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Relationships between physical education (PE) teaching and student self-efficacy, aptitude to participate in PE and functional skills: with a special focus on students with disabilities
Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-6971-9430
Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-9597-039X
Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-4079-8902
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 387-401Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Students with disability show an increasing incidence of school failure. Quality teaching and appropriate support may foster high self-efficacy, a predictive factor for successful school outcomes. Physical Education (PE) can provide students with a context in which self-efficacy and participation are promoted leading to improved academic achievement. The transition into secondary school can be challenging for many students with increased educational demands, developmental changes and individual social identification coinciding. A disability may add to the challenge of success.

Methods: Three groups of students, aged 13 years and enrolled in Swedish mainstream schools were targeted (n = 439). Groups included students with 1. A diagnosed disability, 2. Low grades in PE (D–F) and 3. High grades (A–C) in PE. Questionnaires were collected and analyzed from 30/439 students with a diagnosed disability (physical, neuro-developmental and intellectual) from 26 classes, their classmates and their PE-teachers (n = 25). Relationships between student self-reports and PE-teachers’ self-ratings were investigated. Also examined was the potential to which students’ functional skills could predict elevated general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. Results were compared with the total sample and between the three target groups (n = 121).

Results: For students with disabilities, better self-rated teaching skills were related to lower student perceived general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. The impact of classroom climate in PE was more obvious among students with disabilities. Perceived functional skills were associated with elevated general school self-efficacy, PE specific self-efficacy and aptitude to participate in PE. Better socio-cognitive functional skills had an overall positive effect on all outcomes. Students with disabilities reported results similar to the total sample, the D–F group scored lower and the A–C group higher than the total sample and the disability group. Elevated self-efficacy in PE is six times less probable in students with disabilities, compared to the A–C group.

Conclusions: Our findings that better teacher planning and grading skills, are detrimental to students disadvantaged by disability is contradictive. Improving the establishment and communication of adapted learning standards at the transition to secondary school is a crucial and a predictive factor for promoting positive school experiences for students with disability. Students with disabilities need to be assured that the intended learning outcomes can be reached by doing activities differently than their typically functioning peers. Consideration of class composition is suggested as a means of promoting a positive learning climate, which would particularly benefit students with disabilities. Allocation of resources to support student socio-cognitive skills would improve experiences for the D–F group and likely promote a positive learning environment.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Taylor & Francis, 2018. Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 387-401
Nyckelord [en]
Teaching skills, self-efficacy, disability, participation, physical education
Nationell ämneskategori
Didaktik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-38906DOI: 10.1080/17408989.2018.1441394ISI: 000430866600004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85042385865OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-38906DiVA, id: diva2:1185245
Tillgänglig från: 2018-02-23 Skapad: 2018-02-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-18Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Different is cool! Self-efficacy and participation of students with and without disabilities in school-based Physical Education
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Different is cool! Self-efficacy and participation of students with and without disabilities in school-based Physical Education
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Background: Self-efficacy predicts school achievement. Participation is important for life outcomes. Functioning affects to what degree you can participate in everyday life situations. Participation-related constructs such as self-efficacy and functioning work both as a means of participation and as an end outcome. Learning takes place in this interrelationship. How relationships between participation and these constructs vary, depending on whether impacted by disability or not, how they develop over time and outcomes of these processes need to be explored.

Method: In this three-year longitudinal study developmental processes of student self-efficacy (PE specific and general), aptitude to participate and functioning were explored. The context is school-based Physical Education (PE) in mainstream inclusive secondary school in Sweden. Data was collected from student and teacher questionnaires and observations of PE lessons. Students self-rated their perceived self-efficacy, aptitude to participate and functioning in school years seven and nine. Teachers self-rated their teaching skills. Student engagement, teaching behaviors, interactions and activities in Swedish school-based PE were observed in year eight. Relationships between the constructs and how they develop over time were studied in a total sample of 450 students (aged 12,5-15,5). Specifically focusing on three student groups, students with diagnosed disabilities (n=30), students with low grades in PE (n=36), and students with high grades (n=53) in PE.

Results: Adapted instruments to measure self-efficacy (PE specific and general), aptitude to participate in PE, and functional skills (physical and socio-cognitive were developed and validated. PE specific self-efficacy is closely related to the aptitude to participate and has effects on student engagement and general self-efficacy. Over time PE specific self-efficacy increase in adolescents, but students with disabilities initially responded negatively if their PE teachers rated their teaching skills high. They were also more sensitive to the social environment, which was associated with PE grades over time. During this time the relationship between perceived physical functional skills and PE specific self-efficacy accelerated for students with disabilities. They were observed to be equally highly engaged in PE lessons as their peers. However, students with disabilities were observed to be closer to their teacher and tended to be less social and alone than their peers. Observed teaching skills as measured by level of alignment with syllabus, and affective tone when giving instructions showed differences in complexity and efficiency. Students in the study sample were more engaged in high-level teaching and were more frequently in communicative proximity to their teacher. In conditions of high-level teaching, teachers gave more instructions and used more materials for teaching purposes. Lessons were more often structured into whole group activities and lessons were more focused.

Conclusion: PE specific self-efficacy measures students’ perceived knowledge and skills in PE and is related to students’ aptitude to participate, general self-efficacy and functioning. The overall findings imply that the developmental processes of perceived self-efficacy (PE specific and general), aptitude to participate and functioning differ between the student groups. PE specific self-efficacy and socio-cognitive functioning improve over time in all groups. Stronger associations of PE specific self-efficacy with aptitude to participate and functional skills, and weaker with general self-efficacy were found in students with disabilities compared to their typically functioning peers. Individual factors are vital to learning, but students with disabilities seem to be more sensitive to environmental factors than their peers. The aptitude to participate declines in students with disabilities, probably due to their experience of having physical restrictions. However, while participating in PE, they were similarly relatively highly engaged as their typically functioning peers. Instructions in PE indicate differences in complexity and efficiency of PE teaching. More complex lesson content requires more  instructions and more purposeful materials. Time was used more efficiently in high-level teaching conditions. Lessons were more focused and had more flow, leaving students with less time to socialize. Space was also used more efficiently, and teachers were closer to their students. Indicating that more individual support, feed-back and feedforward was provided. Students with disabilities were more frequently close to their teacher than their typically functioning peers. The use of more whole group formats indicate that teaching is more differentiated in high-level teaching. When activating students physically, teachers may choose simpler self-sustaining activities, i.e. sports games. Small group formats may be used for individual development of motor skills or drills.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, 2019. s. 103
Serie
Dissertation. School of Education and Communication, ISSN 1652-7933 ; 037
Serie
Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 97
Nyckelord
Self-efficacy, participation, disability, physical education, secondary school
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi Idrottsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-46604 (URN)978-91-88339-26-3 (ISBN)978-91-88339-27-0 (ISBN)
Disputation
2019-10-22, Hc113, School of Education and Communication, Jönköping, 13:00 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2019-10-18 Skapad: 2019-10-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-25Bibliografiskt granskad

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Bertills, KarinGranlund, MatsAugustine, Lilly

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