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Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Bäckström, P. (2024). Exploring mechanisms of peer effects in education: Frame factor analyses of classroom instruction. (Doctoral dissertation). Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring mechanisms of peer effects in education: Frame factor analyses of classroom instruction
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Despite a vast international literature, previous research into compositional effects and peer effects in education has remarked on the lack of consensus within the field. To date, peer effects in education and students’ different opportunities to learn in school have been studied separately. In this thesis, it is argued that these perspectives need to be synthesized.

In the thesis, Frame Factor Theory is employed as a theory of peer effects in classroom instruction. According to the theory, one mechanism generating peer effects is the steering and limiting effect that class composition has on teachers’ instruction. It is argued that this perspective also needs to be synthesized with the Opportunity to Learn-perspective, to widen our understanding of why different students meet different instruction and thus are given different opportunities to learn. The theoretical perspectives and empirical models are evolved through three empirical studies included in the thesis. The theoretical development and the empirical results from each study is discussed in an integrative essay in the thesis.

The results indicate that class composition affects the presence of limitations on instruction and content coverage in instruction, both of which is related to students’ opportunities to learn and individual students’ achievement. Implications for future research and educational policy is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, 2024. p. 89
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar från Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, ISSN 1652-7933 ; 044
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-63411 (URN)978-91-88339-71-3 (ISBN)978-91-88339-72-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-03-08, Hc218, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Jönköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-01-25 Created: 2024-01-25 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, P. (2023). Exploring mechanisms of peer-effects in education: a frame-factor analysis of instruction. Educational review (Birmingham), 7(75), 1387-1405
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring mechanisms of peer-effects in education: a frame-factor analysis of instruction
2023 (English)In: Educational review (Birmingham), ISSN 0013-1911, E-ISSN 1465-3397, Vol. 7, no 75, p. 1387-1405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the educational literature on peer effects, attention has been brought to the fact that the mechanisms creating peer effects are still to a large extent hidden in obscurity. The hypothesis in the study reported in this article was that the Frame Factor Theory (FFT) can be used to reveal such mechanisms. Using data from the Swedish TIMSS 2015 (N = 3761 students in 179 classes), a multilevel structural equation model (M-SEM) was specified in accordance with the FFT. As predicted, the SEM-model verified a strong relationship between class composition and a latent variable of limitations on instruction, a variable which in turn had a great impact on individual students? results in TIMSS 2015. The study hereby seems to reveal a fundamental mechanism of peer effects and provides evidence for the FFT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Pedagogy; frame factor theory; compositional effects; contextual effects; structural effects; peer effects
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-55901 (URN)10.1080/00131911.2021.2023100 (DOI)000755445000001 ()2-s2.0-85125219319 (Scopus ID)HOA;;796363 (Local ID)HOA;;796363 (Archive number)HOA;;796363 (OAI)
Available from: 2022-02-15 Created: 2022-02-15 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, P. (2023). Peer effects in education: A synthesis of frame factor theory and opportunity to learn. In: : . Paper presented at 10th IEA IRC, 28–30 June 2023, Dublin, Ireland (pp. 77-77).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peer effects in education: A synthesis of frame factor theory and opportunity to learn
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study draws on previous empirical research within the fields of opportunity to learn (OTL) and peer effects in education. In a recent study, it was argued that the Frame Factor Theory (FFT) could be applied as a theoretical framework to the issue of peer effects in education. Since the FFT predicts that the class composition measured as students’ prior knowledge and aptitude, will have steering and limiting effects on teachers’ instruction, in turn affecting students’ achievement, it was argued that this could be interpreted as one mechanism generating peer effects. Empirical findings from analysis of TIMSS 2015 data supported the hypothesis. Possibly due to poor construct validity, the previous study couldn’t verify the modus operandi of the mechanisms. The FFT predicts that the steering and limiting effect of class composition will affect timing, pacing, and content covered in instruction. From this perspective, the aim of this article is to initiate a synthesis of the OTL- and FFT-perspectives, where OTL-findings on content coverage are included in an FFT-model predicting peer effects in education.

A synthesized theoretical model is operationalized and tested with Swedish TIMSS 2011 data (n = 3,928) in a multilevel structural equation model. The main FFT-construct in the study is a latent variable of “Limitations on instruction”, derived from items in the TIMSS teacher survey. Also, a variable of coverage of advanced content is derived from TIMSS 19 topics through assessments by Swedish eighth grade teachers in mathematics.

The study revealed that class composition, measured as class-SES, to some extent was related to teachers’ instruction in class, through its limitations on instruction, but it was also related to the content that can be covered in instruction. Results reveal a negative relation between students’ average age of arrival to Sweden on the between-class level and advanced content covered. Through both of these effects, individual students’ achievement in mathematics is affected, indicating the presence of a peer effect. The results from the study thereby support previous findings on the steering and limiting effect of class composition on teachers’ instruction, as well as providing a new theoretical perspective on results from OTL-research. The results indicate that differences in students’ opportunities to learn-measured as content covered-to some extent is related to the steering and limiting effect class composition has upon teachers’ instruction. The results are discussed in both a historical and contemporary context.

Keywords
frame factor theory, opportunity to learn, compositional effects, contextual effects, peer effects
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-61646 (URN)
Conference
10th IEA IRC, 28–30 June 2023, Dublin, Ireland
Available from: 2023-06-27 Created: 2023-06-27 Last updated: 2023-06-28Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, P. (2023). Peer effects in education: Theoretical synthesis of frame factor theory and opportunity to learn using TIMSS 2011. International Journal of Educational Research, 121, Article ID 102229.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peer effects in education: Theoretical synthesis of frame factor theory and opportunity to learn using TIMSS 2011
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0883-0355, E-ISSN 1873-538X, Vol. 121, article id 102229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite a vast literature, previous research into compositional effects and peer effects in education has remarked on the lack of consensus within the field. To date, peer effects in education and students’ different opportunities to learn in school has been studied separately. In this study, it is argued that these perspectives need to be synthesized. A multilevel structural equation model (M-SEM) is derived from such a synthesis of the Frame Factor Theory (FFT) and Opportunity to Learn (OTL) and tested on Swedish TIMSS 2011-data (n=3928). The results indicate that class composition affects the presence of limitations on instruction and advanced content coverage, both of which is related to opportunities to learn and individual students’ achievement in mathematics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
compositional effects, frame factor theory, opportunity to learn, peer effects
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62190 (URN)10.1016/j.ijer.2023.102229 (DOI)001049645800001 ()2-s2.0-85166215562 (Scopus ID)HOA;;897405 (Local ID)HOA;;897405 (Archive number)HOA;;897405 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-08-17 Created: 2023-08-17 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved
Isaksson, C. & Bäckström, P. (2022). Bokslut: Lärarnas Riksförbund 2000—2022: Ett stycke svensk skolpolitisk historia. Stockholm: Ekerlids förlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bokslut: Lärarnas Riksförbund 2000—2022: Ett stycke svensk skolpolitisk historia
2022 (Swedish)Book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Den här historieboken sammanfattar Lärarnas Riksförbunds verksamhet och utveckling under perioden efter millennie­skiftet. En tid präglad av skolans kommunalisering och av­reglering, av nya parts­förhållanden och ökad politisk styrning. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Ekerlids förlag, 2022
National Category
Educational Sciences History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-59006 (URN)9789189323797 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-11-30 Created: 2022-11-30 Last updated: 2022-11-30Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, P. (2022). Friskolorna: Vår tids differentieringsfråga. Dagens Arena
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Friskolorna: Vår tids differentieringsfråga
2022 (Swedish)In: Dagens ArenaArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Ingress: Debatten om friskolorna är egentligen vår samtids diskussion om den fråga som dominerat svensk skolpolitik sedan slutet av 1800-talet: Differentieringsfrågan. Med ”differentiering” avses i skolpolitiska sammanhang, frågan om – när, hur, varför och på vilka grunder vi ska dela upp elever i olika skolor, studievägar, klasser, grupper eller nivåer. Det skriver Pontus Bäckström, Utredningschef på Lärarnas Riksförbund och doktorand i pedagogik.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-56522 (URN)
Note

Publicerad i avdelningen Arena Essä den 21 maj 2022.

Available from: 2022-05-23 Created: 2022-05-23 Last updated: 2022-05-23Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, P. (2022). Peer effects in education: Theoretical synthesis and empirical estimation. In: Michael Dal (Ed.), Education and involvement in precarious times: Abstract book, NERA Conference 2022. Paper presented at NERA Conference 2022, Reykjavík, Iceland, 1-3 June 2022. Reykjavík: School of Education, University of Iceland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peer effects in education: Theoretical synthesis and empirical estimation
2022 (English)In: Education and involvement in precarious times: Abstract book, NERA Conference 2022 / [ed] Michael Dal, Reykjavík: School of Education, University of Iceland , 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Reykjavík: School of Education, University of Iceland, 2022
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-56683 (URN)978-9935-468-22-2 (ISBN)
Conference
NERA Conference 2022, Reykjavík, Iceland, 1-3 June 2022
Available from: 2022-06-01 Created: 2022-06-01 Last updated: 2022-06-01Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, P. (2022). Studiero genom reglering? En diskussion om att utvärdera en bred läroplansreform. In: L. Lerwall, A. Nilsson & J. Novak (Ed.), Utbildningsmiljö och utbildningsrätt – från förskola till forskarexamen: (pp. 35-46). Uppsala: Iustus förlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studiero genom reglering? En diskussion om att utvärdera en bred läroplansreform
2022 (Swedish)In: Utbildningsmiljö och utbildningsrätt – från förskola till forskarexamen / [ed] L. Lerwall, A. Nilsson & J. Novak, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2022, p. 35-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Från syftet: Likt så många andra reformer på skolans område infördes dessa läroplansförändringarpå bred front och samtidigt för hela grundskolan. Detta skapar problem när reformens effekter ska utvärderas, i och med att det inte finns några kontrollgrupper att jämföra med (IFAU, 2014; 2016).

Syftet med denna artikel är därför att diskutera denna problematik genom att lämna ett tentativt metodologiskt förslag till hur en utvärdering ändå skulle kunna genomföras. Det metodologiska förslag som lämnas i artikeln är i sin tur förknippat med en rad mer eller mindre allvarliga problem. Dessa tillkortakommanden ska därför också betraktas som en generell notis om behovet av väldesignade försöksverksamheters återkomst till skolpolitiken (SOU 2014:12).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2022
Series
[Skriftserie] / Institutet för utbildningsrätt ; 8
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-59193 (URN)978-91-7737-206-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-12-19 Created: 2022-12-19 Last updated: 2022-12-19Bibliographically approved
Öberg, J. & Bäckström, P. (2021). Kanon eller inte kanon?: En enkätstudie bland samhällskunskapslärare i årskurs 7-9. Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, 11(2), 20-46
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kanon eller inte kanon?: En enkätstudie bland samhällskunskapslärare i årskurs 7-9
2021 (Swedish)In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 20-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study is to investigate whether social studies in compulsory school grades 7–9 can be perceived as having a clear canon regarding subject content, methods, used sources and examination methods. Previous research has suggested that social studies is unclear, vague and that it lacks a subject canon. The results of the present study points in both directions. On the one hand, the study shows that there is a clear core of content around which lower secondary social studies teaching revolves and a common foundation regarding how this content is mainly conveyed and examined. On the other hand, the study shows that there is also great variation between different teachers, variation that can be partly explained by the teachers' preferences. Different teachers seem to have different preferences when it comes to how they teach, what methods and sources they use and how sections are examined. For example, there are significant correlations between how teachers who use group-based methods also use group-based examinations. An important factor for the variation between teachers can be traced to gender. At group level, we see differences regarding male and female teachers based on subject matter, methods, sources and examination methods. In general, there is a common core for most social studies teachers, regardless of gender, but female teachers tend to cover a broader subject content, use a wider array of methods and sources and more varied forms of examination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstads universitet, 2021
Keywords
Social Studies, Civics, Subject Didactics, Samhällskunskap, Samhällskunskapsdidaktik, Ämneskanon, Ämnestradition
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-54828 (URN)POA;;54828 (Local ID)POA;;54828 (Archive number)POA;;54828 (OAI)
Available from: 2021-10-07 Created: 2021-10-07 Last updated: 2021-10-11Bibliographically approved
Bäckström, P. (2021). Psykisk påfrestning och samvetsstress i lärares arbetsliv. Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, 27(3), 27-44
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psykisk påfrestning och samvetsstress i lärares arbetsliv
2021 (Swedish)In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 27-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Lärare är en yrkesgrupp som vittnar om hög arbetsbelastning och att arbetet är psykiskt påfrestande. Internationell forskning har visat att faktorer som påverkar lärares arbetsmiljö är tidspress, höga krav, omfattande administration, känslomässig utmattning och bristande studiero i undervisningen. Detta har delvis bekräftats i svensk forskning och vissa skillnader har förklarats av om lärarna arbetar på en kommunal eller fristående skola. Denna artikel visar att lärares arbetsmiljö, och skillnader mellan huvudmän, delvis kan förklaras av studiero i undervisningen och förekomsten av så kallad samvetsstress bland lärare. Dessa faktorer är i sin tur relaterade till skolors elevsammansättning.

Abstract [en]

As a group, teachers continually report high workload and psychological strain. The international literature has reported evidence of factors influencing teachers’ work environment, such as time pressure, demands, administration, emotional strain and disruptive behavior. Some of these factors have been verified in Swedish research, and differences have been reported between public and private schools. This study reports evidence that teachers’ psychological strain can be predicted by disruptive classroom behavior and stress of conscience. These factors were in turn related to school composition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstads universitet, 2021
Keywords
disruptive behavior, school composition, stress of conscience, teachers’ psychological strain, elevsammansättning, lärares arbetsmiljö, samvetsstress, studiero
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-52421 (URN)POA;;52421 (Local ID)POA;;52421 (Archive number)POA;;52421 (OAI)
Available from: 2021-05-07 Created: 2021-05-07 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3516-9346

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