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Riveiro, M., Falkman, G., Ziemke, T. & Kronhamn, T. (2009). Reasoning about anomalies: a study of the analytical process of detecting and identifying anomalous behavior in maritime traffic data. In: William J Tolone, William Ribarsky (Ed.), Visual Analytics for Homeland Defense and Security: Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009. Paper presented at Visual analytics for homeland defense and security : 14 April 2009, Orlando, Florida, United States (pp. Article ID 73460A). SPIE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reasoning about anomalies: a study of the analytical process of detecting and identifying anomalous behavior in maritime traffic data
2009 (English)In: Visual Analytics for Homeland Defense and Security: Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009 / [ed] William J Tolone, William Ribarsky, SPIE , 2009, p. Article ID 73460A-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The goal of visual analytical tools is to support the analytical reasoning process, maximizing human perceptual, understanding and reasoning capabilities in complex and dynamic situations. Visual analytics software must be built upon an understanding of the reasoning process, since it must provide appropriate interactions that allow a true discourse with the information. In order to deepen our understanding of the human analytical process and guide developers in the creation of more efficient anomaly detection systems, this paper investigates how is the human analytical process of detecting and identifying anomalous behavior in maritime traffic data. The main focus of this work is to capture the entire analysis process that an analyst goes through, from the raw data to the detection and identification of anomalous behavior.

Three different sources are used in this study: a literature survey of the science of analytical reasoning, requirements specified by experts from organizations with interest in port security and user field studies conducted in different marine surveillance control centers. Furthermore, this study elaborates on how to support the human analytical process using data mining, visualization and interaction methods.

The contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) within visual analytics, contribute to the science of analytical reasoning with practical understanding of users tasks in order to develop a taxonomy of interactions that support the analytical reasoning process and (2) within anomaly detection, facilitate the design of future anomaly detector systems when fully automatic approaches are not viable and human participation is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE, 2009
Series
Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering ; v. 7346.
Keywords
analytical reasoning, visual analytics, anomaly detection, interaction, visualization, maritime domain awareness
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43285 (URN)10.1117/12.818117 (DOI)2-s2.0-70549098675 (Scopus ID)0;0;miljJAIL (Local ID)9780819476128 (ISBN)0;0;miljJAIL (Archive number)0;0;miljJAIL (OAI)
Conference
Visual analytics for homeland defense and security : 14 April 2009, Orlando, Florida, United States
Available from: 2009-06-26 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Riveiro, M., Falkman, G., Ziemke, T. & Warston, H. (2009). VISAD: an interactive and visual analytical tool for the detection of behavioural anomalieis in maritime traffic data. In: William J. Tolone, William Ribarsky (Ed.), Visual Analytics for Homeland Defense and Security: Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009. Paper presented at Visual analytics for homeland defense and security : 14 April 2009, Orlando, Florida, United States (pp. Article ID 734607). SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>VISAD: an interactive and visual analytical tool for the detection of behavioural anomalieis in maritime traffic data
2009 (English)In: Visual Analytics for Homeland Defense and Security: Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009 / [ed] William J. Tolone, William Ribarsky, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering , 2009, p. Article ID 734607-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Monitoring the surveillance of large sea areas normally involves the analysis of huge quantities of heterogeneous data from multiple sources (radars, cameras, automatic identification systems, reports, etc.). The rapid identification of anomalous behavior or any threat activity in the data is an important objective for enabling homeland security. While it is worth acknowledging that many existing mining applications support identification of anomalous behavior, autonomous anomaly detection systems are rarely used in the real world. There are two main reasons: (1) the detection of anomalous behavior is normally not a well-defined and structured problem and therefore, automatic data mining approaches do not work well and (2) the difficulties that these systems have regarding the representation and employment of the prior knowledge that the users bring to their tasks. In order to overcome these limitations, we believe that human involvement in the entire discovery process is crucial.

Using a visual analytics process model as a framework, we present VISAD: an interactive, visual knowledge discovery tool for supporting the detection and identification of anomalous behavior in maritime traffic data. VISAD supports the insertion of human expert knowledge in (1) the preparation of the system, (2) the establishment of the normal picture and (3) in the actual detection of rare events. For each of these three modules, VISAD implements different layers of data mining, visualization and interaction techniques. Thus, the detection procedure becomes transparent to the user, which increases his/her confidence and trust in the system and overall, in the whole discovery process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2009
Series
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X ; 7346
Keywords
anomaly detection, visual analytics, interactive visualization, data mining, maritime sensor data
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43286 (URN)10.1117/12.817819 (DOI)2-s2.0-79959428639 (Scopus ID)0;0;miljJAIL (Local ID)9780819476128 (ISBN)0;0;miljJAIL (Archive number)0;0;miljJAIL (OAI)
Conference
Visual analytics for homeland defense and security : 14 April 2009, Orlando, Florida, United States
Available from: 2009-06-29 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Niklasson, L., Riveiro, M., Johansson, F., Dahlbom, A., Falkman, G., Ziemke, T., . . . Gustavsson, P. M. (2008). Extending the scope of Situation Analysis. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), Cologne, Germany, June 30–July 3, 2008: . Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), Cologne, Germany, June 30–July 3, 2008 (pp. 454-461). IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending the scope of Situation Analysis
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2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), Cologne, Germany, June 30–July 3, 2008, IEEE Press , 2008, p. 454-461Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of technology to assist human decision making has been around for quite some time now. In the literature, models of both technological and human aspects of this support can be identified. However, we argue that there is a need for a unified model which synthesizes and extends existing models. In this paper, we give two perspectives on situation analysis: a technological perspective and a human perspective. These two perspectives are merged into a unified situation analysis model for semi-automatic, automatic and manual decision support (SAM)2. The unified model can be applied to decision support systems with any degree of automation. Moreover, an extension of the proposed model is developed which can be used for discussing important concepts such as common operational picture and common situation awareness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2008
Keywords
Situation analysis, situation awareness, data fusion, information fusion
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43287 (URN)10.1109/ICIF.2008.4632246 (DOI)2-s2.0-56749090898 (Scopus ID)0;0;miljJAIL (Local ID)978-3-00-024883-2 (ISBN)0;0;miljJAIL (Archive number)0;0;miljJAIL (OAI)
Conference
11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), Cologne, Germany, June 30–July 3, 2008
Available from: 2010-02-01 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Riveiro, M., Falkman, G. & Ziemke, T. (2008). Improving maritime anomaly detection and situation awareness through interactive visualization. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008): . Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2008; Cologne; Germany; 30 June 2008 through 3 July 2008 (pp. 47-54). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving maritime anomaly detection and situation awareness through interactive visualization
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), IEEE Computer Society , 2008, p. 47-54Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Surveillance of large land, air or sea areas with a multitude of sensor and sensor types typically generates huge amounts of data. Human operators trying to establish individual or collective maritime situation awareness are often overloaded by this information. In order to help them cope with this information overload, we have developed a combined methodology of data visualization, interaction and mining techniques that allows filtering out anomalous vessels, by building a model over normal behavior from which the user can detect deviations. The methodology includes a set of interactive visual representations that support the insertion of the user’s knowledge and experience in the creation, validation and continuous update of the normal model. Additionally, this paper presents a software prototype that implements the suggested methodology.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2008
Keywords
anomaly detection, interaction, visualization, situation awareness, visual data mining, visual analytics
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43288 (URN)2-s2.0-56749112449 (Scopus ID)0;0;miljJAIL (Local ID)978-3-00-024883-2 (ISBN)978-3-8007-3092-6 (ISBN)0;0;miljJAIL (Archive number)0;0;miljJAIL (OAI)
Conference
11th International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2008; Cologne; Germany; 30 June 2008 through 3 July 2008
Note

Best Student Paper Award.

Available from: 2010-02-01 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, M., Riveiro, M. & Ziemke, T. (2008). Investigating human-computer interaction issues in information-fusion-based decision support. Skövde: Institutionen för kommunikation och information
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating human-computer interaction issues in information-fusion-based decision support
2008 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Information fusion is a research area which focuses on how to combine information from many different sources to support decision making. Commonly used information fusion systems are often complex and used in military and crises management domains. The focus of information fusion research so far has been mainly on the technological aspects. There is still a lack of understanding relevant user aspects that affect the information fusion systems as a whole. This paper presents a framework of HCI issues which considers users as embedded in the context of information fusion systems. The framework aims at providing insights regarding factors that affect user interaction to inform the development of future information fusion systems. Design considerations are presented together with a heuristic evaluation of an information fusion prototype.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: Institutionen för kommunikation och information, 2008. p. 14
Keywords
Information Fusion, Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Interaction, Framework, Desicion Support
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43289 (URN)0;0;miljJAIL (Local ID)0;0;miljJAIL (Archive number)0;0;miljJAIL (OAI)
Available from: 2019-03-05 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Riveiro, M., Johansson, F., Falkman, G. & Ziemke, T. (2008). Supporting Maritime Situation Awareness Using Self Organizing Maps and Gaussian Mixture Models. In: Anders Holst, Per Kreuger, Peter Funk (Ed.), Proceedings of the Tenth Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence (SCAI 2008): . Paper presented at 10th Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence, SCAI 2008; Stockholm; 26 May 2008 through 28 May 2008 (pp. 84-91). Amsterdam: IOS Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting Maritime Situation Awareness Using Self Organizing Maps and Gaussian Mixture Models
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the Tenth Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence (SCAI 2008) / [ed] Anders Holst, Per Kreuger, Peter Funk, Amsterdam: IOS Press , 2008, p. 84-91Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Maritime situation awareness is of importance in a lot of areas – e.g. detection of weapon smuggling in military peacekeeping operations, and harbor traffic control missions for the coast guard. In this paper, we have combined the use of Self Organizing Maps with Gaussian Mixture Models, in order to enable situation awareness by detecting deviations from normal behavior in an unsupervised way. Initial results show that simple anomalies can be detected using this approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2008
Series
Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, ISSN 0922-6389 ; 173
Keywords
anomaly detection, situation awareness, data mining, surveillance
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43290 (URN)000273520700011 ()2-s2.0-84867489381 (Scopus ID)0;0;miljJAIL (Local ID)978-1-58603-867-0 (ISBN)0;0;miljJAIL (Archive number)0;0;miljJAIL (OAI)
Conference
10th Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence, SCAI 2008; Stockholm; 26 May 2008 through 28 May 2008
Available from: 2010-02-08 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Riveiro, M., Falkman, G. & Ziemke, T. (2008). Visual Analytics for the Detection of Anomalous Maritime Behavior. In: Ebad Banissi, Liz Stuart, Mikael Jern, Gennady Andrienko, Francis T. Marchese, Nasrullah Memon, Reda Alhajj, Theodor G. Wyeld, Remo Aslak Burkhard, Georges Grinstein, Dennis Groth, Anna Ursyn, Carsten Maple, Anthony Faiola, and Brock Craft (Ed.), Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Information Visualisation IV08: . Paper presented at 12th International Conference Information Visualisation, IV08; London; United Kingdom; 9 July 2008 through 11 July 2008 (pp. 273-279). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual Analytics for the Detection of Anomalous Maritime Behavior
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Information Visualisation IV08 / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Liz Stuart, Mikael Jern, Gennady Andrienko, Francis T. Marchese, Nasrullah Memon, Reda Alhajj, Theodor G. Wyeld, Remo Aslak Burkhard, Georges Grinstein, Dennis Groth, Anna Ursyn, Carsten Maple, Anthony Faiola, and Brock Craft, IEEE Computer Society , 2008, p. 273-279Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The surveillance of large sea areas often generates huge amounts of multidimensional data. Exploring, analyzing and finding anomalous behavior within this data is a complex task. Confident decisions upon the abnormality of a particular vessel behavior require a certain level of situation awareness that may be difficult to achieve when the operator is overloaded by the available information. Based on a visual analytics process model, we present a novel system that supports the acquisition of situation awareness and the involvement of the user in the anomaly detection process using two layers of interactive visualizations. The system uses an interactive data mining module that supports the insertion of the user's knowledge and experience in the creation, validation and continuous update of the normal model of the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2008
Keywords
anomaly detection, interaction, visualization, visual analytics, situation awareness, surveillance
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43291 (URN)10.1109/IV.2008.25 (DOI)000259178400042 ()2-s2.0-51749122411 (Scopus ID)0;0;miljJAIL (Local ID)978-0-7695-3268-4 (ISBN)0;0;miljJAIL (Archive number)0;0;miljJAIL (OAI)
Conference
12th International Conference Information Visualisation, IV08; London; United Kingdom; 9 July 2008 through 11 July 2008
Available from: 2010-02-01 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Niklasson, L., Riveiro, M., Johansson, F., Dahlbom, A., Falkman, G., Ziemke, T., . . . Gustavsson, P. M. (2007). A Unified Situation Analysis Model for Human and Machine Situation Awareness. In: Otthein Herzog, Karl-Heinz Rödiger, Marc Ronthaler, Rainer Koschke (Ed.), INFORMATIK 2007: Informatik trifft Logistik: Band 2: Beiträge der 37. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI) 24. - 27. September 2007 in Bremen. Paper presented at INFORMATIK 2007, Informatik trifft Logistik, 37. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI) 24. - 27. September 2007 in Bremen (pp. 105-109). Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Unified Situation Analysis Model for Human and Machine Situation Awareness
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2007 (English)In: INFORMATIK 2007: Informatik trifft Logistik: Band 2: Beiträge der 37. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI) 24. - 27. September 2007 in Bremen / [ed] Otthein Herzog, Karl-Heinz Rödiger, Marc Ronthaler, Rainer Koschke, Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik , 2007, p. 105-109Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik, 2007
Series
Lecture Notes in Informatics ; P-110
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43292 (URN)2-s2.0-84874235498 (Scopus ID)0;0;miljJAIL (Local ID)978-3-88579-204-8 (ISBN)0;0;miljJAIL (Archive number)0;0;miljJAIL (OAI)
Conference
INFORMATIK 2007, Informatik trifft Logistik, 37. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI) 24. - 27. September 2007 in Bremen
Available from: 2008-05-30 Created: 2019-03-05 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6883-2450

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