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Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Hashim, S., McAdam, M. & Nordqvist, M. (2024). An exploration of women entrepreneurs “doing context” in family business in the Gulf States. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An exploration of women entrepreneurs “doing context” in family business in the Gulf States
2024 (English)In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Drawing on indigenous theory of Ibn Khaldun, the rise and fall of States, this paper explores the agency of women entrepreneurs in family business in Bahrain and the underlying enablers in supporting and facilitating the exercise of this agency. This study attempts to move beyond the Western-centric studies to reflect and bring to light the unique institutional settings of the Gulf States. Design/methodology/approach: The research builds on a rich qualitative single case of a family business based in Bahrain. The single case study methodology was motivated by the potential for generating rich contextual insights. Such an approach is particularly valuable to gain a more holistic and deeper understanding of the contextualized phenomenon and its complexity. Findings: In this study the authors show how women entrepreneurs take two different paths to enter and become involved in the family business, the barriers they are subjected to and the active role they play in dismantling the challenges to the extent that they become the main mediators between the family business and central institutions in society. Originality/value: By incorporating indigenous theory with Western family business concepts, the study extends existing understanding of women entrepreneurs in family business by underscoring the agency that women entrepreneurs have in “doing context” and the role that women play in strengthening common cause and destiny within the family and the business by building and drawing on different forms of loyalty.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2024
Keywords
Contextualizing family business, Gulf States, Ibn Khaldun, Women entrepreneurs, Women in family business
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-63277 (URN)10.1108/IJGE-02-2023-0037 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180823579 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;926161 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;926161 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;926161 (OAI)
Available from: 2024-01-10 Created: 2024-01-10 Last updated: 2024-01-10
Hashim, S. (2023). Women entrepreneurs in the Gulf States: Taking stock and moving forward. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 35(9-10), 841-884
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women entrepreneurs in the Gulf States: Taking stock and moving forward
2023 (English)In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 35, no 9-10, p. 841-884Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Gulf States have dedicated much attention and many resources to entrepreneurship, particularly in supporting women entrepreneurship. These efforts are reflected in the increase in research focused on women entrepreneurs in the Gulf States. The vast majority of relevant studies have explored the reasons for the low engagement of women in the economic sphere. Recent works have shifted attention to the agency of women entrepreneurs. However, most of the literature has applied Western epistemology without challenging and unpacking the unique contextual dimensions that influence women's entrepreneurial activities in the Gulf States. This study thus systematically reviews the literature on women entrepreneurship in the Gulf States, increases the understanding of how these women are 'doing context' by discussing three different conceptualizations of how they enact and do context in the Gulf States, and proposes future research avenues for developing context-specific epistemologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
entrepreneurship, women, gender, Gulf States, literature review, Context, >
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62192 (URN)10.1080/08985626.2023.2227977 (DOI)001026751400001 ()2-s2.0-85165161611 (Scopus ID)HOA;;897417 (Local ID)HOA;;897417 (Archive number)HOA;;897417 (OAI)
Note

Included in doctoral thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2023-08-17 Created: 2023-08-17 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Hashim, S. & Markowska, M. (2021). Entrepreneurial Activity as a Source of Meaning in Life. In: Proceedings of The Annual Meeting of The Academy of Management: . Paper presented at 81st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, 29 July-4 August, A Virtual Experience. Academy of Management, 2021(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial Activity as a Source of Meaning in Life
2021 (English)In: Proceedings of The Annual Meeting of The Academy of Management, Academy of Management , 2021, Vol. 2021, no 1Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this research, we ask why and how some women start or grow a business after initiating divorce, while others will not. Grounded on an in-depth study of 24 women who experienced divorce in a patriarchal society, we develop a framework that identifies two pathways. The first pathway is followed by those women who felt trapped in their marriage and engaged in entrepreneurial activities as part of an overall process of self-discovery and self-development that enabled them to search for and find new sources of meanings, while the second pathway is followed by those women who felt discontent with their marriage, remarried but did not engage in entrepreneurship. Our emergent theoretical framework explains the importance of entrepreneurship to attain eudaimonic well-being following an adversity, thereby expanding the scope of entrepreneurship research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academy of Management, 2021
Series
Academy of Management Proceedings, ISSN 0065-0668, E-ISSN 2151-6561 ; Volume 2021, Issue 1
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-55590 (URN)
Conference
81st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, 29 July-4 August, A Virtual Experience
Available from: 2022-01-14 Created: 2022-01-14 Last updated: 2022-01-14Bibliographically approved
Hashim, S., Naldi, L. & Markowska, M. (2021). Entrepreneurial Activity as a Source of Meaning in Life. In: : . Paper presented at 41st Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), August 2021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial Activity as a Source of Meaning in Life
2021 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-55591 (URN)
Conference
41st Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), August 2021
Note

Conference held online.

Available from: 2022-01-14 Created: 2022-01-14 Last updated: 2022-01-14Bibliographically approved
Hashim, S., Naldi, L. & Markowska, M. (2021). “The royal award goes to…”: Legitimacy processes for female-led family ventures. The Journal of Family Business Strategy, 12(3), Article ID 100358.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“The royal award goes to…”: Legitimacy processes for female-led family ventures
2021 (English)In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 100358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A notable phenomenon in the Gulf States, and in Bahrain in particular, is the increasing number of female-led family ventures. This phenomenon is surprising because women are reported to face many legitimacy challenges when establishing a family business in an Arab society, in which social and economic decisions are male-dominated. Thus, we explore how female-led family ventures gain legitimacy in an Arab society. We employ a multiple case-study approach to investigate three longitudinal cases. We develop a process model of legitimacy formation for female-led family ventures. The legitimacy formation consists of three main phases: individual legitimacy, market validity and royal validity. Our model suggests that meritocracy carves out and informs most decisions and activities throughout the phases of the legitimacy formation. Additionally, we identify four different interconnecting forces (family/business spillover, large voices, bargaining power and influence on family norms) that, if present, accelerate the legitimacy formation. Our analysis also suggests that there are interactions and reciprocal relationships among the founders and the people with whom they interact that can both influence and be influenced by the process of legitimacy formation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Bahrain, Family business, Female entrepreneur, Female founder, Female-led family venture, GCC, Gulf States, Legitimacy
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-50253 (URN)10.1016/j.jfbs.2020.100358 (DOI)000706786200008 ()2-s2.0-85087804161 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-08-17 Created: 2020-08-17 Last updated: 2021-10-28Bibliographically approved
Hashim, S. (2021). Women Entrepreneurship: Masculinity, Legitimacy and Well-being. (Doctoral dissertation). Jönköping: Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women Entrepreneurship: Masculinity, Legitimacy and Well-being
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overarching research purpose of this dissertation is to understand how women entrepreneurs establish and grow their businesses in a patriarchal society. This research question is addressed through the compilation of four research papers. The first research paper is a literature review that synthesizes current literature on women entrepreneurs in the Gulf States and identifies possible research avenues.

The remaining three papers are empirical studies that use Bahrain, one of the Gulf States, as an empirical setting. The first empirical study challenges the assumption of entrepreneurship as a gendered phenomenon and sets out to understand entrepreneurship as a new phenomenon in a context that is male dominated. It draws on masculinity theory to understand the interplay between women entrepreneurs and the different forms of masculinity enacted by men. The second empirical study challenges the persistent traditional representation of the male entrepreneur as the founder and leader of a family business by using legitimacy-as-perception as a theoretical lens to investigate how female-led family ventures gain legitimacy from family and non-family members. The third empirical study challenges the stereotypical view of women entrepreneurs in developing countries by drawing on eudaimonic well-being literature to understand why and how some women start or grow a business after initiating a divorce, while others do not.

The dissertation makes several contributions to (women) entrepreneurship and to the different theories that it adopts in various ways. First, the dissertation extends women entrepreneurship literature by showing how women entrepreneurs influence their social context to attain royal awards, deal with different forms of masculinity enacted by men, and rebuild their eudaimonic well-being through their entrepreneurial activities. Second, the dissertation introduces the notion of “Asabiyyah” to explain the unique social makeup that informs the behavior of women entrepreneurs. Third, the dissertation contributes to the theoretical lenses that it adopts, for instance to the legitimacy-as-perception lens by showing the reciprocal nature of legitimacy. It broadens the masculinity theory by bringing attention to “own-business” as an institution where the private and the public spheres overlap and organize gender relations. This dissertation also contributes to the growing literature on eudaimonic well-being by offering an understanding of the interplay between entrepreneurship, engagement in meaningful activities, and eudaimonic well-being, an area that has largely remained a black box. Last but not least the dissertation offers several practical implications to further improve and foster entrepreneurship for women in Bahrain.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling ger inblick i litteraturen om kvinnligt entreprenörskap genom att belysa samspelet mellan olika former av maskulinitet i mäns beteende, legitimitetsprocesser och kvinnors självförverkligande efter personlig motgång, såsom skilsmässa. Belysandet av erfarenheter från kvinnliga entreprenörer utanför ett anglosaxiskt sammanhang bidrar både till mer inkluderande entreprenörskapslitteratur såväl som främjande av teorier inom och utanför entreprenörskapet.

Avhandlingen innehåller fyra artiklar. Varje artikel ämnar ge ny förståelse för kvinnliga företagares sociala sammanhang. Den första artikeln är en litteraturöversikt som ger insikt om hur kvinnliga entreprenörer skapar sammanhang i Gulfstaterna. De tre återstående empiriska studierna är fördjupningar i olika aspekter av kvinnors personliga och professionella liv, med syfte att förstå hur det påverkar deras aktiviteter inom entreprenörskapet genom att utmana olika antaganden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, 2021. p. 65
Series
JIBS Dissertation Series, ISSN 1403-0470 ; 145
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-54337 (URN)978-91-7914-008-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-09-23, Zoom Webinar and in lecture hall B1033, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-08-25 Created: 2021-08-25 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
Hashim, S., Markowska, M. & Naldi, L. (2019). I can do more than a man! The legitimacy route of female-led family ventures in Bahrain. In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2019: Proceedings of the 39th Annual Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC): . Paper presented at 39th Annual Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), June 5-8, 2019, Wellesley, USA (pp. 385-390). Wellesley, MA: Babson College
Open this publication in new window or tab >>I can do more than a man! The legitimacy route of female-led family ventures in Bahrain
2019 (English)In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2019: Proceedings of the 39th Annual Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), Wellesley, MA: Babson College , 2019, p. 385-390Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wellesley, MA: Babson College, 2019
Series
Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, ISSN 0740-7416 ; 39
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-51084 (URN)9780910897457 (ISBN)
Conference
39th Annual Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), June 5-8, 2019, Wellesley, USA
Available from: 2020-11-30 Created: 2020-11-30 Last updated: 2020-11-30Bibliographically approved
Hashim, S. (2014). Project Change Dissertation Introduction of Video-Based Open Education Resources(OER) in a Third Level Educational Institution [Masters dissertation]. Dublin: Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project Change Dissertation Introduction of Video-Based Open Education Resources(OER) in a Third Level Educational Institution [Masters dissertation]
2014 (English)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A fundamental characteristic for an individual to actively participate in a society is tobe literate (Martin, 2008). Consequently, digital literacy is an essential quality in ourera. The European Commission (2013b) reported that by 2030 90% of jobs willrequire digital skills. In September 2013 the European Commission announced the launch of 'Open Up Education' initiative (European Commission, 2013b) to improve the digital literacy in Europe through Open Educational Resources (OER).

The overall aim of this change project was to introduce video-based educationalresources in not-for-profit, third level educational institution. Literature review wasconducted to identify the benefits and challenges of OER and the methods andmediums of delivering OER. Senior and Swailies' change model was used as framework for the change. Different environmental tools were used to diagnose thesituation and change champions were approached to do a pilot video to gaincommitments for the vision. Gantt chart was used when developing an action plan toimplement the change.

Mixed methods approaches of qualitative and quantitative analysis were used to assess and evaluate the change by using Jacob's change model. Overall the change agent is confident that the overall aim and objectives for the project has beenachieved successfully with the biggest organisational impact is the fact that thecollege now has official contribution to the international OER movement. 

Place, publisher, year, pages
Dublin: Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 2014. p. 78
Keywords
Open Education Resources
National Category
Educational Sciences Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-51510 (URN)10.25419/rcsi.10812269.v1 (DOI)
Note

Degree name: MSc Leadership in Health Professions Education. 

Available from: 2021-01-15 Created: 2021-01-15 Last updated: 2021-01-15Bibliographically approved
Hashim, S., Naldi, L. & Markowska, M.From entrapment to enraptured: Eudaimonic well-being through entrepreneurial activity.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From entrapment to enraptured: Eudaimonic well-being through entrepreneurial activity
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-54336 (URN)
Available from: 2021-08-25 Created: 2021-08-25 Last updated: 2021-08-25
Hashim, S.The interplay between women entrepreneurs and different forms of masculinity.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The interplay between women entrepreneurs and different forms of masculinity
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-54335 (URN)
Available from: 2021-08-25 Created: 2021-08-25 Last updated: 2021-08-25
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4901-3219

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