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Kitkowska, AgnieszkaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7384-4552
Publications (10 of 26) Show all publications
Islami, L., Kitkowska, A. & Fischer-Hübner, S. (2024). Inter-regional Lens on the Privacy Preferences of Drivers for ITS and Future VANETs. In: F. F. Mueller, P. Kyburz, J. R. Williamson, C. Sas, M. L. Wilson, P. T. Dugas, I. Shklovski (Ed.), Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: 2024 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Paper presented at 2024 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2024 Hybrid, Honolulu 11 May 2024 through 16 May 2024. ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inter-regional Lens on the Privacy Preferences of Drivers for ITS and Future VANETs
2024 (English)In: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: 2024 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems / [ed] F. F. Mueller, P. Kyburz, J. R. Williamson, C. Sas, M. L. Wilson, P. T. Dugas, I. Shklovski, ACM Digital Library, 2024Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are on the rise, yet the knowledge about privacy preferences by different types of drivers in this context needs to be improved. This paper presents survey-based research (N = 528) focusing on preferences of drivers from South Africa and the Nordic countries for data processing and sharing by ITS, including future vehicular ad hoc networks. Our results indicate regionally framed drivers' privacy attitudes and behaviours. South African participants have higher privacy concerns and risk perception. However, their preferences to share location data with police, family and friends, emergency services, and insurance companies are higher. Moreover, the region significantly affects preferences for transparency and control and sharing frequency, as well as willingness to pay for privacy, which are higher among the South Africans. We discuss how our results on factors, including region, impacting drivers' privacy preferences can contribute to the design of usable privacy and identity management for ITS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2024
Keywords
cross-regional comparison, Intelligent transportation, privacy preferences, privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), vehicular communication, Behavioral research, Emergency services, Insurance, Intelligent systems, Intelligent vehicle highway systems, Vehicular ad hoc networks, Intelligent transportation systems, Nordic countries, Privacy enhancing technologies, Privacy-enhancing technology, South Africa, Survey-based research, Vehicular communications, Risk perception
National Category
Information Systems Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-64781 (URN)10.1145/3613904.3641997 (DOI)2-s2.0-85194875475 (Scopus ID)979-8-4007-0330-0 (ISBN)
Conference
2024 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2024 Hybrid, Honolulu 11 May 2024 through 16 May 2024
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2024-06-10 Created: 2024-06-10 Last updated: 2024-06-10Bibliographically approved
Kitkowska, A., Shulman, Y., Martucci, L. A. & Wästlund, E. (2023). Designing for privacy: Exploring the influence of affect and individual characteristics on users' interactions with privacy policies. Computers & security (Print), 134, Article ID 103468.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing for privacy: Exploring the influence of affect and individual characteristics on users' interactions with privacy policies
2023 (English)In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 134, article id 103468Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Consenting to digital services' privacy policies is standard practice. It often occurs at the early stage of interactions with a given service—during the sign-up process. Still, the most common way of acquiring consent from users is through their acknowledgment of policies by ticking a box. Consequently, users consent, mostly blindly, as they are unlikely to review the full text of policies. The current article presents research investigating factors that may impact user interaction with privacy policies, focusing on the underresearched topic of affective states (valence and arousal). The results of an online experiment (N=88) indicate that privacy policy design can elicit specific affective responses and, when accounting for some characteristics of individuals (e.g., personality traits), it can influence users' attitudes and behaviors. Particularly, the findings show that privacy awareness and willingness to disclose information might be impacted. Additionally, the analysis of collected data suggests significant associations between some personality traits and affective states, as well as a strong relationship between privacy concerns and willingness to disclose information, contradicting the concept of privacy paradox, often discussed in the privacy literature. Moreover, the results of our qualitative inquiry, where the study respondents had a chance to elaborate on their decisions to agree or disagree with the privacy policy by answering an open-ended question, confirm the quantitative findings, and reveal some of the users needs considering the sign-up process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Attitudes and behaviors, Decision-making, Framing, Privacy, Privacy policy, Visual cues, Affective state, Attitude and behavior, Decisions makings, Individual characteristics, Personality traits, Privacy policies, User interaction, Decision making
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62529 (URN)10.1016/j.cose.2023.103468 (DOI)001081345600001 ()2-s2.0-85171144588 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;906459 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;906459 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;906459 (OAI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 675730
Available from: 2023-09-25 Created: 2023-09-25 Last updated: 2023-11-13Bibliographically approved
Kitkowska, A. & Ahlin, K. (2023). Improving Well-Being in Schools - Lessons Learned from IoT Experts. In: M. Hägglund et al. (Ed.), M. Häggström et al. (Ed.), Caring is Sharing – Exploiting the Value in Data for Health and Innovation: Proceedings of MIE 2023. Paper presented at 33rd Medical Informatics Europe Conference, MIE2023, Gothenburg, Sweden, 22-25 May 2023 (pp. 666-670). Amsterdam: IOS Press, 302
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving Well-Being in Schools - Lessons Learned from IoT Experts
2023 (English)In: Caring is Sharing – Exploiting the Value in Data for Health and Innovation: Proceedings of MIE 2023 / [ed] M. Häggström et al., Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2023, Vol. 302, p. 666-670Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a source of knowledge about the surrounding environment and people in such an environment. The insights collected by IoT can provide the knowledge needed to improve people's health and overall well-being. Schools are one environment where IoT is scarcely applied, yet, it is expected that this is where children and teenagers spend most of their time. Drawing on previous findings, this paper presents preliminary results from qualitative inquiry investigating how and what IoT-based solutions could support health and well-being in elementary educational settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2023
Series
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365 ; 302
Keywords
Expert interviews, Health, IoT, User requirements, Well-being
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-60420 (URN)10.3233/SHTI230232 (DOI)37203774 (PubMedID)978-1-64368-388-1 (ISBN)978-1-64368-389-8 (ISBN)
Conference
33rd Medical Informatics Europe Conference, MIE2023, Gothenburg, Sweden, 22-25 May 2023
Available from: 2023-05-23 Created: 2023-05-23 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Shulman, Y., Kitkowska, A. & Meyer, J. (2023). Informing Users: Effects of Notification Properties and User Characteristics on Sharing Attitudes. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 39(14), 2796-2824
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Informing Users: Effects of Notification Properties and User Characteristics on Sharing Attitudes
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 39, no 14, p. 2796-2824Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Information sharing on social networks is ubiquitous, intuitive, and occasionally accidental. However, people may be unaware of the potential negative consequences of disclosures, such as reputational damages. Yet, people use social networks to disclose information about themselves or others, advised only by their own experiences and the context-invariant informed consent mechanism. In two online experiments (N = 515 and N = 765), we investigated how to aid informed sharing decisions and associate them with the potential outcomes via notifications. Based on the measurements of sharing attitudes, our results showed that the effectiveness of informing the users via notifications may depend on the timing, content, and layout of the notifications, as well as on the users’ curiosity and rational cognitive style, motivating information processing. Furthermore, positive emotions may result in disregard of important information. We discuss the implications for user privacy and self-presentation. We provide recommendations on privacy-supporting system design and suggest directions for further research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-60087 (URN)10.1080/10447318.2022.2086592 (DOI)000817890000001 ()2-s2.0-85133028998 (Scopus ID);intsam;1749413 (Local ID);intsam;1749413 (Archive number);intsam;1749413 (OAI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 675730
Available from: 2022-06-28 Created: 2023-04-06 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Ahlin, K., Kitkowska, A. & Wästlund, E. (2023). IoT for Health and Well-being: A case study and call for action. In: PETRA '23: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments: . Paper presented at Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments Corfu Greece July 5 - 7, 2023 (pp. 465-467). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IoT for Health and Well-being: A case study and call for action
2023 (English)In: PETRA '23: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, Vol. 16, p. 465-467Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this short paper we describe the implementation of an IoT test-bed in an elementary school. We argue that by adding additional IoT senors to an existing IoT system it is possible to evolve an indoor climate control system into a indoor milieu control system aimed at improving the health and well-being for both pupils and staff who spend their days working in the school environment. Lastly, we call for multidisciplinary action as the domain IoT for health and well-being spans across several different knowledge domains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023
Keywords
Health and Well-being, Indoor climate system, Internet of Things (IoT), School environment, Control systems, Case-studies, Elementary schools, Indoor climate control, Indoor climate systems, Internet of thing, Internet of things for healths, Test bed, Well being, Internet of things
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62487 (URN)10.1145/3594806.3596539 (DOI)2-s2.0-85170363957 (Scopus ID)979-8-4007-0069-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments Corfu Greece July 5 - 7, 2023
Available from: 2023-09-19 Created: 2023-09-19 Last updated: 2023-10-25Bibliographically approved
Kitkowska, A., Alaqra, A. S. & Wästlund, E. (2023). Lockdown locomotion: the fast-forwarding effects of technology use on digital well-being due to COVID-19 restrictions. Behavior and Information Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lockdown locomotion: the fast-forwarding effects of technology use on digital well-being due to COVID-19 restrictions
2023 (English)In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Increasing dependency on digital technologies introduces queries related to well-being–when and how digital technology poses a threat, or when it is the most appreciated by users? People have some expectations before using technology, which sometimes may be met, but there might be a mismatch at other times. Nevertheless, the digitalization of services advances and companies modify existing or produce new technologies that do not satisfy users' demands, putting their well-being at risk. Through an empirical inquiry, the present research explores experiences with technologies to shed more light on the main factors that enrich or diminish technology value and influence well-being. Exploiting the circumstances created by the COVID-19 pandemic that fast-forwarded technology use and development, an online inquiry was conducted to assess positive and negative experiences of technologies, focusing on the contexts of work, learning, entertainment, information-seeking, and health. The findings from 578 participants indicate that depending on the role of technologybeing a substitute for certain activities or an opportunity to perform them differently–consequences on well-being can more or less follow expectations. The results are discussed in the context of past research and practical implications for, e.g. technology design or managerial changes that could help overcome users' current challenges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-60273 (URN)10.1080/0144929X.2023.2203268 (DOI)000971640300001 ()2-s2.0-85153409540 (Scopus ID)HOA;;877473 (Local ID)HOA;;877473 (Archive number)HOA;;877473 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-04-27 Created: 2023-04-27 Last updated: 2023-05-22
Kitkowska, A., Karegar, F. & Wästlund, E. (2023). Share or Protect: Understanding the Interplay of Trust, Privacy Concerns, and Data Sharing Purposes in Health and Well-Being Apps. In: C. Gena, L. De Russis, D. Spano, R. Lanzilotti,T. Di Mascio, C. Prandi, S. Andolina (Ed.), CHItaly '23: Proceedings of the 15th Biannual Conference of the Italian SIGCHI Chapter: . Paper presented at 15th Biannual Conference of the Italian SIGCHI Chapter: Crossing HCI and AI, CHItaly 2023 Hybrid, Torino 20 September 2023 through 22 September 2023. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Share or Protect: Understanding the Interplay of Trust, Privacy Concerns, and Data Sharing Purposes in Health and Well-Being Apps
2023 (English)In: CHItaly '23: Proceedings of the 15th Biannual Conference of the Italian SIGCHI Chapter / [ed] C. Gena, L. De Russis, D. Spano, R. Lanzilotti,T. Di Mascio, C. Prandi, S. Andolina, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The popularity of health and well-being applications is on the rise. These applications often collect and process personal and sensitive information about individuals for different purposes. Nonetheless, users' freedom of choice around protection and sharing may be compromised, for example, by forwarding such information to third parties without user awareness or control, especially with current developments in AI-based complex data processing technologies. Despite the popularity of health and well-being applications, the purpose of sharing and its interplay with trust, privacy concerns, and their antecedents is seldom explored. The present article addresses this gap by conducting an online study (N = 315), which shows that, generally, people's sharing preferences depend on their trust and privacy concerns. However, the findings indicate potential differences between male and female participants considering sharing information for the greater good, such as scientific research. Our findings are discussed in light of sociocultural and social role theories of prosocial behavior and previous research. Considering the growing interest in building usable infrastructures for data sharing and user empowerment, practical implications for designers and policymakers are highlighted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023
Series
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series
Keywords
decision-making, gender, information sharing, privacy, Behavioral research, Information dissemination, Sensitive data, Data Sharing, Decisions makings, Personal information, Privacy concerns, Sensitive informations, Third parties, Well being, Decision making
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62754 (URN)10.1145/3605390.3605417 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173680396 (Scopus ID)979-8-4007-0806-0 (ISBN)
Conference
15th Biannual Conference of the Italian SIGCHI Chapter: Crossing HCI and AI, CHItaly 2023 Hybrid, Torino 20 September 2023 through 22 September 2023
Available from: 2023-10-23 Created: 2023-10-23 Last updated: 2023-10-23Bibliographically approved
Kitkowska, A. (2023). The hows and whys of dark patterns: Categorizations and privacy. In: N. Gerber, A. Stöver & K. Marky (Ed.), Human factors in privacy research: (pp. 173-198). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The hows and whys of dark patterns: Categorizations and privacy
2023 (English)In: Human factors in privacy research / [ed] N. Gerber, A. Stöver & K. Marky, Cham: Springer, 2023, p. 173-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When people interact with digital technologies, their choices are often driven in a specific direction, mainly through user interface designs—e.g., specific layout or content. Such guiding practices might be useful. They may help find desired information quicker or proceed with a given task more efficiently. Ultimately, they may contribute to improved usability and satisfaction that users experience during the interaction. However, some of such designs can mislead, manipulate, or trick users into choices that are beneficial to service providers but not necessarily to users. These designs are known as dark patterns, and their success relies on psychological characteristics, particularly exploiting decision-making processes’ weaknesses. The applicability of dark patterns is traditionally associated with e-commerce or marketing strategies aiming to increase sales. However, research shows that dark patterns also extend to online privacy, resulting in harms reaching beyond economic loss and exploiting the vulnerabilities of individuals. This chapter reviews research on dark patterns and explains some of the psychological bases that dark patterns rely on. The chapter focuses on privacy issues and discusses possible ways of preventing the detrimental effects of dark patterns, including their effects on business.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2023
Keywords
Dark patterns, Privacy, Privacy decision-making Heuristics Biases Deceptive designs
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-63298 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-28643-8_9 (DOI)978-3-031-28642-1 (ISBN)978-3-031-28643-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2024-01-11 Created: 2024-01-11 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Kitkowska, A., Högberg, J. & Wästlund, E. (2022). Barriers to a Well-Functioning Digital Market: Exploring Dark Patterns and How to Overcome Them. In: Human-centricity in a Sustainable Digital Economy: . Paper presented at 55th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 4697-4706). University of Hawai'i at Manoa
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers to a Well-Functioning Digital Market: Exploring Dark Patterns and How to Overcome Them
2022 (English)In: Human-centricity in a Sustainable Digital Economy, University of Hawai'i at Manoa , 2022, p. 4697-4706Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In a well-functioning digital economy, consumers should be able to make autonomous and informed choices, and companies compete fairly. One of the barriers preventing such well-functioning is dark patterns—designs that mislead users into making specific purchase-related choices. In this research, through a qualitative inquiry (expert interviews), we classify dark patterns based on the harmful ways such designs affect the digital market. Moreover, we analyze data using the behavior change framework and illustrate ways to prevent dark patterns and grant consumers greater protection and autonomy. Our exploratory results outline potential solutions policymakers might apply to improve digital market well-functioning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Hawai'i at Manoa, 2022
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Psychology; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-60086 (URN)978-0-9981331-5-7 (ISBN)
Conference
55th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences
Available from: 2023-04-06 Created: 2023-04-06 Last updated: 2023-04-06Bibliographically approved
Kitkowska, A., Högberg, J. & Wästlund, E. (2022). Online Terms and Conditions: Improving User Engagement, Awareness, and Satisfaction through UI Design. In: Simone Barbosa; Cliff Lampe; Caroline Appert; David A. Shamma; Steven Drucker; Julie Williamson; Koji Yatani (Ed.), CHI '22: CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Paper presented at CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’22), April 29-May 5, 2022, New Orleans, LA, USA.. ACM Digital Library, Article ID 624.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online Terms and Conditions: Improving User Engagement, Awareness, and Satisfaction through UI Design
2022 (English)In: CHI '22: CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems / [ed] Simone Barbosa; Cliff Lampe; Caroline Appert; David A. Shamma; Steven Drucker; Julie Williamson; Koji Yatani, ACM Digital Library, 2022, article id 624Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Too often, while interacting with online technologies, we blindly agree to services’ terms and conditions (T&Cs). We often disregard their content—believing it is not worth engaging with the long, hard-to-understand texts. The inconspicuous display of online T&Cs on the user interface (UI) adds to our lack of engagement. Nevertheless, certain information included in T&Cs could help usmake optimal decisions. In this replication research, we investigate this issue in the purchasing context. We confirm and extend previous fndings through an online experiment (N = 987), showing that diferently presented T&Cs (icons, scroll, and cost cue) compared to hyperlinked text affect whether people open them, becoming aware. We also show the efect of decision-making style on the relationship between awareness and satisfaction. We discuss the possible use of these fndings to improve users’ informed decisions. We also highlight problems that diferent designs may pose, potentially increasing the information gap between users and service providers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2022
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Psychology
Research subject
Computer Science; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-60088 (URN)10.1145/3491102.3517720 (DOI)2-s2.0-85130528924 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-9157-3 (ISBN)
Conference
CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’22), April 29-May 5, 2022, New Orleans, LA, USA.
Available from: 2022-03-21 Created: 2023-04-06Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7384-4552

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