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Publications (10 of 31) Show all publications
Garz, M. & Szucs, F. (2023). Algorithmic selection and supply of political news on Facebook. Information Economics and Policy, 62(March), Article ID 101020.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Algorithmic selection and supply of political news on Facebook
2023 (English)In: Information Economics and Policy, ISSN 0167-6245, E-ISSN 1873-5975, Vol. 62, no March, article id 101020Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Facebook has been criticized for exposing its users to low-quality and harmful information, including fake news, hate speech, and politically one-sided content. In December 2013 and again in August 2014, the platform updated its news feed algorithm to increase user exposure to quality content of news publishers, while curbing the proliferation of non-informative posts. This paper uses a sample of German newspapers to investigate the conjecture that these modifications raised the incentives to publish quality news stories on the platform, focusing on the number and diversity of news story posts about substantive political issues. Using the newspapers’ print editions as a counterfactual, our results indicate an increase in the amount of substantive political news on Facebook by approximately 30%. This expansion occurred in a politically balanced way, except that the outlets disproportionately increased their Facebook coverage of the formerly underrepresented Linke (Left Party). Consequently, the within-outlet concentration of political viewpoints decreased by about one half of the standard deviation of our concentration indices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Fake detection, Social networking (online), Algorithmic curation, Algorithmics, Curation, Diversity, Facebook, News quality, Political knowledge, Political news, Social media, Voting, Newsprint
National Category
Media Studies Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-59812 (URN)10.1016/j.infoecopol.2023.101020 (DOI)000932767400001 ()2-s2.0-85147330317 (Scopus ID)HOA;;861453 (Local ID)HOA;;861453 (Archive number)HOA;;861453 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-02-14 Created: 2023-02-14 Last updated: 2023-03-21Bibliographically approved
Cyron, T., Garz, M. & Steigenberger, N. (2023). Beware the community type: engagement and growth in core vs. open online communities. Small Business Economics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beware the community type: engagement and growth in core vs. open online communities
2023 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Entrepreneurs can benefit from the communities they build. Therefore, many entrepreneurs create online communities that allow self-selected stakeholders, such as customers, crowd investors, or enthusiasts, to interact with the venture and other like-minded individuals. However, research on how entrepreneurs can successfully engage community members and grow such online communities is only slowly emerging. In particular, it is unclear if, how much, and which content entrepreneurs should contribute to foster engagement in different types of communities and which role these community types play in the community's overall growth. Based on a longitudinal case study in the video game industry, we first theorize and show that-depending on the community type-both too much and too little entrepreneur-provided content fails to leverage community engagement potential and that different communities require more or less diverging content. We then theorize and show that community growth is largely driven by engagement in open communities, such as those hosted on social media. We outline the implications this has for entrepreneurs, our understanding of online communities, and entrepreneurial communities more generally. How can entrepreneurs engage and grow different types of online communities?Managing online communities is crucial for many entrepreneurs. However, different community types, open and core, play different roles and require different content and growth strategies. Core communities, such as those hosted on online forums, respond well to less but more diverse content, whereas open communities on social media drive overall community growth with more but less diverse content. Entrepreneurs need to find the right balance and pay attention to the tipping point of content provision, as too much content might endanger community member engagement. By understanding the dynamics of online communities, entrepreneurs can effectively nurture engagement and optimize their efforts for long-term success. Investing resources wisely in content production, considering the costs involved, can be beneficial for new ventures seeking sustainable community growth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Online community, Brand community, Social media, Governance, User engagement, Digital entrepreneurship, M13, M15
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62595 (URN)10.1007/s11187-023-00821-y (DOI)001067574300001 ()2-s2.0-85171558170 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Wallenberg Foundations, MMW 2018.0056
Available from: 2023-10-04 Created: 2023-10-04 Last updated: 2023-10-05
Lischka, J. A. & Garz, M. (2023). Clickbait news and algorithmic curation: A game theory framework of the relation between journalism, users, and platforms. New Media and Society, 25(8), 2073-2094
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clickbait news and algorithmic curation: A game theory framework of the relation between journalism, users, and platforms
2023 (English)In: New Media and Society, ISSN 1461-4448, E-ISSN 1461-7315, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 2073-2094Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Algorithmic curation of social media platforms is considered to create a clickbait media environment. Although clickbait practices can be risky especially for legacy news outlets, clickbait is widely applied. We conceptualize clickbait content supply as a revision game with an unknown threshold. Combining supervised machine learning with time series analysis of Facebook posts and Twitter messages of 37 German legacy news outlets over 54 months, we observe outlets’ behavior following algorithm changes. Results reveal (1) an infrequent use of clickbait with few heavier-using outlets and (2) turning points of clickbait performance as clickbait supply and user interaction form a reversed U-shaped relationship. News outlets (3) collectively adjust toward an industry clickbait standard. While we (4) cannot prove that algorithmic curation increases clickbait, (5) Facebook’s regulative intervention to decrease clickbait disperses heterogeneous tendencies in clickbait supply. We contribute to an understanding of editorial decision-making in competitive environments facing platforms’ regulative intervention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
Algorithms, digital journalism, Facebook, game theory, legacy media, news, social media platforms, supervised machine learning, Twitter, user interaction
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-54127 (URN)10.1177/14614448211027174 (DOI)000674423800001 ()2-s2.0-85109394791 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;54127 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;54127 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;54127 (OAI)
Available from: 2021-07-19 Created: 2021-07-19 Last updated: 2023-08-30Bibliographically approved
Garz, M. & Schneider, A. (2023). Data sharing and tax enforcement: Evidence from short-term rentals in Denmark. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 101, Article ID 103912.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data sharing and tax enforcement: Evidence from short-term rentals in Denmark
2023 (English)In: Regional Science and Urban Economics, ISSN 0166-0462, E-ISSN 1879-2308, Vol. 101, article id 103912Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Airbnb and other home-sharing platforms have been facing increasing regulation over the past years, mainly in the form of restricting short-term rentals through day caps. In contrast, as one of the first countries in the world, Denmark applied a collaborative strategy: In 2018, the government negotiated an agreement with Airbnb about the transmission of income data from the platform to the tax agency. We analyze how this data-sharing agreement affected hosts' behavior on the platform, using a difference-in-differences approach with Sweden as a counterfactual. We find that the agreement reduced hosts’ propensity to list property on the platform by 14%, while increasing listing prices by 11%. Our results indicate that platform exits were mostly limited to single-property hosts. In contrast, hosts with many properties and those in areas with initially low Airbnb penetration made their rental objects more often available and managed to increase the number of bookings. Overall, the findings imply that the data-sharing agreement not only helped to increase tax compliance but also led to a commercialization and spatial re-organization of short-term renting in Denmark.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Airbnb, DAC7, Digital platforms, Home sharing, Income tax, Tax enforcement
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-61330 (URN)10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2023.103912 (DOI)001010950900001 ()2-s2.0-85161033498 (Scopus ID)HOA;;886511 (Local ID)HOA;;886511 (Archive number)HOA;;886511 (OAI)
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation, P21-0158
Available from: 2023-06-20 Created: 2023-06-20 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
Garz, M. & Rickardsson, J. (2023). Ownership and media slant: Evidence from Swedish newspapers. Kyklos (Basel), 76(1), 18-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ownership and media slant: Evidence from Swedish newspapers
2023 (English)In: Kyklos (Basel), ISSN 0023-5962, E-ISSN 1467-6435, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 18-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the role of media owners for the political bias of newspapers in Sweden, using an original dataset on outlets, consumer preferences, and ownership between January 2014 and April 2019. We construct an index of slant based on similarities in the language between newspapers and speeches given by members of parliament. Our results indicate that newspapers held by the same owner tend to offer the same mix of slant, rather than aligning their bias with consumer preferences in their area of circulation. Owners are even less inclined to differentiate the slant across outlets before elections, when the political returns to persuasion are high. We find no evidence that owners impose a one-size-fits-all slant because product differentiation is too costly. In addition, we find suggestive evidence of owner-independent bias induced by the writers of opinion articles. The Swedish context illustrates that supply-driven slant cannot be ruled out in market-based media systems if the ties between media and politics are strong.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-58204 (URN)10.1111/kykl.12318 (DOI)000834664100001 ()2-s2.0-85145958392 (Scopus ID)HOA;;825339 (Local ID)HOA;;825339 (Archive number)HOA;;825339 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Competition Authority, 406/2019
Available from: 2022-08-16 Created: 2022-08-16 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
Garz, M., Ots, M. & Sjøvaag, H. (2023). Political Viewpoint Diversity in the News: Market and Ownership Conditions for a Pluralistic Media System. The International Journal of Press/Politics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Political Viewpoint Diversity in the News: Market and Ownership Conditions for a Pluralistic Media System
2023 (English)In: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The assumption that ownership has an effect on the diversity of news is based on the forms of control that ownership allows and the market conditions in which ownership is exercised. In this study, we perform a large-scale analysis of the Swedish newspaper market, surveying 130 newspapers and parliamentary speeches over a period of six years (2014-2019), to substantiate to what extent market and for-profit ownership forms impact political viewpoint diversity. Our analysis shows that newspapers with market leadership and chain ownership offer more political viewpoint diversity than number two and single-owned papers. In contrast, the ownership forms surveyed here (private, foundation, and publicly traded ownerships) display little effect on newspapers' internal diversity. We also find that a greater number of papers in a local market does not imply more external diversity in that market. The analysis thus offers some nuance to the notion that ownership form and market pluralism are prerequisites for viewpoint diversity, highlighting instead the importance of scale effects for pluralistic media systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
computational analysis, market conditions, ownership, pluralism, political viewpoint diversity
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62674 (URN)10.1177/19401612231178254 (DOI)001080806900001 ()2-s2.0-85173934010 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;910042 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;910042 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;910042 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Competition Authority, 406/2019
Available from: 2023-10-16 Created: 2023-10-16 Last updated: 2023-10-27
Garz, M. & Schneider, A. (2023). Taxation of short-term rentals: Evidence from the introduction of the “Airbnb tax” in Norway. Economics Letters, 226, Article ID 111120.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taxation of short-term rentals: Evidence from the introduction of the “Airbnb tax” in Norway
2023 (English)In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 226, article id 111120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research note investigates the impact of a rental-income tax on hosts using Airbnb in Norway. We find that the cost increase implied by the tax did not induce hosts to exit the platform, nor did it lead to an increase in rental prices. These findings support the conjecture that the tax was insufficiently enforced, as it relied on taxpayers to self-report their rental income.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Digital platforms, Home sharing, Income tax, Tax enforcement
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-60312 (URN)10.1016/j.econlet.2023.111120 (DOI)000988065000001 ()2-s2.0-85153303350 (Scopus ID)HOA;;878467 (Local ID)HOA;;878467 (Archive number)HOA;;878467 (OAI)
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation
Available from: 2023-05-04 Created: 2023-05-04 Last updated: 2023-06-01Bibliographically approved
Dujeancourt, E. & Garz, M. (2023). The effects of algorithmic content selection on user engagement with news on Twitter. The Information Society, 39(5), 263-281
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of algorithmic content selection on user engagement with news on Twitter
2023 (English)In: The Information Society, ISSN 0197-2243, E-ISSN 1087-6537, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 263-281Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we investigate how Twitter's switch from a reverse-chronological timeline to algorithmic content selection in March 2016 influenced user engagement with tweets published by German newspapers. To mitigate concerns about omitted variables, we use the Facebook postings of these newspapers as a counterfactual. We find that the number of likes increased by 20% and the number of retweets by 15% within a span of 30 days after the switch. Importantly, our results indicate a rich-get-richer effect, implying that initially more popular outlets and news topics benefited the most. User engagement also increased more for sensationalist content than quality news stories.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Algorithm bias, Facebook, news quality, social media, >
National Category
Media Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62205 (URN)10.1080/01972243.2023.2230471 (DOI)001026382900001 ()2-s2.0-85165058289 (Scopus ID)HOA;;897650 (Local ID)HOA;;897650 (Archive number)HOA;;897650 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-08-18 Created: 2023-08-18 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Garz, M. & Maaß, S. (2021). Cartels in the European Union, antitrust action, and public attention. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 186, 533-547
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cartels in the European Union, antitrust action, and public attention
2021 (English)In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 186, p. 533-547Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study compiles an original dataset to investigate whether the timing of actions by the European Commission in cartel proceedings is affected by the overall news agenda. Our results indicate that certain actions are more likely to coincide with large predictable news events (e.g., the FIFA World Cup and the Olympics), the more EU firms involved in a cartel – compared to cartels with few EU companies or many non-EU firms. Studying the implications of the differential timing, we find that the occurrence of unrelated newsworthy events lowers public attention to the actions, as measured by news agency and newspaper reports, as well as relevant Google searches. These findings do not constitute conclusive evidence of favoritism, that the Commission favors domestic companies by reducing the negative publicity associated with the proceedings. However, even a suspicion of a subtle form of protectionism undermines the Commission's role as an independent supranational regulator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Information, Media, Protectionism, Strategic behavior, Timing
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-52476 (URN)10.1016/j.jebo.2021.04.008 (DOI)000659535000030 ()2-s2.0-85105337798 (Scopus ID);intsam;1554749 (Local ID);intsam;1554749 (Archive number);intsam;1554749 (OAI)
Available from: 2021-05-17 Created: 2021-05-17 Last updated: 2021-07-15Bibliographically approved
Garz, M. & Martin, G. J. (2021). Media Influence on Vote Choices: Unemployment News and Incumbents' Electoral Prospects. American Journal of Political Science, 65(2), 278-293
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Media Influence on Vote Choices: Unemployment News and Incumbents' Electoral Prospects
2021 (English)In: American Journal of Political Science, ISSN 0092-5853, E-ISSN 1540-5907, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 278-293Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

How does news about the economy influence voting decisions? We isolate the effect of the information environment from the effect of change in the underlying economic conditions themselves by taking advantage of left-digit bias. We show that unemployment figures crossing a round-number “milestone” cause a discontinuous increase in the amount of media coverage devoted to unemployment conditions, and we use this discontinuity to estimate the effect of attention to unemployment news on voting, holding constant the actual economic conditions on the ground. Milestone effects on incumbent U.S. governor vote shares are large and notably asymmetric: Bad milestone events hurt roughly twice as much as good milestone events help.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-50261 (URN)10.1111/ajps.12539 (DOI)000545451100001 ()2-s2.0-85087565718 (Scopus ID);intsam;1458763 (Local ID);intsam;1458763 (Archive number);intsam;1458763 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-08-18 Created: 2020-08-18 Last updated: 2021-12-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0722-4202

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